epidemiologic investigation of lead poisoning in trumpeter and tundra swans in washington state, usa, observational study was conducted to determine the proportionate mortality of wild trumpeter (cygnus buccinator) and tundra (cygnus columbianus columbianus) swans that died during the winters of 2000-02 in northwestern washington state, usa. among 400 swans necropsied, 81% were lead poisoned (302/365 trumpeter swans; 20/35 tundra swans). mortality started in mid-november and peaked from late december through mid-february; swan mortality that was not associated with lead poisoning was uniforml ...200616870857
lead poisoning and other causes of mortality in trumpeter (cygnus buccinator) and tundra (c. columbianus) swans in western washington.lead poisoning and other causes of mortality of 115 trumpeter (cygnus buccinator) and 21 tundra (c. columbianus) swans from northwestern washington (usa) from 1986 to 1992 are reported. necropsies were performed on all 136 swans, liver lead analysis conducted on 110, and differentiation between lead and steel shot pellets recovered from gizzards in 97 swans. shot pellets were detected in 44 (32%) of 136 gizzards. lead shot was recovered from 32 (33%) of 97 gizzards and steel shot from 16 (16%). ...19948151825
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