influenza a virus h5-specific antibodies in mute swans (cygnus olor) in the usa.the use of serologic assays for influenza a virus (iav) surveillance in wild birds has increased because of the availability of commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas). recently, an h5-specific blocking elisa (belisa) was shown to reliably detect h5-specific antibodies to low- and high-pathogenic h5 viruses in experimentally infected waterfowl. mute swans (cygnus olor) were frequently associated with highly pathogenic h5n1 outbreaks in europe and may have a similar role if highly ...201525647600
trematode (sphaeridiotrema globulus)-induced ulcerative hemorrhagic enteritis in wild mute swans (cygnus olor).ulcerative hemorrhagic enteritis of swans induced by sphaeridiotrema globulus is enzootic at lake musconetcong in northern new jersey. it accounted for a calculated 250 deaths of wild mute swans (cygnus olor) between 1970 and 1980. the swans died primarily in the winter and early spring. sites of infection included the jejunum and ileum. trematodes singly or in groups ulcerated the intestines. severe hemorrhage from damaged submucosal capillaries provided a blood meal for the parasites and proba ...20036979999
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