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lead toxicosis in tundra swans near a mining and smelting complex in northern idaho.die-offs of waterfowl have occurred in the coeur d'alene river system in northern idaho since at least the early 1900's. we investigated causes of mortality and lead and cadmium contamination of 46 tundra swans (cygnus columbianus) from 1987 to 1989; an additional 22 swans found dead in 1990 were not examined. we necropsied 43 of the 46 birds found from 1987 to 1989; 38 of these were from the coeur d'alene river system, which has been contaminated with mining and smelting wastes for a century, a ...19911759849
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