elongin c contributes to rna polymerase ii degradation by the interferon antagonist nss of la crosse orthobunyavirus.mosquito-borne la crosse virus (lacv; genus orthobunyavirus, family peribunyaviridae, order bunyavirales) causes up to 100 annual cases of severe meningoencephalitis in children and young adults in the united states. a major virulence factor of lacv is the nonstructural protein nss, which inhibits host cell mrna synthesis to prevent the induction of antiviral type i interferons (ifn-α/β). to achieve this host transcriptional shutoff, lacv nss drives the proteasomal degradation of rpb1, the large ...202031941775
potential of using capripoxvirus vectored vaccines against arboviruses in sheep, goats, and cattle.the genus capripoxvirus consists of sheeppox virus, goatpox virus, and lumpy skin disease virus, which affect sheep, goats, and cattle, respectively. together capripoxviruses cause significant economic losses to the sheep, goat, and cattle industry where these diseases are present. these diseases have spread into previously free bordering regions most recently demonstrated with the spread of lumpy skin disease virus into the middle east, some eastern european countries, and russia. this recent s ...201931921911
using species distribution models to predict potential hot-spots for rift valley fever establishment in the united kingdom.vector borne diseases are a continuing global threat to both human and animal health. the ability of vectors such as mosquitos to cover large distances and cross country borders undetected provide an ever-present threat of pathogen spread. many diseases can infect multiple vector species, such that even if the climate is not hospitable for an invasive species, indigenous species may be susceptible and capable of transmission such that one incursion event could lead to disease establishment in th ...201931869335
predicting abundances of aedes mcintoshi, a primary rift valley fever virus mosquito vector.rift valley fever virus (rvfv) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic arbovirus with important livestock and human health, and economic consequences across africa and the arabian peninsula. climate and vegetation monitoring guide rvfv forecasting models and early warning systems; however, these approaches make monthly predictions and a need exists to predict primary vector abundances at finer temporal scales. in kenya, an important primary rvfv vector is the mosquito aedes mcintoshi. we used a zero-inflat ...201931846495
antiviral and virucidal activities of lucilia cuprina maggots' excretion/secretion (diptera: calliphoridae): first work.maggots of lucilia sericata and l. cuprina are a backbone of the maggot debridement therapy. further, the excretion/secretion (e/s) of these maggots has antibacterial and antifungal activities, nevertheless the antiviral activity of e/s for these maggots still out the focus. this study aimed to evaluate the e/s of l. cuprina maggots against the rift valley fever (rvf) and coxsackie b4 (cb4) viruses for first time. after collection of the e/s, its cytotoxicity on vero cells was evaluated and the ...201931844722
lesions and cellular tropism of natural rift valley fever virus infection in young lambs.a clear distinction can be made regarding the susceptibility to and the severity of lesions in young lambs when compared to adult sheep. in particular, there are important differences in the lesions and tropism of rift valley fever virus (rvfv) in the liver, kidneys, and lymphoid tissues of young lambs. a total of 84 lambs (<6 weeks old), necropsied during the 2010 to 2011 rift valley fever (rvf) outbreak in south africa, were examined by histopathology and immunohistochemistry (ihc). of the 84 ...202031842723
sero-epidemiological study of selected zoonotic and abortifacient pathogens in cattle at a wildlife-livestock interface in south africa.a cross sectional sero-epidemiological study was conducted on cattle in a communal farming area adjacent to kruger national park at a wildlife-livestock interface in south africa. a total of 184 cattle were screened for exposure to 5 abortifacient or zoonotic pathogens, namely coxiella burnetii, toxoplasma gondii, chlamydophila abortus, neospora caninum, and rift valley fever virus (rvfv) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. in addition, the virus neutralization test was used to confirm the ...202031841655
methods for successful inactivation of rift valley fever virus in infected mosquitoes.ensuring the successful inactivation of select agent material is critical for maintaining compliance with federal regulations and safeguarding laboratory personnel from exposure to dangerous pathogens. rift valley fever virus (rvfv), naturally transmitted by mosquitoes, is classified as a select agent by the cdc and usda due to its potential to cause significant economic losses to the livestock industry and its demonstrated potential to emerge into naïve geographic areas. herein we describe seve ...202031794780
developing vaccines against epidemic-prone emerging infectious's world is characterized by increasing population density, human mobility, urbanization, and climate and ecological change. this global dynamic has various effects, including the increased appearance of emerging infectious diseases (eids), which pose a growing threat to global health security.outbreaks of eids, like the 2013-2016 ebola outbreak in west africa or the current ebola outbreak in democratic republic of the congo (drc), have not only put populations in low- and middle-income cou ...202031776599
rift valley fever virus in small ruminants in the democratic republic of the congo.rift valley fever (rvf) is a zoonotic viral disease caused by the rvf phlebovirus (rvfv) that infects a variety of animal species including sheep and goats. sera (n = 893) collected between 2013 and 2015 from randomly selected indigenous sheep and goats in seven provinces of the democratic republic of the congo (drc) were tested for the presence of specific immunoglobulin g (igg) and m (igm) against rvfv, using two commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. the reverse transcript ...201931714136
nuclear pore protein nup98 is involved in replication of rift valley fever virus and nuclear import of virulence factor nss.the non-structural protein nss is the main virulence factor of rift valley fever virus, a major zoonotic pathogen in africa. nss forms large aggregates in the nucleus and impairs induction of the antiviral type i ifn system by several mechanisms, including degradation of subunit p62 of the general rna polymerase ii transcription factor tfiih. here, we show that depletion of the nuclear pore protein nup98 affects the nuclear import of nss. nonetheless, nss was still able to degrade tfiih-p62 unde ...202031671053
novel antiviral activities of obatoclax, emetine, niclosamide, brequinar, and homoharringtonine.viruses are the major causes of acute and chronic infectious diseases in the world. according to the world health organization, there is an urgent need for better control of viral diseases. repurposing existing antiviral agents from one viral disease to another could play a pivotal role in this process. here, we identified novel activities of obatoclax and emetine against herpes simplex virus type 2 (hsv-2), echovirus 1 (ev1), human metapneumovirus (hmpv) and rift valley fever virus (rvfv) in ce ...201931635418
host-feeding patterns of aedes (aedimorphus) vexans arabiensis, a rift valley fever virus vector in the ferlo pastoral ecosystem of contact is a key factor in vectorial capacity assessment and thus the transmission of mosquito-borne viruses such as rift valley fever (rvf), an emerging zoonotic disease of interest in west africa. the knowledge of the host-feeding patterns of vector species constitutes a key element in the assessment of their epidemiological importance in a given environment. the aim of this work was to identify the blood meal origins of the mosquito aedes vexans arabiensis, the main vector of rvf ...201931584948
structure and function of the toscana virus cap-snatching endonuclease.toscana virus (tosv) is an arthropod-borne human pathogen responsible for seasonal outbreaks of fever and meningoencephalitis in the mediterranean basin. tosv is a segmented negative-strand rna virus (snsv) that belongs to the genus phlebovirus (family phenuiviridae, order bunyavirales), encompassing other important human pathogens such as rift valley fever virus (rvfv). here, we carried out a structural and functional characterization of the tosv cap-snatching endonuclease, an n terminal domain ...201931584100
genomic characterization of rift valley fever virus, south africa, isolated rift valley fever (rvf) outbreak was reported in 2018 in free state province, south africa. phylogenetic analyses based on complete genome sequences of 3 rvf viruses from blood and tissue samples indicated that they were related to a virus isolated in 2016 from a man returning to china from angola.201931538932
trim69 inhibits vesicular stomatitis indiana virus.vesicular stomatitis indiana virus (vsiv), formerly known as vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) indiana (vsvind), is a model virus that is exceptionally sensitive to the inhibitory action of interferons (ifns). interferons induce an antiviral state by stimulating the expression of hundreds of interferon-stimulated genes (isgs). these isgs can constrain viral replication, limit tissue tropism, reduce pathogenicity, and inhibit viral transmission. since vsiv is used as a backbone for multiple oncoly ...201931375575
evaluation of an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on recombinant baculovirus-expressed rift valley fever virus nucleoprotein as the diagnostic antigen.the increasing risk of rift valley fever virus (rvfv) infection as a global veterinary and public health threat demands the development of safe and accurate diagnostic tests. the aim of this study was to assess the suitability of a baculovirus expression system to produce recombinant rvfv nucleoprotein (n) for use as serodiagnostic antigen in an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). the ability of the recombinant n antigen to detect rvfv antibody responses was evaluated in elisa fo ...201931366690
rift valley fever virus minigenome system for investigating the role of l protein residues in viral transcription and replication.replicon systems are important tools for investigating viral rna synthesis. we have developed an ambisense minigenome system for rift valley fever virus (rvfv) with the aim to analyse the effects of l gene mutations on viral transcription versus replication. the overall activity of the replication complex was assessed by expression of a luciferase reporter gene. northern blot analysis enabled differentiation between synthesis of viral mrna and replication intermediates. the functionality of the ...201931169489
serological evidence of rift valley fever virus infection in slaughtered ruminants in nigeria.the risk of exposure of slaughterhouse workers to rift valley fever (rvf) virus-infected animals in nigeria was assessed by determining the prevalence of anti-rvf igm in cattle, goats and sheep slaughtered in a major abattoir in ibadan, nigeria. blood samples were collected from 290 animals in bodija municipal abattoir, ibadan, nigeria in january and february 2017 and analyzed for the presence of rvf virus using igm enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and reverse transcriptase polymerase c ...201931081465
modeling the tertiary structure of the rift valley fever virus l protein.a tertiary structure governs, to a great extent, the biological activity of a protein in the living cell and is consequently a central focus of numerous studies aiming to shed light on cellular processes central to human health. here, we aim to elucidate the structure of the rift valley fever virus (rvfv) l protein using a combination of in silico techniques. due to its large size and multiple domains, elucidation of the tertiary structure of the l protein has so far challenged both dry and wet ...201931067727
high seroconversion rate to rift valley fever virus in cattle and goats in far northern kwazulu-natal, south africa, in the absence of reported outbreaks.rift valley fever (rvf) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease characterized in south africa by large epidemics amongst ruminant livestock at very long, irregular intervals, mainly in the central interior. however, the presence and patterns of occurrence of the virus in the eastern parts of the country are poorly known. this study aimed to detect the presence of rvf virus (rvfv) in cattle and goats in far northern kwazulu-natal province and to estimate the prevalence of antibodies to the virus and ...201931050673
preliminary serological investigation of rift valley fever in poland. 201930997895
a multiplex fluorescence microsphere immunoassay for increased understanding of rift valley fever immune responses in ruminants in kenya.rift valley fever virus (rvfv) is an important mosquito-borne pathogen with devastating impacts on agriculture and public health. with outbreaks being reported beyond the continent of africa to the middle east, there is great concern that rvfv will continue to spread to non-endemic areas such as the americas and europe. there is a need for safe and high throughput serological assays for rapid detection of rvfv during outbreaks and for surveillance. we evaluated a multiplexing fluorescence micros ...201930974177
rift valley fever virus exposure amongst farmers, farm workers, and veterinary professionals in central south africa.rift valley fever (rvf) is a re-emerging arboviral disease of public health and veterinary importance in africa and the arabian peninsula. major rvf epidemics were documented in south africa in 1950⁻1951, 1974⁻1975, and 2010⁻2011. the number of individuals infected during these outbreaks has, however, not been accurately estimated. a total of 823 people in close occupational contact with livestock were interviewed and sampled over a six-month period in 2015⁻2016 within a 40,000 km² study area en ...201930736488
rift valley fever viral rna detection by in situ hybridization in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues.sporadic outbreaks of rift valley fever virus (rvfv), a zoonotic, mosquito-borne phlebovirus, cause abortion storms and death in sheep and cattle resulting in catastrophic economic impacts in endemic regions of africa. more recently, with changes in competent vector distribution, growing international trade, and its potential use for bioterrorism, rvfv has become a transboundary animal disease of significant concern. new and sensitive techniques that determine rvfv presence, while lessening the ...201930720389
first laboratory-confirmed outbreak of human and animal rift valley fever virus in uganda in 48 march 2016, an outbreak of rift valley fever (rvf) was identified in kabale district, southwestern uganda. a comprehensive outbreak investigation was initiated, including human, livestock, and mosquito vector investigations. overall, four cases of acute, nonfatal human disease were identified, three by rvf virus (rvfv) reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr), and one by igm and igg serology. investigations of cattle, sheep, and goat samples from homes and villages of confirme ...201930675833
rift valley fever reemergence after 7 years of quiescence, south africa, may 2018.phylogenetic analysis of rift valley fever virus partial genomic sequences from a patient infected in south africa in may 2018 suggests reemergence of an endemic lineage different from that of the epidemic in south africa during 2010-2011. surveillance during interepidemic periods should be intensified to better predict future epidemics.201930666946
viral infections of the central nervous system in africa.viral infections are a major cause of human central nervous system infection, and may be associated with significant mortality, and long-term sequelae. in africa, the lack of effective therapies, limited diagnostic and human resource facilities are especially in dire need. most viruses that affect the central nervous system are opportunistic or accidental pathogens. some of these viruses were initially considered harmless, however they have now evolved to penetrate the nervous system efficiently ...201930658129
third tofo advanced study week on emerging and re-emerging viruses, 2018.the third tofo advanced study week on emerging and re-emerging viruses (3rd tasw) was held in praia do tofo, mozambique, from september 02 to 06, 2018. it brought together 55 participants from 10 african countries as well as from belgium, china, germany, singapore, and the usa. meeting sessions covered aspects of the epidemiology, diagnosis, molecular and structural biology, vaccine development, and antiviral drug discovery for emerging rna viruses that are current threats in africa and included ...201930597184
a protective monoclonal antibody targets a site of vulnerability on the surface of rift valley fever virus.the gn subcomponent of the gn-gc assembly that envelopes the human and animal pathogen, rift valley fever virus (rvfv), is a primary target of the neutralizing antibody response. to better understand the molecular basis for immune recognition, we raised a class of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nabs) against rvfv gn, which exhibited protective efficacy in a mouse infection model. structural characterization revealed that these nabs were directed to the membrane-distal domain of rvfv gn and ...201830590046
rvfv infection in goats by different routes of inoculation.rift valley fever virus (rvfv) is a zoonotic arbovirus of the phenuiviridae family. infection causes abortions in pregnant animals, high mortality in neonate animals, and mild to severe symptoms in both people and animals. there is currently an ongoing effort to produce safe and efficacious veterinary vaccines against rvfv in livestock to protect against both primary infection in animals and zoonotic infections in people. to test the efficacy of these vaccines, it is essential to have a reliable ...201830545088
rift valley fever virus induces fetal demise in sprague-dawley rats through direct placental infection.rift valley fever virus (rvfv) infections in pregnant livestock cause high rates of fetal demise; miscarriage in pregnant women has also been associated with rvfv infection. to address how rvfv infection during pregnancy causes detrimental effects on the fetus, we developed a pregnant rodent model of rvfv infection. we found that pregnant rats were more susceptible to rvfv-induced death than their nonpregnant counterparts and that rvfv infection resulted in intrauterine fetal death and severe co ...201830525107
rift valley fever virus: a serological survey in libyan ruminants.a serological survey was carried out in libya to investigate the circulation of rift valley fever virus (rvfv) among domestic ruminants. a total of 857 serum samples were collected from year 2015 to 2016 in eleven provinces of libya belonging to five branches of the country. samples were tested for rvfv antibodies using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-elisa). antibodies specific for rvfv were not detected in any of the 857 samples. however, a statistical analysis was carried o ...201830425953
epidemiological surveillance of bovine viral diarrhea and rift valley fever infections in camel.this study was designed to investigate the current epidemiological situation of bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) and rift valley fever virus (rvfv) infection of camels originating from sudan "smuggler" and egypt as part of our future plan for a national surveillance program in egyptian provinces, which will aid in establishment of control strategy for animal diseases.201830410242
vascular permeability in the brain is a late pathogenic event during rift valley fever virus encephalitis in rats.rift valley fever virus (rvfv) is a zoonotic disease of livestock that causes several clinical outcomes in people including febrile disease, hemorrhagic fever, and/or encephalitis. after aerosol infection with rvfv, lewis rats develop lethal encephalitic disease, and we use this as a model for studying disease mechanisms of rvfv infection in the brain. permeability of the brain vasculature in relation to virus invasion and replication is not known. here, we found that vascular permeability in th ...201930396029
rift valley fever virus infection among livestock handlers in ibadan, nigeria.livestock handlers are occupationally exposed to rift valley fever virus (rvfv) because of frequent and longer contact with mosquito vectors, animal blood and other tissues. we determined the seroprevalence of rvf virus infection among livestock handlers in ibadan, nigeria. blood samples were collected from 265 workers in two major livestock markets and a livestock farm. questionnaires were administered to obtain information on risk factors that may be associated with rvf virus transmission. the ...201830362911
seroprevalence of rift valley fever virus in cattle in the democratic republic of the congo.this study aimed at assessing the serological and virological status of rift valley fever virus (rvfv) in cattle from four climatically diverse zones of the democratic republic of the congo (drc). a total of 1675 sera samples collected between 2014 and 2015 from cattle without clinical manifestation of rvf infection were tested using competitive and capture enzyme elisa to detect both igg and igm. rt-pcr was used for the detection of nucleic acid of rvfv. out of the 1675 cattle sera tested, 203 ...201930350160
biochemical and structural studies reveal differences and commonalities among cap-snatching endonucleases from segmented negative-strand rna viruses.viruses rely on many host cell processes, including the cellular transcription machinery. segmented negative-strand rna viruses (snsv) in particular cannot synthesize the 5'-cap structure for their mrna but cleave off cellular caps and use the resulting oligonucleotides as primers for their transcription. this cap-snatching mechanism, involving a viral cap-binding site and rna endonuclease, is both virus-specific and essential for viral proliferation and therefore represents an attractive drug t ...201830348898
host-based processes as therapeutic targets for rift valley fever virus.rift valley fever virus (rvfv) is an enveloped, segmented, negative sense rna virus that replicates within the host's cytoplasm. to facilitate its replication, rvfv must utilize host cell processes and as such, these processes may serve as potential therapeutic targets. this review summarizes key host cell processes impacted by rvfv infection. specifically the influence of rvfv on host transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional regulation, protein half-life and availability, host signal tr ...201830316916
development of a quantitative rt-pcr assay to differentiate rift valley fever virus smithburn vaccine strain from clone 13 vaccine strain.a new quantitative rt-pcr assay was developed to differentiate rift valley fever (rvf) smithburn vaccine strain from clone 13 vaccine strain. the new qrt-pcr assay targeting the s segment (nss and n gene) was tested on synthesized standard rna and mp-12 strain viruses. the detection limit of the new qrt-pcr assay is 1 copy/μl of nss and n, and is able to differentiate the smithburn vaccine strain of rvf from the clone 13 vaccine strain. no cross-reactivity with other vector-borne viruses was obs ...201930300113
preliminary evaluation of diagnostic accuracy and precision of a competitive elisa for detection of antibodies to rift valley fever virus in cattle and sheep sera.rift valley fever virus (rvfv), a mosquito-borne, zoonotic pathogen, is endemic to sub-saharan africa and has spread beyond the continent to the arabian peninsula. the high likelihood of rvfv's spread to other non-endemic countries spurs the need for development and implementation of rapid diagnostic tests and surveillance programs. in this preliminary evaluation, we assessed the diagnostic accuracy and precision of a recombinant rvfv nucleoprotein based competitive elisa (celisa) assay to detec ...201830205125
beyond structures of highly symmetric purified viral capsids by cryo-em.cryogenic transmission electron microscopy (cryo-em) is widely used to determine high-resolution structures of symmetric virus capsids. the method holds promise for extending studies beyond purified capsids and their symmetric protein shells. the non-symmetric genome component has been addressed in dsrna cypoviruses and ssrna bacteriophages qβ and ms2. the structure of human herpes simplex virus type 1 capsids has been determined within intact virions to resolve capsid-tegument interactions. ele ...201830096461
study on causes of fever in primary healthcare center uncovers pathogens of public health concern in madagascar.the increasing use of malaria diagnostic tests reveals a growing proportion of patients with fever but no malaria. clinicians and health care workers in low-income countries have few tests to diagnose causes of fever other than malaria although several diseases share common symptoms. we propose here to assess etiologies of fever in madagascar to ultimately improve management of febrile cases.201830011274
human biomarkers of outcome following rift valley fever virus infection.rift valley fever virus is an arbovirus found in africa and the middle east. most infected individuals experience a mild self-limiting illness; however, some develop severe disease including hepatitis, hemorrhagic fever, or encephalitis. the biological reasons for these marked differences in disease manifestation are unknown. in this study, we evaluate 32 biomarkers in serum of 26 patients from an outbreak that occurred in saudi arabia in 2000-2001. eleven biomarkers correlated with viral rna. t ...201829955891
benefits of a one health approach: an example using rift valley health has been promoted by international institutions as a framework to improve public health outcomes. despite strong overall interest in one health, country-, local- and project-level implementation remains limited, likely due to the lack of pragmatic and tested operational methods for implementation and metrics for evaluation. here we use rift valley fever virus as an example to demonstrate the value of using a one health approach for both scientific and resources advantages. we demonstr ...201829911162
g119s ace-1 mutation conferring insecticide resistance detected in the culex pipiens complex in morocco.arboviruses are controlled through insecticide control of their mosquito vector. however, inconsiderate use of insecticides often results in the selection of resistance in treated populations, so that monitoring is required to optimize their usage. here, culex pipiens (west nile and rift valley fever virus vector) specimens were collected from four moroccan cities. levels of susceptibility to the organophosphate (op) insecticide malathion were assessed using world health organization (who)-recom ...201929885052
protein phosphatase 1α interacts with venezuelan equine encephalitis virus capsid protein and regulates viral replication through modulation of capsid phosphorylation.protein phosphatase 1 (pp1) is a serine/threonine phosphatase which has been implicated in the regulation of a number of viruses, including hiv-1, ebolavirus, and rift valley fever virus. catalytic subunits of pp1 (pp1α, pp1β, and pp1γ) interact with a host of regulatory subunits and target a wide variety of cellular substrates through a combination of short binding motifs, including an rvxf motif present in the majority of pp1 regulatory subunits. targeting the rvxf-interacting site on pp1 with ...201829769351
viral proteins targeting host protein kinase r to evade an innate immune response: a mini review.the innate immune system offers a first line of defense by neutralizing foreign pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses. these pathogens express molecules (rna and proteins) that have discrete structures, known as the pathogen-associated molecular patterns that are recognized by a highly specialized class of host proteins called pattern recognition receptors to facilitate the host's immune response against infection. the rna-dependent protein kinase r (pkr) is one of the host's pattern re ...201829716441
prevalence of selected zoonotic diseases and risk factors at a human-wildlife-livestock interface in mpumalanga province, south africa.a lack of surveillance and diagnostics for zoonotic diseases in rural human clinics limits clinical awareness of these diseases. we assessed the prevalence of nine zoonotic pathogens in a pastoral, low-income, hiv-endemic community bordering wildlife reserves in south africa. two groups of participants were included: malaria-negative acute febrile illness (afi) patients, called febrilers, at three clinics (n = 74) and second, farmers, herders, and veterinary staff found at five government cattle ...201829664701
combination kinase inhibitor treatment suppresses rift valley fever virus replication.viruses must parasitize host cell translational machinery in order to make proteins for viral progeny. in this study, we sought to use this signal transduction conduit against them by inhibiting multiple kinases that influence translation. previous work indicated that several kinases involved in translation, including p70 s6k, p90rsk, erk, and p38 mapk, are phosphorylated following rift valley fever virus (rvfv) infection. furthermore, inhibiting p70 s6k through treatment with the fda approved d ...201829652799
expression of a recombinant nucleocapsid protein of rift valley fever virus in vero cells as an immunofluorescence antigen and its use for serosurveillance in traditional cattle herds in zambia.the open reading frame of the nucleocapsid protein (np) of rift valley fever virus (rvfv) strain mp12 was cloned and expressed in vero e6 cells. the recombinant np (rnp)-expressing cells were used as antigens for an indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay (ifa). the rnp-based ifa and rvfv-infected vero e6 cell (authentic antigen)-based ifa showed similar ifa profiles with immune rabbit serum, which was prepared by immunization with rnp expressed using a baculovirus vector. a total of 942 tradi ...201829652643
emerging infectious diseases: a review.this review highlights some of the recent concerning emerging infectious diseases, a number of them specifically that the world health organization has categorized as priorities for research.201832226656
shedding of rift valley fever virus by infected sheep and by sheep protected by bcg and rvf vaccines. 198432988008
antibody prevalence to african swine fever virus, mycobacterium bovis, foot-and-mouth disease virus, rift valley fever virus, influenza a virus, and brucella and leptospira spp. in free-ranging warthog (phacochoerus africanus) populations in south africa.the warthog (phacochoerus africanus) can be used as a model for investigating disease transmission at the human, wildlife, and livestock interface. an omnivore and scavenger, a warthog moves freely between natural ecotypes, farmland, and human communities and is susceptible to diseases of zoonotic, agricultural, and conservation concern. a retrospective study using 100 individual serum samples collected from may 1999 to august 2016 was performed to determine antibody prevalence to seven pathogen ...202133635986
black rats (rattus rattus) as potential reservoir hosts for rift valley fever phlebovirus: experimental infection results in viral replication and shedding without clinical manifestation.rift valley fever phlebovirus (rvfv) is an arthropod-borne virus that can cause severe disease in ruminants and humans. epidemics occur mainly after heavy rainfall, which leads to a significant increase in the occurrence of rvfv-transmitting mosquitoes. during inter-epidemic periods, the virus is assumed to be maintained between mosquitoes, susceptible livestock and yet unknown wildlife. the widespread rodent rattus rattus (black rat) has been suspected to be involved in rvfv maintenance. in ord ...202133794070
rift valley fever and crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever viruses in ruminants, jordan.the epidemiology of rift valley fever virus (rvfv) and crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv) in jordan is unknown. our investigation showed 3% of 989 tested dairy cattle, sheep, and goats were rvfv seropositive and 14% were cchfv seropositive. ongoing surveillance is needed to assess risk to humans and protect public health.202133496248
serological evidence of single and mixed infections of rift valley fever virus, brucella spp. and coxiella burnetii in dromedary camels in kenya.camels are increasingly becoming the livestock of choice for pastoralists reeling from effects of climate change in semi-arid and arid parts of kenya. as the population of camels rises, better understanding of their role in the epidemiology of zoonotic diseases in kenya is a public health priority. rift valley fever (rvf), brucellosis and q fever are three of the top priority diseases in the country but the involvement of camels in the transmission dynamics of these diseases is poorly understood ...202133770095
development of a simian rna polymerase i promoter-driven reverse genetics for the rescue of recombinant rift valley fever virus from vero cells.rift valley fever (rvf), which has been designated as a priority disease by the world health organization (who), is one of the most pathogenic zoonotic diseases endemic to africa and the arabian peninsula. human vaccine preparation requires the use of appropriate cell substrates to support efficient production of seed vaccine with minimum concerns of tumorigenicity, oncogenicity, or adventitious agents. vero cells, which were derived from the african green monkey kidney, represent one of the few ...202133441343
epidemiology and serological detection of rift valley fever disease in farm animals in southern this study, the serological surveillance of rift valley fever virus (rvfv) in southern egypt was carried out for 460 serum samples collected from domestic animals (unvaccinated), including cattle, sheep, goat, camel and donkey reared in three different provinces (qena, luxor and aswan). enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was used to detect rvfv antibodies. the results showed that 97 out of 460 animals were positive by using blocking elisa. the percentage of rvfv infection in cattle, sh ...202133567844
vaccination with rift valley fever virus live attenuated vaccine strain smithburn caused meningoencephalitis in alpacas.rift valley fever (rvf) is a zoonotic, viral, mosquito-borne disease that causes considerable morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock in africa and the arabian peninsula. in june 2018, 4 alpaca inoculated subcutaneously with live attenuated rvf virus (rvfv) smithburn strain exhibited pyrexia, aberrant vocalization, anorexia, neurologic signs, and respiratory distress. one animal died the evening of inoculation, and 2 at ~20 d post-inoculation. concern regarding potential vaccine strain r ...202134041966
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