antifilarial activity of macrocyclic lactones: comparative studies with ivermectin, doramectin, milbemycin a4 oxime, and moxidectin in litomosoides carinii, acanthocheilonema viteae, brugia malayi, and b. pahangi infection of mastomys coucha.the avermectins ivermectin and doramectin and the milbemycins milbemycin a4 oxime and moxidectin were tested for filaricidal activity in mastomys coucha infected with litomosoides carinii, acanthocheilonema viteae, brugia malayi, and b. pahangi. single subcutaneous doses of 0.005-5 mg/kg (l. carinii), 0.0005-0.5 mg/kg (a. viteae), 0.5 and 5 mg/kg (b. malayi), and 5 mg/kg (b. pahangi) were injected. necropsies were performed 42 days after treatment. the avermectins caused a strong and rapid reduc ...19947939168
1h magnetic resonance imaging and 31p magnetic resonance spectroscopy in experimental filariasis.1h magnetic resonance imaging and 31p magnetic resonance spectroscopy (mrs) have been carried out in experimental rodent filariasis, i.e., acanthocheilonema viteae infection in the rodent host, mastomys coucha. the t2-weighted image of the infected host shows fine hyperintense thread like structures of adult filariid nests in the cervical region. 31p mrs of normal and infected hosts, localized over the same region of interest, show seven major peaks corresponding to phosphomonoesters (including ...19979408140
antifilarial activity of a synthetic marine alkaloid, aplysinopsin (cdri compound 92/138).cdri compound 92/138, a synthetic analogue of aplysinopsin, was evaluated in experimental filarial infections, litomosoides carinii in cotton rats (sigmodon hispidus) and acanthocheilonema viteae in mastomys coucha. the compound killed 63.8 and 90% of adult l. carinii and a. viteae at doses of 30 and 50 mg/kg (i.p.) respectively given for 5 days. by the oral route, at 100 mg/kg for 5 days the compound caused 50.9 and 57% mortality of adult l. carinii and a. viteae, respectively. at 200 mg/kg adm ...19979236820
the antifilarial activity of a marine red alga, botryocladia leptopoda, against experimental infections with animal and human filariae.the antifilarial activity of the marine red alga botryocladia leptopoda against rodent and human lymphatic filarial parasites is described. the animal filarial species included litomosoides sigmodontis and acanthocheilonema viteae maintained in cotton rats and mastomys coucha, respectively, while a subperiodic strain of the human lymphatic filarial parasite brugia malayi was maintained in m. coucha. the crude extract and its hexane fraction brought about a marked reduction in the peripheral micr ...200415243801
effects of bay 44-4400, a new cyclodepsipeptide, on developing stages of filariae (acanthocheilonema viteae, brugia malayi, litomosoides sigmodontis) in the rodent mastomys coucha.bay 44-4400 was used as a spot on formulation and administered in single doses of 25 and 100 mg/kg to acanthocheilonema viteae, brugia malayi, and litomosoides sigmodontis infected mastomys coucha on various dates during prepatency, aiming to affect third stage larvae, fourth stage larvae or preadult worms. microfilaraemia levels were controlled in comparison to untreated controls until necropsies were performed 100 days p.i. (a. viteae, l. sigmodontis) and 150 days p.i. (b. malayi) to determine ...200111495640
antifilarial activity of some 2h-1-benzopyran-2-ones (coumarins).six synthetic 2h-1-benzopyran-2-one (cournarin) derivatives (cdri compounds # 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6) were evaluated for filaricidal activity against litomosoides carinii and acanthocheilonema viteae infections in cotton rats (sigmodon hispidus) and mastomys coucha respectively. significant effects on macrofilariae (>80% death/sterilisation) were detected with compounds #2, 3 and 6 against l. carinii and/or a. viteae. thus detection of filaricidal activity in benzopyrones, which are so far known fo ...200010936568
chemical constituents and antifilarial activity of lantana camara against human lymphatic filariid brugia malayi and rodent filariid acanthocheilonema viteae maintained in rodent hosts.lymphatic filariasis continues to be a major health problem in tropical and subtropical countries. a macrofilaricidal agent capable of eliminating adult filarial parasites is urgently needed. in the present study, we report the antifilarial activity in the extract of stem portion of the plant lantana camara. the crude extract at 1 g/kg for 5 days by oral route killed 43.05% of the adult brugia malayi parasites and sterilized 76% of surviving female worms in the rodent model mastomys coucha. a 34 ...200717061115
acanthocheilonema viteae in mastomys coucha: chemotherapeutic and chemoprophylactic role of vitamin a in experimental filarial infection.the role of vitamin a was evaluated for its chemotherapeutic and chemoprophylactic action against acanthocheilonema viteae infection in mastomys coucha. vitamin a was administered for 10 days, five days before infection and five days post infection. on day 0 experimental animals as well as controls were infected with l3, the infective stage. establishment of the worms revealed significantly less percentage of worm recovery over untreated controls. cell-mediated response was found to be the cause ...200616729591
lethal lps-independent side effects after microfilaricidal treatment in acanthocheilonema viteae-infected rodents.mastomys coucha and jirds infected with acanthocheilonema viteae, a filarial species free of endosymbiontic bacteria of the genus wolbachia, suffer lethal side effects after effective microfilaricidal therapy with diethylcarbamazine and levamisole, whereas, m. coucha infected with the wolbachia-infested species brugia malayi or litomosoides carinii tolerate corresponding treatment. mortality in a. viteae infected, treated animals varied with microfilariae density in the blood. it was up to 100% ...200515997410
filaricidal efficacy of anthelmintically active 1022a, a novel anthelmintically active cyclodepsipeptide, and bay 44-4400, a semisynthetic derivative of pf 1022a were tested for filaricidal efficacy in mastomys coucha infected with litomosoides sigmodontis, acanthocheilonema viteae and brugia malayi. the parent compound pf 1022a showed limited anti-filarial efficacy in l. sigmodontis and b. malayi infected animals. oral doses of 5 x 100 mg/kg on consecutive days caused only a temporary decrease of microfilariaemia levels. by contrast, bay ...200111595239
effects of 2-deoxy-d-glucose on acanthocheilonema viteae: rodent filariids as studied by multinuclear nmr spectroscopyt.a well known glucose antimetabolite, 2-deoxy glucose (2dg) widely used in chemotherapy of cancer along with radiation, was evaluated as an antifilarial agent by nuclear magnetic resonance. the uptake and metabolism of 2dg in the experimental filarial infection acanthocheilonema viteae was studied by in vivo multinuclear nmr. an unusually long retention time of 2dg6p within these parasites was observed on continuous 31p nmr monitoring, along with a decrease in atp levels. these results led to the ...200010970042
acanthocheilonema viteae: vaccination with irradiated l3 induces resistance in three species of rodents (meriones unguiculatus, mastomys coucha, mesocricetus auratus).three species of rodents were immunized with 50 irradiated (35 krad) stage-3 larvae (l3) of the filaria acanthocheilonema viteae and challenged with an infection of normal l3. the immunization induced a significant reduction of the worm burden developing from the challenge infection in all host species, the jird (meriones unguiculatus), the multimammate rat (mastomys coucha) and the golden hamster (mesocricetus auratus). the induced resistance was highest in jirds (92.5 +/- 9.7) followed by gold ...19979018308
experimental chemotherapy of filariasis: comparative evaluation of the efficacy of filaricidal compounds in mastomys coucha infected with litomosoides carinii, acanthocheilonema viteae, brugia malayi and b. pahangi.eleven types/classes of compound with antifilarial activity were comparatively evaluated in mastomys coucha infected with litomosoides carinii, acanthocheilonema viteae, brugia malayi or b. pahangi. the paper deals with the efficacy of (i) predominantly microfilaricidal compounds [diethylcarbamazine, levamisole, avermectins (ivermectin, milbemycin), nitrofurans (nitrofurantoin, hydroxymethylnitrofurantoin, nifurtimox, furazolidone, furapyrimidone), organophosphorals (metrifonate, haloxon), and a ...19938094587
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