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[use of the monkey pox virus for evaluating the intensity of the immunity against smallpox in experiments on m. rhesus].monkeypox virus causing in m, rhesus upon aerogenic infection a disease similar to human varioloid was used to evaluate the intensity of immunity against smallpox in immunized m. rhesus monkeys. postvaccination immunity was solid in all the animals vaccinated intradermally or orally. in 2 out of 14 monkeys immunized orally, however, the immunity was partially overcome. neutralizing antibody titers in these two monkeys were 1:5 and 1:25, respectively. this agreed with the observations made in pak ...1978208308
isolation of poxvirus from an african rodent.a poxvirus was isolated from a wild gerbil (tatera kempii) caught in northern dahomey, africa at the time of an epidemic of human smallpox. electron microscopic appearance and serologic reactions placed it in the vaccinia subgroup of poxviruses. the isolate differed from ectromelia, rabbitpox, vaccinia, monkeypox, and cowpox viruses in pock morphology on chorioallantoic membrane, ceiling temperature, relative innocuity for mice, and cytopathic effect in tissue culture. like variola minor virus, ...1975811713
a study of the specificities of sequential antisera to variola and monkeypox viruses by radioimmunoassay.the specificities of antisera during development of the humoral antibody response to poxvirus antigens were examined in monkeys injected with chimp-9 whitepox virus or monkeypox virus. sera were obtained from 3 african green (vervet) monkeys inoculated with chimp-9 whitepox virus, 1 rhesus monkey inoculated with monkeypox virus, and 2 rhesus monkeys inoculated with soluble monkeypox viral antigen. the sequentially obtained sera from each animal were adsorbed with uninfected chicken chorioallanto ...19806155223
four-gene-combination dna vaccine protects mice against a lethal vaccinia virus challenge and elicits appropriate antibody responses in nonhuman primates.two major infectious forms of vaccinia virus (vacv) have been described: the intracellular mature virion (imv), and the extracellular enveloped virion (eev). due to their stability in the environment, imvs play a predominant role in host-to-host transmission, whereas eevs play an important role in dissemination within the host. in a previous report, we demonstrated that mice vaccinated with vacv l1r (imv immunogen) and a33r (eev immunogen) were protected from a lethal poxvirus challenge. vaccina ...200312620810
smallpox dna vaccine protects nonhuman primates against lethal monkeypox.two decades after a worldwide vaccination campaign was used to successfully eradicate naturally occurring smallpox, the threat of bioterrorism has led to renewed vaccination programs. in addition, sporadic outbreaks of human monkeypox in africa and a recent outbreak of human monkeypox in the u.s. have made it clear that naturally occurring zoonotic orthopoxvirus diseases remain a public health concern. much of the threat posed by orthopoxviruses could be eliminated by vaccination; however, becau ...200415078924
immunogenicity and protection efficacy of monovalent and polyvalent poxvirus vaccines that include the d8 antigen.recent studies have established the feasibility of subunit-based experimental vaccines to protect animals from lethal poxvirus infection. individual outer membrane proteins from intracellular and extracellular virions of vaccinia virus, when delivered in the form of either dna vaccines or recombinant protein vaccines produced from baculovirus-infected insect cells, were able to protect mice from the vaccinia virus challenge and rhesus macaques from the monkeypox virus challenge. the polyvalent f ...200616919703
recombinant modified vaccinia virus ankara provides durable protection against disease caused by an immunodeficiency virus as well as long-term immunity to an orthopoxvirus in a non-human primate.recombinant and non-recombinant modified vaccinia virus ankara (mva) strains are currently in clinical trials as human immunodeficiency virus-1 (hiv) and attenuated smallpox vaccines, respectively. here we tested the ability of a recombinant mva delivered by alternative needle-free routes (intramuscular, intradermal, or into the palatine tonsil) to protect against immunodeficiency and orthopoxvirus diseases in a non-human primate model. rhesus macaques were immunized twice 1 month apart with mva ...200717499326
the effect of volume of interest definition on quantification of lymph node immune response to a monkeypox virus infection assessed by (18)f-fdg-pet.2-deoxy-2-[(18)f]fluoro-d-glucose-positron emission tomography ((18)f-fdg-pet) is applied in the clinic for infection assessment and is under consideration for investigating the inflammatory/immune response in lymphoid tissue in animal models of viral infection. assessing changes in (18)f-fdg uptake of lymph nodes (lns), primary lymphoid tissues targeted during viral infection, requires suitable methods for image analysis. similar to tumor evaluation, reliable quantitation of the ln function via ...201426116113
monkeypox virus infection of rhesus macaques induces massive expansion of natural killer cells but suppresses natural killer cell functions.natural killer (nk) cells play critical roles in innate immunity and in bridging innate and adaptive immune responses against viral infection. however, the response of nk cells to monkeypox virus (mpxv) infection is not well characterized. in this intravenous challenge study of mpxv infection in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta), we analyzed blood and lymph node nk cell changes in absolute cell numbers, cell proliferation, chemokine receptor expression, and cellular functions. our results showed ...201324147080
characterizing monkeypox virus specific cd8+ t cell epitopes in rhesus macaques.to characterize t cell epitopes in monkeypox virus (mpxv) infected rhesus macaques, we utilized ifnγ elispot assay to screen 400 predicted peptides from 20mpxv proteins. two peptides from the f8l protein, an analog of e9l protein in vaccinia, were found to elicit cd8+ t cell responses. prediction and in vitro mhc binding analyses suggest that one is restricted by mamu-a1(⁎)001 and another by mamu-a1(⁎)002. the mamu-a1(⁎)002 epitope is completely identical in all reported sequences for variola, v ...201324210113
monkeypox virus viral chemokine inhibitor (mpv vcci), a potent inhibitor of rhesus macrophage inflammatory protein-1.monkeypox virus (mpv) is an orthopoxvirus with considerable homology to variola major, the etiologic agent of smallpox. although smallpox was eradicated in 1976, the outbreak of mpv in the u.s. highlights the health hazards associated with zoonotic infections. like other orthopoxviruses, mpv encodes a secreted chemokine binding protein, vcci that is abundantly expressed and secreted from mpv infected cells. emsa data shows vcci efficiently binds rhesus mip-1alpha (rhmip-1alpha) at near one to on ...200818639466
preparation and evaluation of a noninfectious monkey pox virus vaccine.monkey pox virus was mechanically disrupted by low temperature and high pressure into soluble and insoluble fractions. soluble fractions elicited virus-neutralizing antibodies (1:20 to 1:160) in rabbits, whereas the insoluble (in saline) fractions did not (less than 1:5). no infectious virus was detected after the disruption procedure. rhesus monkeys immunized with the soluble fraction elicited virus-neutralizing (1:1,200), complement-fixing (1:16), and hemagglutinating-inhibiting (1:80 to 1:160 ...1977195980
gene expression profiling of monkeypox virus-infected cells reveals novel interfaces for host-virus interactions.monkeypox virus (mpv) is a zoonotic orthopoxvirus and a potential biothreat agent that causes human disease with varying morbidity and mortality. members of the orthopoxvirus genus have been shown to suppress antiviral cell defenses, exploit host cell machinery, and delay infection-induced cell death. however, a comprehensive study of all host genes and virus-targeted host networks during infection is lacking. to better understand viral strategies adopted in manipulating routine host biology on ...201020667104
deletion of the monkeypox inhibitor of complement enzymes locus impacts the adaptive immune response to monkeypox virus in a non human primate model of infection.monkeypox virus (mpxv) is an orthopoxvirus closely related to variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox. human mpxv infection results in a disease that is similar to smallpox, and can also be fatal. two clades of mpxv have been identified, with viruses of the central african clade displaying more pathogenic properties than those within the west african clade. the monkeypox inhibitor of complement enzymes (mopice), which is not expressed by viruses of the west african clade, has been hypothe ...201121752919
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