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comparison of nonhuman primates identified the suitable model for covid-19.identification of a suitable nonhuman primate (nhp) model of covid-19 remains challenging. here, we characterized severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) infection in three nhp species: old world monkeys macaca mulatta (m. mulatta) and macaca fascicularis (m. fascicularis) and new world monkey callithrix jacchus (c. jacchus). infected m. mulatta and m. fascicularis showed abnormal chest radiographs, an increased body temperature and a decreased body weight. viral genomes wer ...202032814760
development of an inactivated vaccine candidate, bbibp-corv, with potent protection against sars-cov-2.the coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) threatens global public health. the development of a vaccine is urgently needed for the prevention and control of covid-19. here, we report the pilot-scale production of an inactivated sars-cov-2 vaccine candidate (bbibp-corv) that induces high levels of neutralizing antibodies titers in mice, rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, and nonhuman primates (cynomolgus monkeys and rhesus maca ...202032778225
dna vaccine protection against sars-cov-2 in rhesus macaques.the global coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) has made the development of a vaccine a top biomedical priority. in this study, we developed a series of dna vaccine candidates expressing different forms of the sars-cov-2 spike (s) protein and evaluated them in 35 rhesus macaques. vaccinated animals developed humoral and cellular immune responses, including neutralizing antibody titers at levels comparable to those fou ...202032434945
sars-cov-2 infection protects against rechallenge in rhesus macaques.an understanding of protective immunity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) is critical for vaccine and public health strategies aimed at ending the global coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pandemic. a key unanswered question is whether infection with sars-cov-2 results in protective immunity against reexposure. we developed a rhesus macaque model of sars-cov-2 infection and observed that macaques had high viral loads in the upper and lower respiratory tract, humora ...202032434946
a human neutralizing antibody targets the receptor-binding site of sars-cov-2.an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19)1-3, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2)4, has spread globally. countermeasures are needed to treat and prevent further dissemination of the virus. here we report the isolation of two specific human monoclonal antibodies (termed ca1 and cb6) from a patient convalescing from covid-19. ca1 and cb6 demonstrated potent sars-cov-2-specific neutralization activity in vitro. in addition, cb6 inhibited infection with sa ...202032454512
chadox1 ncov-19 vaccination prevents sars-cov-2 pneumonia in rhesus macaques.severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (sars-cov-2) emerged in december 20191,2 and is responsible for the covid-19 pandemic3. vaccines are an essential countermeasure urgently needed to control the pandemic4. here, we show that the adenovirus-vectored vaccine chadox1 ncov-19, encoding the spike protein of sars-cov-2, is immunogenic in mice, eliciting a robust humoral and cell-mediated response. this response was not th2 dominated, as demonstrated by igg subclass and cytokine expression ...202032511340
primary exposure to sars-cov-2 protects against reinfection in rhesus macaques.coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19), which is caused by infection with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2), has become a global pandemic. it is unclear whether convalescing patients have a risk of reinfection. we generated a rhesus macaque model of sars-cov-2 infection that was characterized by interstitial pneumonia and systemic viral dissemination mainly in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. rhesus macaques reinfected with the identical sars-cov-2 strain ...202032616673
safety, pharmacokinetics, and activity of high-dose ivermectin and chloroquine against the liver stage of plasmodium cynomolgi infection in rhesus macaques.previously, ivermectin (1 to 10 mg/kg of body weight) was shown to inhibit the liver-stage development of plasmodium berghei in orally dosed mice. here, ivermectin showed inhibition of the in vitro development of plasmodium cynomolgi schizonts (50% inhibitory concentration [ic50], 10.42 μm) and hypnozoites (ic50, 29.24 μm) in primary macaque hepatocytes when administered as a high dose prophylactically but not when administered in radical cure mode. the safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of ...202032660993
potently neutralizing and protective human antibodies against sars-cov-2.the ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2), is a major threat to global health1 and the medical countermeasures available so far are limited2,3. moreover, we currently lack a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of humoral immunity to sars-cov-24. here we analyse a large panel of human monoclonal antibodies that target the spike (s) glycoprotein5, and identify several that exhibit potent neutral ...202032668443
a vaccine targeting the rbd of the s protein of sars-cov-2 induces protective immunity.severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) causes a respiratory disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19), the spread of which has led to a pandemic. an effective preventive vaccine against this virus is urgently needed. as an essential step during infection, sars-cov-2 uses the receptor-binding domain (rbd) of the spike protein to engage with the receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ace2) on host cells1,2. here we show that a recombinant vaccine that comprises re ...202032726802
single-shot ad26 vaccine protects against sars-cov-2 in rhesus macaques.a safe and effective vaccine for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) may be required to end the coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pandemic1-8. for global deployment and pandemic control, a vaccine that requires only a single immunization would be optimal. here we show the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a single dose of adenovirus serotype 26 (ad26) vector-based vaccines expressing the sars-cov-2 spike (s) protein in non-human primates. fifty-two rhesus macaq ...202032731257
chadox1 ncov-19 vaccine prevents sars-cov-2 pneumonia in rhesus macaques.severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) emerged in december 20191,2 and is responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) pandemic3. vaccines are an essential countermeasure and are urgently needed to control the pandemic4. here we show that the adenovirus-vector-based vaccine chadox1 ncov-19, which encodes the spike protein of sars-cov-2, is immunogenic in mice and elicites a robust humoral and cell-mediated response. this response was predominantly mediated by typ ...202032731258
delayed severe cytokine storm and immune cell infiltration in sars-cov-2-infected aged chinese rhesus macaques.as of june 2020, coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) has killed an estimated 440 000 people worldwide, 74% of whom were aged ≥65 years, making age the most significant risk factor for death caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) infection. to examine the effect of age on death, we established a sars-cov-2 infection model in chinese rhesus macaques ( macaca mulatta) of varied ages. results indicated that infected young macaques manifested impaired respiratory funct ...202032772513
ocular conjunctival inoculation of sars-cov-2 can cause mild covid-19 in rhesus macaques.severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) is highly transmitted through the respiratory route, but potential extra-respiratory routes of sars-cov-2 transmission remain uncertain. here we inoculated five rhesus macaques with 1 × 106 tcid50 of sars-cov-2 conjunctivally (cj), intratracheally (it), and intragastrically (ig). nasal and throat swabs collected from cj and it had detectable viral rna at 1-7 days post-inoculation (dpi). viral rna was detected in anal swabs from only th ...202032879306
establishment of an african green monkey model for covid-19.severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (sars-cov-2) is responsible for an unprecedented global pandemic of covid-19. animal models are urgently needed to study the pathogenesis of covid-19 and to screen candidate vaccines and treatments. nonhuman primates (nhp) are considered the gold standard model for many infectious pathogens as they usually best reflect the human condition. here, we show that african green monkeys support a high level of sars-cov-2 replication and develop pronounced ...202032511377
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