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antibodies to akabane virus in australia.neutralising antibody to akabane virus was shown to develop in cattle in northern australia throughout the year and also on the east coast of new south wales in the summer during 1975/1976. other species found to have antibody to akabane virus were buffaloes, horses, camels and sheep, but no antibody was found in domestic chickens, ducks, wallabies or man. the biting midge culicoides brevitarsis has been detected in all the major areas where antibody was demonstrated in this study.1978655964
the growth of akabane virus in chicken embryos.akabane virus produced either death or developmental abnormalities including arthrogryposis in chicken embryos inoculated by the yolk sac route when four days old. the effects depended on the dose of virus. yolk sac inoculation of seven-day-old embryos did not result in abnormal embryos, but some chickens were viraemic when they hatched. inoculation of older embryos intravenously, into the allantoic cavity, or onto the chorioallantoic membrane had no effect on the embryo and akabane virus was no ...1978725341
serological survey for bovine bacterial and viral pathogens in captive arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx pallas, 1776).tests for antibodies to bovine bacterial and viral pathogens were conducted on 239 sera from 128 arabian oryx (oryx leucoryx) from seven locations (taif, riyadh and mahazat as said, saudi arabia; san diego, united states of america [usa]; shaumari, jordan; qatar; and bahrain). no antibodies to pasteurella multocida type e or epizootic haemorrhagic disease 1 virus were found. antibodies to brucella abortus, p. multocida type b, p. multocida type d, lumpy skin disease virus and akabane virus were ...19921305861
a farming systems study of abortion in dairy cattle on the atherton tableland. 2. the pattern of infectious diseases.the role of infectious agents on dairy farms on the atherton tableland in tropical north queensland was studied as part of a comprehensive investigation into the causes of bovine abortion. the prevalence of antibody in serums collected from 7 herds whose annual abortion rates ranged from 3% to 21% were as follows: leptospira hardjo 49.9% (426/853), l. pomona 0.4% (3/851), bovine virus diarrhoea (bvd) 33.7% (35/104). infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (ibr) 11.5% (12/105), akabane virus 92.2 ...19892505741
teratogenicity of australian simbu serogroup and some other bunyaviridae viruses: the embryonated chicken egg as a model.the use of embryonated chicken eggs as a model for assessing the teratogenic potential of animal viruses was investigated with 12 members of the bunyaviridae family. infection of 4-day-old embryonated chicken eggs via the yolk sac with 10 of the viruses resulted in deaths or congenital deformities that were similar to those observed in akabane virus infections of fetal ruminants and included arthrogryposis, scoliosis, mandible defects, and retarded development. statistical analysis showed that t ...19846690412
encephalitogenic effect of akabane virus on mice, hamsters and guinea pigs. 19807442819
hydranencephaly in newborn calves in zambia.hydranencephaly without arthrogryposis was observed in three newborn holstein-friesian calves, born during one week in a 400-cow dairy herd in zambia. the affected calves were blind and exhibited nystagmus and depressed behavior. akabane virus infection was suspected based on the pathological findings and etiological data, however, we could not determine the exact causative agent.19938357935
pathogenicity and teratogenicity of schmallenberg virus and akabane virus in experimentally infected chicken embryos.schmallenberg virus (sbv) and akabane virus (akav) are teratogenic simbu serogroup orthobunyaviruses. embryonated chicken egg models (ece) have been used to study the pathogenicity and teratogenicity of simbu viruses previously, however to date no such studies have been reported for sbv. hence, the aims of this study were to investigate if ece are susceptible to experimental sbv infection, and to evaluate the pathogenicity and teratogenicity of sbv and akav in ece models. two studies were conduc ...201829519522
infection and propagation of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus in embryonated chicken eggs.the embryonated chicken egg (ece) provides a convenient, space-saving incubator for the cultivation of many kinds of animal viruses where the egg can be easily observed for viral replication throughout the development of the chicken embryo. within the family bunyaviridae, the embryonated egg has been used as a host system for many viruses such as rift valley fever virus and akabane virus. the current study was conducted to determine the cultivation of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv ...201323352881
evidence of schmallenberg virus circulation in ruminants in greece.during march 2013, we investigated the presence and the levels of schmallenberg virus (sbv) circulation in three dairy cow herds and three sheep flocks in central macedonia, greece. in two cow herds, a high number of abortions had been observed during the winter. six bulk-tank milk samples and 147 individual sera were screened for sbv-specific antibodies by elisa. positive reactions were obtained from 5 out of 6 bulk-tank milk samples, 58 out of 90 sera from the 3 cow herds, and 2 sera from 2 of ...201423868549
a serological survey of akabane virus infection in cattle in sudan.a cross-sectional survey was carried out in ten states in sudan to determine seroprevalence and to assess risk factors associated with akabane virus (akav) infection in dairy herds. serum samples were collected from a total of 361 dairy cattle and tested for antibodies against akav using elisa. the prevalence rates of akav antibodies in cattle varied between 69.6% in khartoum state and 3.3% in sennar state with an overall prevalence rate of 29.4%. the prevalence rates of akav antibodies were sig ...201424977042
reconstruction of the schmallenberg virus epidemic in belgium: complementary use of disease surveillance approaches.schmallenberg virus (sbv) emerged across europe in 2011 and belgium was among the first countries affected. in this study, published findings are combined with new data from veterinary surveillance networks and the belgian reference laboratory for sbv at the veterinary and agrochemical research centre (coda-cerva) to reconstruct the epidemic in belgium. first retrospective cases of sbv were reported by veterinarians that observed decreased milk yield and fever in dairy cattle in may 2011. the nu ...201626790935
seroprevalence of infectious diseases in saiga antelope (saiga tatarica tatarica) in kazakhstan 2012-2014.286 serum samples were collected from three sub-populations of saiga in kazakhstan (betpakdala, ustyurt and volga-ural) between 2012 and 2014, and were tested for the presence of antibodies to brucella spp., bluetongue virus, peste des petits ruminants (ppr) virus, akabane virus, schmallenberg virus, chlamydophila, toxoplasma, mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and coxiella burnetii (q fever). seropositives to coxiella burnetii of saiga were detected and the adjusted seroprevalence ...201627094147
serological survey of viral diseases relating to reproductive failure among artiodactyla in ethiopian camelus dromedarius.serological surveys were performed on ethiopian camels with a history of abortion to investigate the presence of antibodies against viruses that infect animals classified in the order artiodactyla. in 2013, 120 serum samples were collected from camels in various parts of ethiopia. several viruses related to abortion in ruminants were prevalent. in particular, antibodies against bluetongue virus, were detected at a high rate (76.7% of samples). additionally, antibodies against akabane virus and j ...201627278458
experimental infection of cows with newly isolated akabane virus strain (akav-7) causing encephalomyelitis.akabane virus (akav), an arthropod-transmitted bunyavirus, is a major cause of congenital abnormalities and encephalomyelitis in ruminants. in 2010, there was a major outbreak of encephalomyelitis in korea and fifteen akav strains, including akav-7, were isolated from cows. to identify the neuropathogenicity of akav-7, we performed experimental infection of cows. six-month-old female korean holstein dairy cattle were inoculated with akav-7 by various routes, including intracerebral (ic), intrasu ...201627287214
what can akabane disease teach us about other arboviral diseases.viruses of the simbu serogroup cause lesions to foetuses that are seen at birth and that correlate with the stage of pregnancy at which the dam first contracts the virus. the simbu serogroup comprises arboviruses known to cause outbreaks of abnormal parturitions in domestic ruminants; these abnormalities include abortion, stillbirth, and congenitally deformed neonates. simbu serogroup members include: akabane virus (akav), aino virus, cache valley virus, and schmallenberg virus. lately, dairy he ...201627723047
serosurveillance of viral diseases in korean native goats (capra hircus).a total of 804 goat sera were collected from 144 goat farms in five regions of south korea during a period between 2005 and 2006 and screened for the antibodies of viral pathogens in ruminants. the individual seropositive rates for each virus were 13.7% (110/804) for bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1), 9.5% (76/804) for bovine parainfluenza type-3 virus (pi-3v), 5.5% (44/804) for akabane virus (akav), 13.3% (107/804) for aino virus (ainv), 2.0% (16/804) for chuzan virus (chuv) and 1.0% (8/804) for bov ...200818840974
characterization of akabane virus from domestic bamboo rat, southern china.to identify the causative agents in 3 large-scale outbreaks of encephalitis and death among farmed bamboo rats (rhizomys pruinosus). the routine bacterial culture and identification were performed. there were no significant pathogenic bacteria isolated from the brain, heart, liver, spleen, lung, or kidney of diseased bamboo rats. using pcr-based methods, we excluded the following as causative agent: pox virus, herpesvirus, adenovirus, lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, rabies virus, and sendai ...201728757035
serological survey of arthropod-borne viruses among wild boars in japan.a total of 90 blood samples were collected from wild boars in the kyushu region of japan, and a seroepidemiological survey for 7 arthropod-borne viruses was performed using hemagglutination inhibition tests. the individual seropositive rates for each virus were 52.2% for japanese encephalitis virus (jev), 47.8% for getah virus (getv), 13.3% for akabane virus, 10.0% for aino virus and less than 5% for bluetongue virus, chuzan virus and ibaraki virus. the results indicated that among the 7 viruses ...200919721358
akabane virus: serological survey of antibodies in livestock in the sudan.an investigation was conducted to assess the prevalence of akabane virus antibodies in domestic ruminants from different ecological zones of sudan. neutralizing antibodies were demonstrated in sheep, goats and cattle sampled between 1979 and 1980 from el obeid, nyala, kassala, jonglei and sennar. the highest prevalence was in jonglei where 27% of six sheep, 36% of eleven goats and 47% of 90 cattle had antibodies to the virus. although antibodies were demonstrated in 8% of 79 dams and 15% of 70 d ...19969239934
evaluating the protective efficacy of a trivalent vaccine containing akabane virus, aino virus and chuzan virus against schmallenberg virus infection.schmallenberg virus (sbv), an arthropod borne pathogen, spread rapidly throughout the majority of europe since 2011. it can cause a febrile disease, milk drop, diarrhea, and fetal malformation in ruminants. sbv, a member of the simbu serogroup within the genus orthobunyavirus, is closely related to akabane virus (akav) and aino virus (ainov) among others. in the present study, 4 holstein-friesian calves were immunized twice four weeks apart with a multivalent, inactivated vaccine against akav an ...201324313924
abortions, stillbirths and deformities in sheep at the al-ahsa oasis in eastern saudi arabia: isolation of a bluetongue serogroup virus from the affected lambs.a wave of abortions, stillbirths and deformities in sheep occurred at the al-ahsa oasis in the eastern region of saudi arabia in the second half of 1999. the abortions were recorded in august and september and stillbirths and deformities in neonates were observed in october. adult sheep were clinically normal. a virus was isolated in chicken embryos, adapted to vero cell culture and further identified as bluetongue (bt) virus. the virus isolated was not neutralised by the akabane virus. referenc ...200415861886
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