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tularaemia seroprevalence of captured and wild animals in germany: the fox (vulpes vulpes) as a biological indicator.a total of 2475 animals from germany, both captive and wild, were tested for antibodies against francisella tularensis to obtain more knowledge about the presence of this pathogen in germany. an indirect and a competitive elisa served as screening methods, positive and inconclusive samples were confirmed by western blot. of the zoo animals sampled between 1992 and 2007 (n = 1122), three (0·3%) were seropositive. the seroconversion of a hippopotamus in berlin zoo was documented. from 1353 serum s ...201322800496
high and novel genetic diversity of francisella tularensis in germany and indication of environmental persistence.in germany tularemia is a re-emerging zoonotic disease. therefore, we investigated wild animals and environmental water samples for the presence and phylogenetic diversity of francisella tularensis in the poorly studied berlin/brandenburg region. the phylogenomic analysis of three isolates from wild animals revealed three new subclades within the phylogenetic tree of f. tularensis [b.71 from a raccoon dog (nyctereutes procyonoides); b.74 from a red fox (vulpes vulpes), and b.75 from a eurasian b ...201627356883
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