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a serologic survey of mule deer and elk in utah.sera from mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and elk (cervus canadensis) in central and northern utah were tested for the prevalence of antibodies to 11 diseases communicable to man or domestic livestock. antibodies to francisella tularensis (at 1:20) were found in 47 of 88 (53.4%) elk and 1 of 89 (1.1%) deer. a screening slide agglutination test for titers to brucella (at 1:20) showed two reactors in elk but none in deer sera. no positive antibody titers were obtained in tests for anaplasmosis, co ...1978105153
serologic survey for brucellosis in feral swine, wild ruminants, and black bear of california, 1977 to 1989.a retrospective analysis of brucellosis serologic testing results in eight wildlife species in california from 1977 to 1989 was done. samples were collected from 5,398 live-captured or hunter-killed animals and tested by combinations of up to six serologic tests for antibodies to brucella spp. twenty-three of 611 (3.8%) feral swine (sus scrofa), one of 180 (0.6%) black bear (ursus americanus), one of 355 (0.3%) california mule deer (odocoileus hemionus californicus), and one of 1,613 (0.06%) bla ...19921512866
prevalence of neutralizing antibodies against california and bunyamwera serogroup viruses in deer from mountainous areas of california.plaque reduction-serum dilution neutralization was used to evaluate the status of bunyavirus activity in deer in mountainous areas of california. antibodies against 9 bunyaviruses were measured in 337 mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus, o. hemionus californicus, and o. hemionus inyoensis) and black-tailed deer (o. hemionus columbianus). more deer from high mountainous areas had neutralizing antibodies against jamestown canyon virus than did deer from low mountainous areas (23% vs. 9%; p les ...19892496610
epidemiology of two orbiviruses in california's native wild ruminants: preliminary report.between 1978 and 1983 we collected more than 1,500 serum samples from california's native black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus), 4 races of mule deer (o. h. sp.), tule elk (cervus elaphus nannodes), roosevelt elk (c. e. roosevelti), pronghorn antelope (antilocapra americana), california bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis californiana), peninsular bighorn sheep (o. c. cremnobates) and desert bighorn sheep (o. c. nelsoni) and analyzed them for agar gel precipitating (agp) antibodies to b ...19852989899
serological evidence of california serogroup virus activity in oregon.we wished to demonstrate evidence of the presence of california serogroup viruses in oregon and to test for the presence of certain other arboviruses in large ungulates. blood samples from black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus), mule deer (o. hemionus hemionus), and roosevelt elk (cervus elaphus roosevelti) from nine counties in oregon were tested by serum-dilution plaque reduction neutralization for antibody to california serogroup viruses, including snowshoe hare, california encep ...19873586196
antibody prevalence of eight ruminant infectious diseases in california mule and black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus).we tested 276 sera from 18 free-ranging black-tailed and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) herds in california (usa) collected from 1987 to 1991 in five biogeographical habitat types, for antibodies against eight infectious disease agents. overall antibody prevalence was 56% for anaplasma marginale, 31% for borrelia burgdorferi, 16% for bluetongue virus serotype 17, 15% for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus, 7% for coxiella burnetii and toxoplasma gondii, respectively, and 0% for bovine leukosis ...19948151824
isolation and in vitro cultivation of babesia parasites from free-ranging desert bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis nelsoni) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) in california.protozoal parasites of the genus babesia were isolated for the first time from free-ranging desert bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis nelsoni) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) populations in california by in vitro culture of host blood. these naturally infected animals did not have microscopically detectable parasitemia at the time blood was collected for parasite cultivation. three isolates of small babesia parasites were cultured from different sample groups of bighorn sheep, and 2 isolates of ...19938437062
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2001.during 2001, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,437 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 1 case in a human being to the centers for disease control and prevention, an increase of < 1% from 7,364 cases in nonhuman animals and 5 human cases reported in 2000. more than 93% (6,939 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 6.7% (497 cases) were in domestic species (compared with 93.0% in wild animals and 6.9% in domestic species in 2000). the number of cases reported in 2001 increased among bats, cat ...200212494966
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2002.during 2002, 49 states and puerto rico reported 7,967 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings to the centers for disease control and prevention, an increase of 7.2% from the 7,436 cases in non-human animals and 1 case in a human being reported in 2001. more than 92% (7,375 cases) were in wild animals, whereas 7.4% (592) were in domestic species (compared with 93.3% in wild animals and 6.7% in domestic species in 2001). compared with cases reported in 2001, the numbers of ...200314690203
geographic distribution of the muscle-dwelling nematode parelaphostrongylus odocoilei in north america, using molecular identification of first-stage larvae.molecular identification of dorsal-spined larvae (dsl) from fecal samples indicates that the protostrongylid parasite parelaphostrongylus odocoilei occupies a broader geographic range in western north america than has been previously reported. we analyzed 2,124 fecal samples at 29 locations from thinhorn sheep (ovis dalli dalli and o. d. stonei), bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis canadensis and o. c. californiana), mountain goats (oreamnos americanus), woodland caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou), ...200516108550
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2004.during 2004, 49 states and puerto rico reported 6,836 cases of rabies in nonhuman animals and 8 cases in human beings to the cdc, representing a 4.6% decrease from the 7,170 cases in nonhuman animals and 3 cases in human beings reported in 2003. approximately 92% of the cases were in wildlife, and 8% were in domestic animals (compared with 91% and 9%, respectively, in 2003). relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,564 raccoons (37.5%), 1,856 skunks (27.1%), 1,361 bat ...200516379626
rabies surveillance in the united states during 2006.during 2006, 49 states and puerto rico reported 6,940 cases of rabies in animals and 3 cases in humans to the cdc, representing an 8.2% increase from the 6,417 cases in animals and 1 case in a human reported in 2005. approximately 92% of the cases were in wildlife, and 8% were in domestic animals. relative contributions by the major animal groups were as follows: 2,615 raccoons (37.7%), 1,692 bats (24.4%), 1,494 skunks (21.5%), 427 foxes (6.2%), 318 cats (4.6%), 82 cattle (1.2%), and 79 dogs (1. ...200717696853
factor analysis of growth of california mule deer odocoileus hemionus californica. 195613366069
strontium-90 in california mule deer. 19685652044
mitochondrial dna analysis of hybridization between sympatric white-tailed deer and mule deer in west texas.sympatric populations of white-tailed deer and mule deer (odocoileus virginianus and odocoileus hemionus, respectively) on a west texas ranch share a common mitochondrial dna restriction map genotype. phylogenetic analysis indicates that this genotype is more characteristic of o. virginianus than of o. hemionus. the genotype of west texas deer differs from that of o. virginianus from south carolina by five mutational events (1.3% sequence divergence), whereas it differs from that of o. hemionus ...19863467326
experimental adenovirus hemorrhagic disease in yearling black-tailed deer.an apparently novel adenovirus was associated with an epizootic of hemorrhagic disease that is believed to have killed thousands of mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) in california (usa) during 1993-1994. a systemic vasculitis with pulmonary edema and hemorrhagic enteropathy or a localized vasculitis associated with necrotizing stomatitis/pharyngitis/glossitis or osteomyelitis of the jaw were common necropsy findings in animals that died during this epizootic. six black-tailed yearling deer (o. hem ...19979391965
landscape genetics of california mule deer (odocoileus hemionus): the roles of ecological and historical factors in generating differentiation.landscape genetics is an emerging discipline that utilizes environmental and historical data to understand geographic patterns of genetic diversity. niche modelling has added a new dimension to such efforts by allowing species-environmental associations to be projected into the past so that hypotheses about historical vicariance can be generated and tested independently with genetic data. however, previous approaches have primarily utilized dna sequence data to test inferences about historical i ...200919302356
investigation of the role of mules as silent shedders of ehv-1 during an outbreak of ehv-1 myeloencephalopathy in california. 201222472540
comparison of trace mineral concentrations in tail hair, body hair, blood, and liver of mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) in california.measuring trace mineral concentrations can be an important component of assessing the health of free-ranging deer. trace mineral concentrations in liver most accurately reflect the trace mineral status of an individual, but, in live animals, whole blood or serum are the most commonly used sample types. trace minerals measured in serum, such as copper, zinc, and iron, do not always accurately correlate to liver concentrations, and supplementary samples for evaluating the trace mineral status in l ...201525862714
individual and population level resource selection patterns of mountain lions preying on mule deer along an urban-wildland gradient.understanding population and individual-level behavioral responses of large carnivores to human disturbance is important for conserving top predators in fragmented landscapes. however, previous research has not investigated resource selection at predation sites of mountain lions in highly urbanized areas. we quantified selection of natural and anthropogenic landscape features by mountain lions at sites where they consumed their primary prey, mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), in and adjacent to ur ...201627411098
a common parvovirus in deer from california, usa.we characterize the genome of the first reported deer parvovirus, ungulate tetraparvovirus 5, which we detected by pcr in multiple tissues from 2/9 california mule deer ( odocoileus hemionus californicus) with hair loss syndrome (hls) and in 4/12 deer without hls, suggesting this common infection does not cause hls.201627479898
a multi-scale evaluation of pack stock effects on subalpine meadow plant communities in the sierra nevada.we evaluated the influence of pack stock (i.e., horse and mule) use on meadow plant communities in sequoia and yosemite national parks in the sierra nevada of california. meadows were sampled to account for inherent variability across multiple scales by: 1) controlling for among-meadow variability by using remotely sensed hydro-climatic and geospatial data to pair stock use meadows with similar non-stock (reference) sites, 2) accounting for within-meadow variation in the local hydrology using in ...201728609464
abundance and bloodfeeding patterns of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) in an oak woodland on the eastern slope of the northern coast range of california.the abundance and bloodfeeding patterns of mosquitoes was studied from 2008 to 2010 at an 18 ha. oak woodland in lake county, ca. host-seeking females were collected weekly from sunset to sunrise by paired dry-ice-baited cdc style traps, whereas resting females were aspirated from paired walk-in red boxes. sequences of the coi gene amplified from bloodmeals from engorged resting females were used to identify the bloodmeal hosts. aedes sierrensis (ludlow) and aedes increpitus dyar complex mosquit ...201728874011
re-evaluating neonatal-age models for ungulates: does model choice affect survival estimates?new-hoof growth is regarded as the most reliable metric for predicting age of newborn ungulates, but variation in estimated age among hoof-growth equations that have been developed may affect estimates of survival in staggered-entry models. we used known-age newborns to evaluate variation in age estimates among existing hoof-growth equations and to determine the consequences of that variation on survival estimates. during 2001-2009, we captured and radiocollared 174 newborn (≤24-hrs old) ungulat ...201425264612
serosurveillance for livestock pathogens in free-ranging mule deer (odocoileus hemionus).routine disease surveillance has been conducted for decades in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) in california for pathogens shared between wildlife and domestic ruminants that may have implications for the animal production industry and wildlife health. deer sampled from 1990 to 2007 (n = 2,619) were tested for exposure to six pathogens: bluetongue virus (btv), epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (ehdv), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), leptospira spp., anaplasma spp. and brucella spp. we eval ...201223209790
bovicola tibialis (phthiraptera:trichodectidae): occurrence of an exotic chewing louse on cervids in north america.through a recent (2003-2007) survey of ectoparasites on hoofed mammals in western north america, a literature review, and examination of archived museum specimens, we found that the exotic deer-chewing louse, bovicola tibialis (piaget), is a long-term, widespread resident in the region. the earliest known collection was from salt spring island, canada, in 1941. we found these lice on the typical host, that is, introduced european fallow deer (dama dama l.), and on asian chital (axis axis [erxleb ...201121337942
evidence of tick-borne organisms in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) from the western united states.free-ranging mule deer (md; odocoileus hemionus) from arizona and california were tested for evidence of infection with several tick-borne pathogens, including species of ehrlichia, anaplasma, babesia, and borrelia. of 125 mule deer tested from arizona, 29 (23%) and 11 (9%) had antibodies reactive to e. chaffeensis and a. phagocytophilum by indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing, respectively; none of the six md tested from california were seropositive. using a commercial competitive elisa ...200516417431
ehrlichia spp. in cervids from california.blood samples from six mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus), 15 black-tailed deer (o. hemionus columbianus), and 29 elk (cervus elaphus nannodes) were assayed for human monocytic and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (hge) by polymerase chain reaction (pcr), dna sequencing, and serology to determine whether or not cervids are involved in the maintenance of these potential human pathogens in california (usa). the deer were sampled in august to october 1992-95. the 29 tule elk from point reyes n ...19989813842
pathogen exposure patterns among sympatric populations of bighorn sheep, mule deer and cattle.we sampled sympatric bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis, n = 31), mule deer (odocoileus hemionus, n = 38), and domestic cattle (n = 26) in the san bernadino mountains of southern california (usa) for the presence of psoroptes spp. mites and for serologic evidence of exposure to bluetongue virus (btv) and babesia spp. from 1991 through 1994, psoroptes spp. infestations were found on 12 (44%) of 27 bighorn sheep. no mites were found on mule deer or cattle. the btv serum antibody prevalence in a cohort ...19979131583
systemic adenovirus infection associated with high mortality in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) in california.seventeen counties in northern california experienced epizootics of high mortality in the mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) population during the latter half of 1993. thirteen deer submitted to the california veterinary diagnostic laboratory system as part of this natural die-off had systemic adenovirus infection. pulmonary edema was present in all 13 deer. erosions, ulceration, and abscessation of the upper alimentary tract occurred in 7/13 deer. four of 13 deer had hemorrhagic enteritis. all 13 ...19968801705
seroprevalence of two babesia spp. isolates in selected bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) populations in california.sera from 111 bighorn sheep (ovis canadensis) and 95 mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) were tested using an indirect immunofluorescence assay for antibodies to two isolates of babesia spp. recently obtained from these hosts in california (usa). the study populations were from six locations: three areas of real or potential sympatry of bighorn sheep and deer, one area with deer only, and two areas with bighorn sheep only. antibody titers from seroreactive individuals were similar with both babesial ...19958592376
influence of vegetation on carbon dioxide trap effectiveness for sampling mosquitoes in the sierra nevada foothills of kern county, california.the effect of vegetation on sampling culex tarsalis, cx. quinquefasciatus and aedes nigromaculis by co2 traps was evaluated at an intermittent stream habitat at the base of the sierra nevada foothills. carbon dioxide traps were spaced along a 450 m transect perpendicular to poso creek to determine female attraction to traps placed in 5 different vegetation substrates: 1) open hilltop with sparse growth of grasses and saltbush, 2) open pasture with sparse growth of saltbush, 3) peripheral underst ...19911791459
prevalence and persistence of taylorella asinigenitalis in male donkeys.this study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of taylorella asinigenitalis in a subset of the donkey population of michigan and in other equids on farms on which the organism was identified. other aims were to further characterize the carrier state in terms of persistence and preferred sites of colonization of t. asinigenitalis in the male donkey as well as determine the genotype of any isolates of the organism. initial testing of 43 donkeys and 1 mule turned up 4 (9.3%) donkeys cultur ...201222795262
exotic pediculosis and hair-loss syndrome in deer (odocoileus hemionus) populations in california.infestation with nonnative, "exotic" lice was first noted in washington black-tailed deer (odocoileus hemionus columbianus) in 1994 and has since then spread throughout the western united states. in california, infestation with the exotic louse damalinia (cervicola) sp. was first detected in black-tailed deer from northern california in 2004, and, in 2009, the exotic louse species bovicola tibialis and linognathus africanus were identified on mule deer (odocoileus hemionus californicus) in centr ...201627240567
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