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foraging energetics and diving behavior of lactating new zealand sea lions, phocarctos hookeri.the new zealand sea lion, phocarctos hookeri, is the deepest- and longest-diving sea lion. we were interested in whether the diving ability of this animal was related to changes in its at-sea and diving metabolic rates. we measured the metabolic rate, water turnover and diving behavior of 12 lactating new zealand sea lions at sandy bay, enderby island, auckland islands group, new zealand (50 degrees 30's, 166 degrees 17'e), during january and february 1997 when their pups were between 1 and 2 mo ...200011060226
a comparison of salmonella serotypes isolated from new zealand sea lions and feral pigs on the auckland islands by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.the salmonella serotypes s. cerro and s. newport were isolated from new zealand sea lions (phocarctos hookeri) and feral pigs on the auckland islands in the new zealand subantarctic region. the isolates were typed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using xba1 as the restriction enzyme. the isolates were indistinguishable, which suggests that salmonella infection cycles between sea lions and pigs in this environment. apart from a previous isolation from a single new zealand fur seal (arctocephal ...200415465727
first report and characterization of adult uncinaria spp. in new zealand sea lion (phocarctos hookeri) pups from the auckland islands, new zealand.two species of hookworms (uncinaria lucasi and uncinaria hamiltoni) have been formally described from pinnipeds, but dissimilar types are noted from these hosts. this report is the first description of hookworms (uncinaria spp.) from the new zealand sea lion, phocarctos hookeri. the nematodes were collected from dead pups on enderby island (auckland islands, 50 degrees 30', 166 degrees 17') during january and february, 2004. standard measurements of male and female hookworms were obtained, provi ...200616362338
characterization of klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from new zealand sea lion (phocarctos hookeri) pups during and after the epidemics on enderby island, auckland islands.the 2001/2002 and 2002/2003 breeding seasons of new zealand sea lions (nzsls) on the auckland islands were marked by a high pup mortality caused by acute bacterial infections. as part of a health survey from 1998/1999 to 2004/2005, tissues and swabs of lesions had been collected at necropsy to identify the bacteria associated with pup mortality. klebsiella pneumoniae was grown in pure culture from 83% of various organs and lesions in 2001/2002 and 76% in 2002/2003, and less frequently in the fol ...200717250977
epidemiology of hookworm (uncinaria spp.) infection in new zealand (hooker's) sea lion (phocarctos hookeri) pups on enderby island, auckland islands (new zealand) during the breeding seasons from 1999/2000 to 2004/2005.this is the first investigation of the epidemiology of hookworm (uncinaria spp.) infection in new zealand sea lions (nzsls; phocarctos hookeri) on enderby island, auckland islands. the examination of faeces for hookworm eggs in various age categories of sea lions revealed that only pups up to at least 3 months of age harboured adult hookworms in their intestines. gross necropsy of more than 400 pups from 1999/2000 to 2004/2005 showed that the prevalence of hookworm infection varied significantly ...200717268806
neonatal mortality in new zealand sea lions (phocarctos hookeri) at sandy bay, enderby island, auckland islands from 1998 to 2005.as part of a health survey of new zealand sea lions (phocarctos hookeri) on enderby island, auckland islands (50 degrees 30's, 166 degrees 17'e), neonatal mortality was closely monitored at the sandy bay colony for seven consecutive years. throughout the breeding seasons 1998-99 to 2004-05, more than 400 postmortem examinations were performed on pups found dead at this site. the primary causes of death were categorized as trauma (35%), bacterial infections (24%), hookworm infection (13%), starva ...200717699084
humoral immune response to klebsiella spp. in new zealand sea lions (phocarctos hookeri) and the passive transfer of immunity to pups.during the 2001-02 and 2002-03 breeding seasons, epizootics of klebsiella pneumoniae resulted in a dramatic increase of pup mortality in new zealand sea lions (phocarctos hookeri; nzsls) on enderby island (auckland islands). to estimate the prevalence of infection in the nzsl population, a serologic test was developed using a western blot and a polysaccharide antigen derived from a k. pneumoniae isolate from a nzsl pup. all archived serum samples collected between 1997 and 1998 and 2004 and 2005 ...200818263817
serologic evaluation of new zealand sea lions for exposure to brucella and leptospira spp.a serologic survey of anti-brucella and antileptospiral antibodies was conducted on 147 adult, female new zealand sea lions (phocarctos hookeri). most sea lions (n=138) were sampled at sandy bay, enderby island, auckland islands (50°30's, 166°17'e), january 2000-march 2005. nine were sampled at otago, new zealand (46°0's, 170°40'e); four in april 2008 and five in march 2009. serum from one of the enderby island females was weakly positive for antibodies to brucella abortus using the competitive ...201020966283
pathology and epidemiology of stillbirth in new zealand sea lions (phocarctos hookeri) from enderby island, auckland islands, 1998-2012.stillbirth is a small and often cryptic fraction of neonatal mortality in mammals including pinnipeds. as part of an investigation into the poor reproductive success of the endangered new zealand sea lion (phocarctos hookeri), archived tissues from 37 stillborn pups born on enderby island between 1998 and 2012 were examined using histopathological techniques. apart from bronchopneumonia with neutrophilic infiltration in 4 cases, few inflammatory conditions were identified in stillborn pups. howe ...201627034387
traumatic brain injury, axonal injury and shaking in new zealand sea lion pups.trauma is a common cause of death in neonatal new zealand sea lion pups, and subadult male sea lions have been observed picking up and violently shaking some pups. in humans, axonal injury is a common result of traumatic brain injury, and can be due to direct trauma to axons or to ischaemic damage secondary to trauma. 'shaken baby syndrome', which has been described in human infants, is characterised by retinal and intracranial subdural haemorrhages, and has been associated with axonal injury to ...201424565687
foraging behaviour of juvenile female new zealand sea lions (phocarctos hookeri) in contrasting environments.foragers can show adaptive responses to changes within their environment through morphological and behavioural plasticity. we investigated the plasticity in body size, at sea movements and diving behaviour of juvenile female new zealand (nz) sea lions (phocarctos hookeri) in two contrasting environments. the nz sea lion is one of the rarest pinnipeds in the world. most of the species is based at the subantarctic auckland islands (ai; considered to be marginal foraging habitat), with a recolonizi ...201323671630
sexual segregation in juvenile new zealand sea lion foraging ranges: implications for intraspecific competition, population dynamics and conservation.sexual segregation (sex differences in spatial organisation and resource use) is observed in a large range of taxa. investigating causes for sexual segregation is vital for understanding population dynamics and has important conservation implications, as sex differences in foraging ecology may affect vulnerability to area-specific human activities. although behavioural ecologists have proposed numerous hypotheses for this phenomenon, the underlying causes of sexual segregation are poorly underst ...201223028978
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