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on dipetalonema viteae infection of mastomys natalensis.experimental infections were carried out with the tissue-dwelling filaria dipetalonema viteae using the argasid tick ornithodorus moubata as the intermediate and the multimammate rat mastomys natalensis (strain gra giessen) as the final host. the optimum infective dose was found to be 50 third-stage larvae, which produced patent infections and the recovery rates of adult parasites were 47.6 and 26.4% of the inoculated larvae 140 and 189 days after infection, respectively. after an average prepat ...1979571635
antifilarial activities of benzazole derivatives. 3. effects of benzothiazoles on third stage larvae and preadult worms of acanthocheilonema viteae, brugia malayi and b. pahangi in mastomys natalensis.ten structurally defined benzothiazoles (5-methyl and the analogous 5-methoxy derivatives) with known macrofilaricidal and microfilaricidal activities were tested for efficacy against third stage larvae and preadult worms in acanthocheilonema viteae, brugia malayi, and b. pahangi infected mastomys natalensis. drugs were administered in single oral doses of maximally 100 mg/kg. the benzothiazoles were active against the two stages of the three species. generally the 5-methoxy derivatives displaye ...19902075385
antioxidant enzymes in acanthocheilonema viteae and effect of antifilarial agents.adult worms of acanthocheilonema viteae were found to be susceptible to the reactive oxygen intermediates (roi) generated by the xanthine-xanthine oxidase (x-xo) system. the damage caused by this system was completely abolished by superoxide dismutase (sod) and catalase but not by mannitol. the results, therefore, suggest that superoxide anions (o2-) and hydrogen peroxide (h2o2) alone or in combination might be toxic to the filariid. a. viteae exhibited the presence of an active enzyme system to ...19902244937
immune response to acanthocheilonema viteae infection in multimammate rats (mastomys natalensis).the multimammate rat mastomys natalensis, when infected with the filarial parasite acanthocheilonema viteae, develops amicrofilaraemia. worm recovery and the duration and intensity of microfilaraemia were analysed and related to the humoral and cellular immune responses of the host by using an antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (adcc) assay towards microfilariae (mf). mf were detected in the peripheral blood at 7 weeks post-infection (p.i.), reaching maximum levels by 20 weeks p.i., a ...19902318510
effect of ivermectin on filariae of mastomys natalensis.the efficacy of ivermectin (iv) was evaluated against four species of filariae, litomosoides carinii, acanthocheilonema viteae, brugia pahangi and brugia malayi in mastomys natalensis. animals with patent infections, induced with l3 larvae, by intravenous (iv) infusion of the respective microfilariae (mf) (5 x 10(4) mf per animal) or by intraperitoneal (ip) route (2 x 10(4) mf per animal) were used in this study. a single dose of iv (100 micrograms.kg-1) given subcutaneously (sc) to mastomys inf ...19902381895
immunoprophylaxis against filarial parasite, dipetalonema viteae in multimammate rat mastomys natalensis: immunisation with adult worm antigens. 19902401531
2,2'-dicarbomethoxyamino-5,5'-dibenzimidazolyl ketone--a new antifilarial agent.the activity of 2,2'-dicarbomethoxyamino-5,5'-dibenzimidazolyl ketone (ii, c.d.r.i. comp. 82/437) has been evaluated for its micro- and macro-filaricidal efficacy against litomosoides carinii in rodents. a dose of 3 mg/kg (i.p.) and 50 mg/kg (oral) x 5 days of comp. 82/437 was found to eliminate almost 100% of adult worms and microfilariae of l. carinii in cotton rat. it also killed 100% and 97% of adult worms and microfilariae of dipetalonema viteae and brugia malayi in mastomys natalensis resp ...19892575867
stage-specific homocytotropic antibody response of mastomys natalensis to dipetalonema viteae infection. 19872884834
stage-specific antibody response of mastomys natalensis during the course of dipetalonema viteae infection.stage-specific haemagglutinating (ha) and precipitin antibodies (pa) to infective larvae (l3), adult worms and microfilariae (mf) have been demonstrated in sera of mastomys natalensis during the course of dipetalonema viteae infection using indirect haemagglutination (iha) and ouchterlony's gel-diffusion tests. l3-specific ha antibody titre was shown to be quite low and lasted for shorter period whereas adult-specific antibody response was significantly higher and persisted for longer duration ( ...19883143649
antifilarial activities of benzazole derivatives. 2. microfilaricidal effects against litomosoides carinii, acanthocheilonema. vitae, brugia malayi and b. pahangi in mastomys natalensis.the spectrum of antimicrofilarial activities of eighteen 2-tertbutylbenzazole derivatives was evaluated comparatively in mastomys natalensis infected with litomosoides carinii, acanthocheilonema viteae, brugia malayi or b. pahangi. the minimal effective dose (dem) against microfilariae (greater than 95% reduction of microfilariae counts in the peripheral blood) was determined on day 3 (dem-3), on day 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 (dem-7, dem-14, dem-21, dem-28 and dem-42) after the first treatment. all c ...19883227232
antifilarial activities of benzazole derivatives. 1. macrofilaricidal effects against litomosoides carinii, dipetalonema viteae, brugia malayi, and b. pahangi in mastomys natalensis.eighteen 2-tert-butyl-benzazole derivatives were evaluated comparatively as macrofilaricidal agents against l. carinii (l.c.), d. viteae (d.v.), b. malayi (b.m.) and b. pahangi (b.p.). upon repeated treatment (once daily) for five consecutive days the eight benzoxazole derivatives were invariably less potent than the corresponding benzothiazole derivatives. the minimal curative dose (dcm) of the benzoxazoles varied depending on the species and on the chemical structure between 25 and 100 mg/kg p ...19883387822
dipetalonema viteae in mastomys natalensis: effect of pregnancy and lactation on establishment and course of infection.the susceptibility of hosts to filarial infection during pregnancy and lactation was studied using dipetalonema viteae in mastomys natalensis as working model. though no difference in prepatency could be observed yet significantly higher density of microfilaraemia than controls was detected in both pregnant and lactating groups. extended duration of patency was also found in both pregnant and lactating animals. on autopsy, animals exposed at the time of pregnancy or lactation revealed significan ...19883387824
response of dipetalonema viteae in mastomys natalensis to some known antifilarials. 19883403011
dipetalonema viteae infection in three species of rodents: species specific patterns of the antibody response.groups of jirds (meriones unguiculatus), multimammate rats (mastomys natalensis) and golden hamsters (mesocricetus auratus) were infected with third stage larvae (l3) of dipetaloneam viteae and the course of infection was followed until 20 weeks post infection. worm growth was best and microfilaraemia was high and long lasting in jirds and in multimammate rats, whereas golden hamsters were poor hosts as measured by these parameters. the igg and igm antibody responses of the species were compared ...19873550602
[potential filaricides. suramin analogs].a series of suramin analogues has been synthesized in which the methyl groups of suramin have been replaced by hydrogen, alkyl, phenyl, and fluoro substituents, or which contain more than two methyl groups. the substances have been screened against dipetalonema viteae in meriones unguiculatus, litomosoides carinii in sigmodon hispidus and l. carinii in mastomys natalensis, respectively. small structural modifications have a marked influence on the antifilarial activity. there are marked differen ...19863778551
synthesis and anthelmintic activity of 5(6)-(benzimidazol-2-ylcarbamoyl) and (4-substituted piperazin-1-yl)benzimidazoles.the synthesis of alkyl 5(6)-(benzimidazol-2-ylcarbamoyl)benzimidazole-2-carbamates (6, 7), and alkyl 5(6)-(4-substituted piperazin-1-yl)benzimidazole-2-carbamates (31-40) has been carried out. when the compounds were tested for their anthelmintic activity against ancylostoma ceylanicum in hamsters, hymenolepis nana in rats, litomosoides carinii in cotton rats, and dipetalonema viteae in mastomys natalensis, methyl 5(6)-(4-benzoylpiperazin-1-yl)benzimidazole-2-carbamate (31), methyl 5(6)-[4-(2-fu ...19853906129
hepatic microsomal alterations during dipetalonema viteae infection in mastomys natalensis. 19854039707
studies on the causation of adverse reactions in microfilaraemic host following diethylcarbamazine therapy (dipetalonema viteae in mastomys natalensis).the mechanism of the adverse reaction in microfilaraemic subjects following diethylcarbamazine (dec) therapy has remained an enigma. to study the mechanisms involved mastomys natalensis infected with dipetalonema viteae have been used. animals showing up to 50 mf/5 cmm of blood did not show any perceptible reactions when treated with the minimum effective dose of 350 mg/kg of dec citrate, while those having more than 80 mf/5 cmm died, suggesting an intensity dependent severity of reactions. infe ...19854039839
soleus muscle adenosine-5'-triphosphate (atp) levels in mastomys natalensis with dipetalonema viteae infections: effect of diethylcarbamazine.adenosine-5'-triphosphate (atp) levels in the soleus muscles of mastomys natalensis during the patent phase of dipetalonema viteae infection were studied. decreased atp levels were found in the infected animals as compared with the uninfected controls. diethylcarbamazine citrate produced an 'anaphylactic reaction' and enhanced microfilaraemia in the infected animals, but did not cause any lowering of the soleus muscle atp in the infected as well as in the uninfected animals.19854081548
proceedings: mastomys natalensis as a host for dipetalonema viteae. 19744856425
lysosomal enzyme in mastomys natalensis during dipetalonema viteae infection.activities of certain acid hydrolases (viz. acid phosphatase, beta-glucosidase, beta-galactosidase, n-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase and cathepsine) of post mitochondrial fraction of liver and spleen were studied during the course of dipetalonema viteae infection in mastomys natalensis. the values are significantly higher from prepatent to patent phase of infection as compared with normal animals. however, a decrease in the activity of hepatic acid phosphatase and n-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase ...19836415875
studies of potential filaricides: part 14--activity of 1-iso-butoxycarbonyl-4-methylpiperazine against experimental filariasis.the synthesis and filaricidal activity of 1-iso-butoxycarbonyl-4-methylpiperazine against litomosoides carinii in sigmodon hispidus and dipetalonema viteae in mastomys natalensis is reported. at an intraperitoneal or oral dose of 3 mg/kg given for 6 days, the compound removed 91% of the circulating microfilariae but had no effect on adult l. carinii. however, it killed all microfilariae and adults of d. viteae at a subcutaneous dose of 50 mg/kg given for 6 days. the compound also possessed chemo ...19846542118
filaricidal effects of cyclosporin-a against dipetalonema viteae in mastomys natalensis.outbred male mastomys natalensis were injected subcutaneously with 100 infective larvae of dipetalonema viteae obtained from ornithodorus tartakovskyi. groups of five animals were treated with 30 mg/kg of the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin-a daily for five days (experimental) or miglyol 812 (control). one group served as untreated controls. contrary to expectations, 60% of the animals were completely protected against d. viteae and the remainder were partially protected. the mechanism remain ...19846542261
[filariasis of the eye: problems with animal models].twelve rodents (mastomys natalensis and meriones persicus) were infected, with l3 larvae of litomosoides carinii and dipetalonema viteae. eighty days after infection the number of microfilariae (l1 larvae) was determined by smears from the peripheral venous blood. it was found that there were 48 and 69 x 10(3) microfilariae per ml blood. the hosts were killed and the eyes (conjunctiva, cornea, uvea, posterior part of the globe, optic nerve) as well as other organs (skin, brain, liver, heart and ...19836645261
immunocytochemical studies on several developmental stages of dipetalonema viteae (filarioidea).the binding of antibodies to infective larvae (l3), eggs, uterine contents and blood microfilariae was demonstrated by light microscopy employing the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (pap) method. antigen-antibody reactions were located on the shell of filarial eggs as well as on the cuticle and the interior of l3 and microfilariae. using sera from meriones unguiculatus, mastomys natalensis and golden hamsters infected with d. viteae obtained at 7, 14, 21 and 28 weeks p.i. it was observed that the inte ...19836685362
time courses of antibody levels in mastomys natalensis after infections with litomosoides carinii, dipetalonema viteae, brugia malayi or b. pahangi, determined by elisa.using a litomosoides carinii adult antigen, time courses of antibody levels were followed by an elisa in l. carinii, dipetalonema viteae, brugia malayi and b. pahangi infected mastomys natalensis. using various groups of infected animals, periods up to 400 days after infection were covered. in l. carinii infected mastomys, antibodies were first detected 11 days p.i. and levels increased rapidly until day 40. temporarily reduced levels about the beginning of patency were followed by increasing va ...19836685415
immunoreactive proteins of acanthocheilonema viteae (nematoda: filarioidea) adults: solubilization in various detergents.for optimal solubilization of immunoreactive proteins of filarial parasites, adult worms of acanthocheilonema viteae were extracted in different detergents including anionic, cationic, nonionic and zwitterionic agents under varying incubation periods. each preparation was then analysed by sds-page and immunoblotting using pooled sera from mastomys natalensis infected with a. viteae. amongst the detergents used, maximum immunoreactive proteins were exposed by sodium dodecylsulphate (sds), closely ...19938314178
polyamine uptake by a rodent filariid, acanthocheilonema viteae (nematoda: filarioidea).helminth parasites lack the capacity to synthesize polyamines de novo. with the view to characterise alternative pools for the replenishment of polyamines, uptake of spermidine and spermine, were studied in acanthocheilonema viteae, a parasite known to infect rodents. motile worms recovered from the subcutaneous tissues of experimentally infected mastomys natalensis were incubated in vitro with radiolabelled polyamines for the uptake assays. a time-dependent, temperature-sensitive, energy-requir ...19957584620
different suitability of 3 filarial antigens (litomosoides carinii, dipetalonema viteae, dirofilaria immitis) to act as allergens in the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test and to serve as antigens in an elisa in the course of experimental filarial infections (l. carinii, d. viteae, brugia malayi, b. pahangi) of mastomys natalensis.crude extracts of adult worms of 3 different filariae (litomosoides carinii, dipetalonema viteae, dirofilaria immitis) were evaluated for their suitability to serve as allergens in the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis test (pca) and as antigens in an elisa which detected mainly igg antibodies. studies were done in the course of 4 different filarial infections (l. carinii, d. viteae, brugia malayi, b. pahangi) of mastomys natalensis, using sera from different times after infection up to 350 days p.i ...19846143483
effect of ivermectin on serum dependent cellular interactions to dipetalonema viteae microfilariae.the effects of ivermectin (iv) on the filarial infection has been investigated using dipetalonema viteae--mastomys natalensis model system. in vitro, iv (3 micrograms/ml) had no effect on the microfilariae (mf) in the presence or absence of serum from normal or infected mastomys (nms, ims). however, the sera promoted cell-mediated cytotoxicity with macrophages or eosinophils to the mf when iv was added at 3 ng/ml. sera isolated from normal or infected mastomys after subcutaneous treatment with i ...19873629134
effect of ivermectin in dipetalonema viteae and litomosoides carinii infections of mastomys natalensis.in d. viteae infected m. natalensis oral or subcutaneous (s.c.) treatment with ivermectin on 5 consecutive days with at least 0.05 mg/kg and single dose treatment with 0.1 mg/kg caused a 100% reduction of microfilaraemia throughout the investigation period of 42 days. using lower doses (lowest dose used 5 x 0.003 mg/kg) animals were free from circulating microfilariae at least until day 7. the drug was active against adult worms. treatment with doses of 5 x 0.2 mg/kg and above resulted in 81-93% ...19873629133
reaginic and homocytotropic igg antibody response of mastomys natalensis in experimental infections of filarial parasites (litomosoides carinii, dipetalonema viteae, brugia malayi, b. pahangi).reaginic and homocytotropic igg antibodies in sera using passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (pca) test and antigen from litomosoides carinii were followed in mastomys natalensis, infected with l. carinii, dipetalonema viteae, brugia malayi or b. pahangi. groups of animals with infections of various ages so as to cover a total infection period of up to 300 to 420 days post-infection (p.i.), depending on the species of parasites, were bled at 1- to 3-week intervals over periods of 50-112 days. in addit ...19873588585
19s and 7s antibody response of mastomys natalensis in experimental filarial (litomosoides carinii, acanthocheilonema viteae, brugia malayi, b. pahangi) infections.specific total antibody (ab), 19s and 7s ab levels in the serum of m. natalensis were investigated after infection with l. carinii, a. viteae, b. malayi and b. pahangi for period of about 500 days p.i., using elisa (homologous adult antigen) and indirect immunofluorescence tests (iift: homologous adult and microfilariae antigen). total ab levels in l. carinii infected animals rose moderately during prepatency maximum levels occurred during patency. the response during prepatency was stronger in ...19892781895
altered immune response (humoral and delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions) to sheep red blood cells in the course of experimental filarial infections (litomosoides carinii, brugia malayi, acanthocheilonema viteae) of mastomys natalensis.litomosoides carinii-, acanthocheilonema viteae- or brugia malayi-infected mastomys natalensis were sensitised against sheep red blood cells (srbc) on various occasions after infection to determine the effect of filarial infections on the immune response to a non-filarial antigen. the phagocytic activity of the reticuloendothelial system (res) was controlled in vivo by the elimination of 51cr-labelled srbc. antibody titres against srbc (agglutinating and lytic antibodies) were similar to those o ...19892726721
gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase in lymphatic tissues of mastomys natalensis during an infection with acanthocheilonema viteae.during acanthocheilonema viteae infection, the specific activity of gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (gamma-gt) increased in peritoneal exudate cells and bone marrow and decreased in lymph nodes of mastomys natalensis throughout the course of infection. however, though there was an increase in specific activity of gamma-gt in thymus and spleen during the prepatent phase of a. viteae infection, the level either returned to normal or decreased during the latent phase of infection. a close correlation ...19901973658
impact of surface modifications of acanthocheilonema viteae microfilariae on cell adhesion.exposure of a. viteae microfilariae to various lectins reduced their capacity to react with the peritoneal exudate cells of the host, mastomys natalensis. sugars corresponding to these lectins with the exception of n-acetyl glucosamine, did not affect the adhesion per se. they however, protected the parasite against the adverse effect of lectins. neuraminidase and chitinase also suppressed adhesion capacity of the microfilariae. except sodium dodecylsulphate which enhanced cell attachment, other ...19911814837
effect of 2,2'-dicarbomethoxylamino-5,5'-dibenzimidazolyl ketone on antioxidant defenses of acanthocheilonema viteae and its laboratory host mastomys natalensis.the effect of the macrofilaricidal agent of 2,2'-dicarbomethoxylamino-5,5'-dibenzimidazolyl ketone (c.d.r.i. compound 82/437), on the metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ros) in acanthocheilonema viteae and mastomys natalensis was measured following intraperitoneal administration at therapeutic doses. the recovered worms possessed substantially reduced levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase (gpx), and thus were less able to detoxify h2o2. nonetheless, the subcutaneous and adjoining mus ...19921510719
immunocytochemical and ultrastructural studies on dipetalonema viteae (filarioidea).the antigenic properties of adult male and female of dipetalonema viteae were studied by immunocytochemistry. using antisera of the rodents meriones unguiculatus and mastomys natalensis infected with d. viteae, the binding of antibodies to sections of filariae embedded in epon was assayed by the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (pap) technique and by electron microscopy. the optimal staining intensity was obtained with an antiserum dilution of 1:5000. control sera were obtained from sex and age matched ...19836348150
filarial infections of mastomys natalensis and their relevance for experimental chemotherapy.experimental filarial infections of mastomys natalensis, strain gra giessen, with litomosoides carinii, dipetalonema viteae, brugia malayi (subperiodic), and brugia pahangi were compared. mean prepatent periods of 52, 57, 107, and 73 days p.i. were observed after subcutaneous inoculation of 40, 50, 85, and 70 infective larvae of l. carinii, d. viteae, b. malayi, and b. pahangi, respectively, in the neck region. all of the l. carinii, d. viteae, and b. pahangi infected mastomys showed a regularly ...19816118036
microfilarial periodicity in mastomys natalensis.the microfilarial level in the peripheral blood of mastomys natalensis infected with the filarial parasites, litomosoides carinii, brugia pahangi, b. malayi and dipetalonema viteae was monitored at two-hour intervals for 24 hours. the microfilariae of b. pahangi and b. malayi exhibited nocturnal and diurnal subperiodicity, respectively; no such periodicity was seen in l. carinii and d. viteae infections. the level of b. pahangi and d. viteae microfilariae in peripheral blood was significantly in ...19846540281
xanthine oxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and lipid peroxidation in mastomys natalensis: effect of dipetalonema viteae infection.status of xanthine oxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase and lipid peroxidation, the enzymes metabolizing reactive oxygen intermediates in liver, lungs and spleen of m. natalensis during d. viteae infection was investigated. xanthine oxidase and lipid peroxidation exhibited stimulation, while superoxide dismutase and catalase showed depression in liver and spleen of the infected animals. the filarial infection therefore appears to create o2 toxicity in these tissues. lungs, on the other hand w ...19892633968
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