Field investigation of innate immunity in passerine birds in suburban Chicago, Illinois, USA.The innate immune system is the first line of defense against pathogens, and it plays a fundamental role in coordinating a protective immune response in birds. Although many studies have evaluated avian immune responses in the laboratory, many fewer studies to date have done so in a field setting. To gain insight into interspecific differences in immune function in wild birds, we used a field-deployed in vitro microbicidal assay to measure constitutive innate immunity of whole blood collected fr ...201121719824
vector-host interactions of culex pipiens complex in northeastern and southwestern usa.studies on the vector-host interactions of culex pipiens complex mosquitoes by sequencing portions of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene indicate that cx. p. pipiens f. pipiens predominantly feed on avian hosts (93.1%), and focus feeding activity on several key bird species, in particular the american robin, the gray catbird, and the house sparrow in connecticut. however, cx. p. quinquefasciatus indiscriminately feed on both birds and mammals. culex p. quinquefasciatus in harris county - texas and ...201223401953
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