serologic, trace element, and fecal parasite survey of free-ranging, female mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) in eastern washington, usa.blood and fecal samples collected from 97 free-ranging mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), from four distinct herds during the spring of 2000 or 2001 in eastern washington, us, were tested for exposure to selected pathogens, concentrations of trace elements, and presence of parasites in feces. antibodies were detected to the following: leptospira interrogans serovar bratislava (4%), leptospira interrogans serovar canicola (1%), leptospira interrogans serovar grippotyphosa (13%), bovine viral diarrh ...201525380366
preventive strategy for bvdv infection in north america.despite 60 years of vaccination, bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) infections remain a source of significant economic loss for producers in the united states. control program design in the united states varies by region based on the incidence of bvdv, density of animal populations, animal movement, contact with wildlife populations, level of producer compliance, variation among circulating bvdv strains, prevalent type of production unit or industry and support offered by state institutions. the ...201222458199
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