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morphological characterisitcs of the pathological process in the central nervous system of monkeys infected with variants of measles virus strain l-16.the neurovirulence of l-16 vaccine measles virus strains and its 9 clonal variants was investigated in intracerebrally infected macaca mulatta monkeys. two groups of clones were distinguished: one comprised variants that caused destructive changes of neurons in the brain and diffuse proliferative gliosis, and the second variants that caused changes of a transitory character, connected with the traumatic exposure.197942298
adherence of human peripheral blood lymphocytes to measles-virus infected cells: modulation by solubilized rhesus erythrocyte membranes and carbohydrates.the adherence of human peripheral blood lymphocytes to hela cells persistently infected with measles virus (hela-k11) was studied. the following data were observed. (i) the proportion of hela-k11 cells with adherent human peripheral blood lymphocytes of rhesus monkey erythrocytes was similar over a wide range of ratios of hela-k11 cells to lymphocytes or erythrocytes. (ii) the great majority of human peripheral blood lymphocytes and erythrocytes reacted with the same hela-k11 cell (iii). the adh ...1979572346
the pathology of measles in abyssinian colobus monkeys (colobus guereza): a description of an outbreak.the pathological changes found in four abyssinian colobus monkeys (colobus guereza) dying of measles are described. warthin-finkeldey giant cells were plentiful in the lymphoid tissue and spleen, in the mucosa of the alimentary tract and in the lungs, where they accompanied a non-suppurative pneumonia. in the alimentary tract they were most frequent in the colon when an associated colitis was present. measles virus was recovered from the lung tissue of one animal, the virus being neutralised by ...1975814224
cytolytic, complement-dependent antibodies to measles virus in rhesus monkeys after administration of live or killed virus.infection of rhesus monkeys with measles virus induced specific complement-dependent cytolytic antibodies during the early phase of acute infection. the development of maximal levels of the complement-dependent cytolytic antibodies appears to be dependent on the respiratory rather than the parenteral route of infection and on the use of live rather than killed measles virus. these levels of cytolytic antibodies seem to be independent of levels of simultaneously developing neutralizing and hemagg ...1976819595
use of immune serum globulin (human) to reduce mortality in newly imported rhesus monkeys (macaca mulatta).immune serum globulin (human) (isgh) was administered intramuscularly to approximately 5,600 rhesus monkeys weighing between 1.5 and 3.6 kg. the animals were housed at three separate facilities under differing quarantine conditions. isgh recipients were grossly healthier, suffered less morbidity and fewer developed antibodies against measles (rubeola) virus. mortality among isgh-treated animals was only 20-57% of that in the control animals. no adverse effects were seen from the injection of isg ...1976826631
subacute sclerosing panencephalitis: experimental infection in primates.measles virus isolated from the brain of a 12-year-old boy with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis caused a chronic, progressive encephalitis in experimentally infected rhesus monkeys. the infection was eventually fatal in spite of pre-existing measles immunity and a vigorous secondary antibody response in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of the infected animals. the findings provide a basis for studies into the pathogenesis and possible treatment of the human disease.1977831255
possible influence of measles virus infection of cynomolgus monkeys on the outcome of the neurovirulence test for oral poliovirus vaccine.macaque monkeys are susceptible to measles infection which triggers temporary immuno-depression similar to the well known phenomenon in humans. it is known that feral monkeys become infected with measles virus when they are exposed to humans. since macaca mulatta and m. fascicularis are species used to assay the neurovirulence of oral poliovirus vaccine, the immunodepression caused by measles infection of the test monkeys could significantly alter the results of the neurovirulence test. the seru ...19921319180
comparison of protection from homologous cell-free vs cell-associated siv challenge afforded by inactivated whole siv vaccines.this study attempted to determine if siv vaccines could protect against challenge with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) from an siv infected rhesus monkey. mature macaca mulatta were vaccinated four times with formalin inactivated sivmac32h administered in mdp adjuvant (n = 8) or sivmac32h iscom vaccine (n = 8). controls included animals vaccinated with measles virus in mdp adjuvant (n = 4) or iscom (n = 4) preparations. of each group, half were challenged intravenously (iv) with ten m ...19921433263
comparison of protection afforded by whole virus iscom versus mdp adjuvanted formalin-inactivated siv vaccines from iv cell-free or cell-associated homologous challenge.a siv-iscom and a siv-mdp adjuvanted vaccine were tested for their potential to induce protection from intravenous cell-free or cell-associated homologous siv challenge in rhesus monkeys (macaca mulatta). seven monkeys vaccinated four times over a four-month period with either the siv-iscom or the siv-mdp vaccine were challenged intravenously with approximately 10 mid50 cell-free sivmac251 (32h). they all were protected from developing viremia during a three-month observation period. two other g ...19921466991
diagnosis of measles by fluorescent antibody and culture of nasopharyngeal secretions.an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifa) was evaluated using commercial mouse anti-measles monoclonal antibody and fitc-labeled goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin. for measles isolation, specimens were inoculated into rhesus monkey kidney (rmk) cells and, when available, cv-1 cells. 381 specimens were tested by ifa and 408 specimens were cultured from patients suspected of having measles. for the 381 specimens tested by both methods, ifa and culture were positive for 31%, culture alone for 14%, i ...19911939510
isolation of measles virus in primary rhesus monkey cells from a child with acute interstitial pneumonia who cytologically had giant-cell pneumonia without a rash.the isolation of measles virus in primary rhesus monkey kidney cells (prmk) in patients with documented giant-cell pneumonia who have presented without a rash is limited. the diagnosis usually is made by cytologic examination of nasal or bronchial secretions in which characteristic multinucleated giant cells with intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies are observed. the diagnosis of giant-cell pneumonia has been associated with measles virus but not exclusively. canine distemper, herp ...19902220674
virus-induced immunosuppression: infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and suppression of immunoglobulin synthesis during natural measles virus infection of rhesus monkeys. 19892784472
viral infections of monkeys in their natural habitat in southern india. ii. serological evidence of viral infection. 19664287390
properties of a measles virus neuropathic for rhesus monkeys. 19724629001
cell fusion by canine distemper virus-infected cells.av3 cells (continuous human amnion) infected with the onderstepoort strain of canine distemper virus produced cell fusion within 2 to 5 hr when added to av3 cell monolayers. an apparent requirement for intact, infected cells was demonstrated by showing that (i) frozen-and-thawed infected cells failed to induce fusion, (ii) infected cells frozen in the presence of glycerol retained their ability to induce fusion, (iii) infected cells subjected to swelling in hypotonic buffer and homogenization lo ...19724644630
measles virus-associated endometritis, cervicitis, and abortion in a rhesus monkey. 19734742092
[presence of hemagglutination inhibitors for measles virus in the sera of rhesus monkeys maintained in captivity]. 19654957256
intracerebral inoculation of rhesus monkeys with a strain of measles virus isolated from a case of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.measles virus isolated from the brain of a patient with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis was injected intracerebrally (ic) into 34 rhesus monkeys. groups of these animals were injected with measles antigen in freund's complete adjuvant or treated by schedules used for suppression of the general or cell-mediated immune responsiveness. in another group of animals, experimental allergic encephalitis was induced parallel with measles infection. measles virus was isolated from the brains of monkey ...19715005301
[persistence of the measles antigen in the central nervous system of monkeys infected with clonal variants of the l-16 vaccinal strain of the measles virus].the time of persistence of measles antigen was studied in macaca mulatta and green monkeys inoculated intracerebrally with the vaccine l-16 strain of measles virus and its two genetically homologous variants. two clones differing in their neurovirulence were used. the results of the study showed correlation between the time of the antigen persistence in the central nervous system and the severity of morphological changes.19836845720
spontaneous paramyxoviral encephalitis in nonhuman primates (macaca mulatta and m. nemestrina).two female rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta) and one female pigtailed macaque (m. nemestrina) developed acute neurological signs including ataxia, muscular incoordination, and seizures. light microscopy showed cowdry type a intranuclear inclusion bodies in astrocytes and neurons of the cerebral cortex and purkinje's cells of the cerebellum. many cells also had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. electron microscopy identified paramyxoviral nucleocapsids in the intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inc ...19827072086
the effect of measles vaccination in rhesus monkeys (macaca mulatta).30 rhesus monkeys (macaca mulatta), born into a breeding colony, received measles vaccination when aged between 3 and 26 months; 28 of them were re-vaccinated 5 to 7 months later. measles virus antibody was measured by haemagglutination-inhibition at the time of each vaccination and again 3 to 6 weeks later. only 2 out of 9 animals aged less than 6 months responded to vaccination, whereas 10 out of 14 older animals showed 4-fold or greater rises. re-vaccination of the younger group when aged 8 t ...19827109530
idiotypes and biological activity of murine monoclonal antibodies against the hemagglutinin of measles virus.three hybridomas, designated c2, v17, and b2, were produced from balb/c mice after immunization with measles virus. all three were directed against the virus hemagglutinin (ha). the ha is a structural peptide of the virus and constitutes a major target for the host immune response during measles infection. the monoclonal anti-ha antibodies have biological functions such as (i) measles virus neutralization in vitro, (ii) binding to acutely and persistently infected cells, and (iii) inhibition of ...19817298181
evaluation of tuberculin testing and measles prophylaxis procedures used in rhesus macaque quarantine/conditioning protocols.twenty-three of 103 adult rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta) entering nih holding facilities with no history of measles vaccination or infection, no titer to rubeola virus, a minimum of four negative results of intrapalpebral tuberculosis tests, and negative for herpesvirus simiae and type d retroviruses were selected to evaluate the adequacy of commonly used quarantine/conditioning protocol procedures. one month after sensitization by subcutaneous inoculation with 100 mg of killed mycobacterium t ...19957603012
protection of rhesus macaques from siv infection by immunization with different experimental siv vaccines.the immunogenicity and efficacy of an inactivated whole sivmac (32h) preparation adjuvanted with muramyl dipeptide (siv-mdp) and a gp120-enriched sivmac (32h) iscom preparation (siv-iscom), were compared by immunizing four rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta) four times with siv-mdp and four others in the same way with siv-iscom. two monkeys immunized with whole inactivated measles virus (mv) adjuvanted with mdp (mv-mdp) and two monkeys immunized with mv-iscom served as controls. in the siv-iscom-im ...19947887023
sensitivity of nci-h292 human lung mucoepidermoid cells for respiratory and other human viruses.nci-h292 mucoepidermoid carcinoma cells from human lungs were shown in an earlier report to be a fully adequate substitute for primary rhesus monkey kidney (mk) cells for the isolation and propagation of the human paramyxoviruses. although sensitivity for ortho- and paramyxoviruses was the principal reason for using mk cells, the cells were also sensitive to many other viruses, which constituted another important value of mk cells. that mk cells supported the initial isolation and growth of so m ...19938314992
experimental measles. i. pathogenesis in the normal and the immunized host.an animal model to study measles pathogenesis and the correlates of protective immunity was established using rhesus monkeys. a measles isolate, obtained during an epidemic of measles in the primate colony at the university of california, davis, was passaged through rhesus monkeys and amplified in rhesus mononuclear cells to create a pathogenic virus stock. sequence analysis of the nucleoprotein and hemagglutinin genes of this isolate revealed strong homology with the chicago 89 strain of measle ...19979201218
artificial mutations and natural variations in the cd46 molecules from human and monkey cells define regions important for measles virus binding.cd46 was previously shown to be a primate-specific receptor for the edmonston strain of measles virus. this receptor consists of four short consensus regions (scr1 to scr4) which normally function in complement regulation. measles virus has recently been shown to interact with scr1 and scr2. in this study, receptors on different types of monkey erythrocytes were employed as "natural mutant proteins" to further define the virus binding regions of cd46. erythrocytes from african green monkeys and ...19979223509
experimental measles. ii. infection and immunity in the rhesus macaque.measles infection and the host immune response to measles virus was compared using naive and immunized rhesus monkeys. the monkeys were experimentally challenged with a wild-type strain of measles virus inoculated intranasally. after pathogenic virus challenge, measles virus was detected in mononuclear cells of peripheral blood, lymph node, and spleen in naive monkeys and viremia peaked on day 7. however, only one of five vaccinated monkeys had a lower virus titer in peripheral blood mononuclear ...19979229928
recombinant bacille calmette-guérin expressing the measles virus nucleoprotein protects infant rhesus macaques from measles virus pneumonia.measles virus infection continues to be a major cause of infant mortality. there is a need for a measles vaccine that can be administered at birth in the presence of maternal neutralizing antibody. infant rhesus monkeys were immunized with recombinant bacille calmette-guérin expressing the full-length measles virus nucleoprotein (bcg-n) and subsequently challenged with measles virus. nucleoprotein-specific lymphocyte proliferative responses were detected in the absence of anti-n antibody after v ...19979395353
production of atypical measles in rhesus macaques: evidence for disease mediated by immune complex formation and eosinophils in the presence of fusion-inhibiting antibody.the severe disease atypical measles occurred when individuals immunized with a poorly protective inactivated vaccine contracted measles, and was postulated to be due to a lack of fusion-inhibiting antibodies. here, rhesus macaques immunized with formalin-inactivated measles vaccine developed transient neutralizing and fusion-inhibiting antibodies, but no cytotoxic t-cell response. subsequent infection with measles virus caused an atypical rash and pneumonitis, accompanied by immune complex depos ...199910371500
measles virus infection in rhesus macaques: altered immune responses and comparison of the virulence of six different virus strains.measles remains a major cause of childhood mortality, with questions about virus virulence and pathogenesis still requiring answers. rhesus macaques were infected with 5 different culture-adapted strains of measles virus, including 2 from patients with progressive vaccine-induced disease, and a sixth nonculture-adapted strain, bilthoven. all caused infection detectable by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and induction of antibody. chicago-1 and bilthoven induced viremias detectabl ...199910479117
successful dna immunization against measles: neutralizing antibody against either the hemagglutinin or fusion glycoprotein protects rhesus macaques without evidence of atypical measles.measles remains a principal cause of worldwide mortality, in part because young infants cannot be immunized effectively. development of new vaccines has been hindered by previous experience with a formalin-inactivated vaccine that predisposed to a severe form of disease (atypical measles). here we have developed and tested potential dna vaccines for immunogenicity, efficacy and safety in a rhesus macaque model of measles. dna protected from challenge with wild-type measles virus. protection corr ...200010888926
evaluation of recombinant vaccinia virus--measles vaccines in infant rhesus macaques with preexisting measles antibody.immunization of newborn infants with standard measles vaccines is not effective because of the presence of maternal antibody. in this study, newborn rhesus macaques were immunized with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing measles virus hemagglutinin (h) and fusion (f) proteins, using the replication-competent wr strain of vaccinia virus or the replication-defective mva strain. the infants were boosted at 2 months and then challenged intranasally with measles virus at 5 months of age. some of ...200011022008
a chimeric human-bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 expressing measles virus hemagglutinin is attenuated for replication but is still immunogenic in rhesus monkeys.the chimeric recombinant virus rhpiv3-n(b), a version of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (hpiv3) that is attenuated due to the presence of the bovine piv3 nucleocapsid (n) protein open reading frame (orf) in place of the hpiv3 orf, was modified to encode the measles virus hemagglutinin (ha) inserted as an additional, supernumerary gene between the hpiv3 p and m genes. this recombinant, designated rhpiv3-n(b)ha, replicated like its attenuated rhpiv3-n(b) parent virus in vitro and in the upper an ...200111581420
altered synthesis of interleukin-12 and type 1 and type 2 cytokinesin rhesus macaques during measles and atypical measles.immunosuppression during and after measles results in increased susceptibility to other infections and 1 million deaths annually. the mechanism by which measles virus (mv) induces immune suppression is incompletely understood, but a type 2 skewing of the cytokine response after infection has been documented. in vitro studies suggest that lack of interleukin (il)-12 production by monocytes and dendritic cells plays an early role in the skewed response. in addition, immunization with an inactivate ...200211756976
detection of measles virus rna in whole blood stored on filter paper.the purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of dried blood spots stored on filter paper as a means to provide specimens for virologic surveillance for measles virus (mv) in situations when the reverse cold chain is not available. two single-step rt-pcr assays were evaluated for sensitivity of detection of mv nucleoprotein gene rna. the more sensitive assay was then used to assess the stability of mv rna in dried whole blood stored on filter paper. mv rna was found to be stable in dried blo ...200212116010
comparative efficacy of a canine distemper-measles and a standard measles vaccine for immunization of rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta).measles virus (mv), a highly infective paramyxovirus, has caused sporadic epizootics characterized by high morbidity and increased mortality in nonhuman primates. measles vaccines for human use, although effective, are cost prohibitive for use in primate colonies. we compared the efficacy of one or two doses of vanguard d-m, a canine distemper-measles (cd-m) vaccine, with a single dose of attenuvax, a human measles vaccine. compared with 81% of animals inoculated with attenuvax, all animals inoc ...200212405642
longevity of neutralizing antibody levels in macaques vaccinated with quil a-adjuvanted measles vaccine candidates.quil a-based candidate measles vaccines have been shown to be immunogenic and protective in cotton rats and macaques. here we studied the longevity of protective vn antibody levels induced in macaques with one dose of measles virus (mv) iscom. inactivated mv adjuvanted with iscom-matrix or with purified quillaja saponin qa-22 were also tested. all animals developed high levels of vn antibody and mv-specific ifngamma-producing cells. especially the high vn antibody levels induced by the latter tw ...200212450688
prevalence of antibodies to selected viruses in a long-term closed breeding colony of rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta) in brazil.the rhesus macaque breeding colony of the oswaldo cruz foundation (fiocruz) was established in 1932 from a founding stock of 100 animals. this population has remained closed to new animal introductions for almost 70 years. a serologic survey was performed to determine the prevalence of antibodies to selected viruses as a first approach to identifying viral pathogens endemic in this population. banked serum samples were tested for antibodies to simian immunodeficiency virus (siv), simian t-lympho ...200312619046
role of cd8(+) lymphocytes in control and clearance of measles virus infection of rhesus monkeys.the creation of an improved vaccine for global measles control will require an understanding of the immune mechanisms of measles virus containment. to assess the role of cd8(+) cytotoxic t lymphocytes in measles virus clearance, rhesus monkeys were depleted of cd8(+) lymphocytes by monoclonal anti-cd8 antibody infusion and challenged with wild-type measles virus. the cd8(+) lymphocyte-depleted animals exhibited a more extensive rash, higher viral loads at the peak of virus replication, and a lon ...200312634396
dna vaccination of infants in the presence of maternal antibody: a measles model in the primate.to eradicate measles in developing nations a vaccine capable of being administered at birth may be necessary. we immunized newborn rhesus macaques with naked dna encoding the measles virus hemagglutinin, fusion and nucleoprotein genes. prior to vaccination we passively transferred measles immunoglobulin to mimic maternal antibody. in the presence or absence of measles immunoglobulin, 23 of 25 infant macaques had detectable cell mediated immunity and 16 had protective levels of neutralizing antib ...200312667815
differential effects of priming with dna vaccines encoding the hemagglutinin and/or fusion proteins on cytokine responses after measles virus challenge.measles is associated with a million deaths a year in developing countries because of secondary infections. morbidity is particularly severe in young infants. both measles-induced immune suppression and atypical measles have been associated with a type 2 cytokine bias of the immune response. the role of individual virus proteins in the induction of these cytokine responses is unknown and could be important for the development of new vaccines. we have used a rhesus macaque model and dna vaccines ...200312751038
increased thymic output during acute measles virus infection.measles virus infects thymic epithelia, induces a transient lymphopenia, and impairs cell-mediated immunity, but thymic function during measles has not been well characterized. thirty zambian children hospitalized with measles were studied at entry, hospital discharge, and at 1-month follow-up and compared to 17 healthy children. during hospitalization, percentages of naïve (cd62l+, cd45ra+) cd4+ and cd8+ t lymphocytes decreased (p = 0.01 for both), and activated (hla-dr+, cd25+, or cd69+) cd4+ ...200312829827
studies on the rate of multiplication of measles virus in rhesus monkey kidney cell cultures. 195813605789
prevalence of antibodies to certain viruses in sera of free-living rhesus and of captive monkeys. 196514344958
measles virus infection of rhesus macaques affects neutrophil expression of il-12 and il-10.cytokine production by phagocytic cells is an important component of the immune response to infection with a variety of pathogens. neutrophils are phagocytic cells capable of expressing interleukin (il)-12 and il-10 in response to infection with parasites, fungi, and bacteria. these cytokines are postulated to play important roles in the immune response during measles. neutrophils isolated from naive or measles virus (mv)-infected rhesus macaques expressed il-12 and il-10 following in vitro stim ...200314583151
vaccination of rhesus macaques with a recombinant measles virus expressing interleukin-12 alters humoral and cellular immune responses.lack of a vaccine for infants and immunosuppression after infection are problems associated with measles virus (mv). because interleukin (il)-12 has been used successfully as a vaccine adjuvant and because inhibition of il-12 expression has been associated with immunosuppression during measles, the addition of il-12 may enhance the immune response to mv. to determine the effect of il-12 supplementation, rhesus macaques were vaccinated with a recombinant mv expressing il-12; these macaques had in ...200314624382
limited contribution of humoral immunity to the clearance of measles viremia in rhesus monkeys.the development of an improved vaccine for controlling measles virus (mv) infections in the developing world will require an understanding of the immune mechanisms responsible for the clearance of this virus. to evaluate the role of humoral immunity in the containment of mv, rhesus monkeys were treated at the time of mv challenge with either anti-cd20 monoclonal antibody (mab) infusion, to deplete b lymphocytes, or both anti-cd20 and anti-cd8 mab, to deplete both b lymphocytes and cd8+ effector ...200415295708
detection of t cell memory to measles virus in experimentally infected rhesus macaques by cytokine flow cytometry.a low, average frequency (0.61%) of measles virus (mv)-specific cd4 and cd8+ t cells was detected in rhesus monkeys experimentally infected with or vaccinated against mv. both ifn-gamma and tnf-alpha positive t cells were visualized by flow cytometry. however, the conditions of short-term culture and stimulation to detect mv-specific t cells required significant modifications from a previously established method that reliably detects t cells in rhesus monkeys persistently infected with siv. both ...200516129449
infection of cynomolgus macaques (macaca fascicularis) and rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta) with different wild-type measles viruses.both rhesus and cynomolgus macaques have been used as animal models for measles vaccination and immunopathogenesis studies. a number of studies have suggested that experimental measles virus (mv) infection induces more-characteristic clinical features in rhesus than in cynomolgus monkeys. in the present study, both macaque species were infected with two different wild-type mv strains and clinical, virological and immunological parameters were compared. the viruses used were a genotype c2 virus i ...200717554037
a vectored measles virus induces hepatitis b surface antigen antibodies while protecting macaques against measles virus challenge.hepatitis b virus (hbv) acute and chronic infections remain a major worldwide health problem. towards developing an anti-hbv vaccine with single-dose scheme potential, we engineered infectious measles virus (mv) genomic cdnas with a vaccine strain background and expression vector properties. hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) expression cassettes were inserted into this cdna and three mvs expressing hbsag at different levels generated. all vectored mvs, which secrete hbsag as subviral particles ...200717634218
heterologous prime-boost strategy to immunize very young infants against measles: pre-clinical studies in rhesus macaques.infants in developing countries are at high risk of developing severe clinical measles if they become infected during the "window of vulnerability" (age 4-9 months), when declining maternal antibodies do not protect against wild virus, yet impede successful immunization by attenuated measles vaccine. we developed two sindbis replicon-based dna vaccines expressing measles virus hemagglutinin and fusion protein with the goal of priming young infants to respond safely and effectively to subsequent ...200717971812
genetic changes that affect the virulence of measles virus in a rhesus macaque model.to identify genetic changes that lead to the attenuation of measles virus (mv), a strain of mv that is pathogenic in rhesus macaques was adapted to grow in vero cells, vero/hslam cells and, to simulate the process used to derive live attenuated vaccines, in primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (cef). comparison of the complete genomic sequences of the pathogenic wild-type (davis87-wt) and four cell culture-adapted strains derived from it showed complete conservation of sequence in the vero/hslam-p ...200818155263
clinical measles after measles virus challenge in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected measles virus-vaccinated rhesus monkeys.understanding the impact of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection on the clinical manifestations and kinetics of measles virus (mv) replication in mv-vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals is important for developing successful vaccine strategies for measles eradication. to model the pathogenesis of mv infection in mv-vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals infected with hiv, previously vaccinated and unvaccinated rhesus monkeys infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) were chal ...200718190259
dose-dependent protection against or exacerbation of disease by a polylactide glycolide microparticle-adsorbed, alphavirus-based measles virus dna vaccine in rhesus macaques.measles remains an important cause of vaccine-preventable child mortality. development of a low-cost, heat-stable vaccine for infants under the age of 6 months could improve measles control by facilitating delivery at the time of other vaccines and by closing a window of susceptibility prior to immunization at 9 months of age. dna vaccines hold promise for development, but achieving protective levels of antibody has been difficult and there is an incomplete understanding of protective immunity. ...200818287579
attenuation of v- or c-defective measles viruses: infection control by the inflammatory and interferon responses of rhesus monkeys.patients recruited in virus-based cancer clinical trials and immunocompromised individuals in need of vaccination would profit from viral strains with defined attenuation mechanisms. we generated measles virus (mv) strains defective for the expression of either the v protein, a modulator of the innate immune response, or the c protein, which has multiple functions. the virulence of these strains was compared with that of the parental wild-type mv in a natural host, macaca mulatta. skin rash, vir ...200818385234
use of vaxfectin adjuvant with dna vaccine encoding the measles virus hemagglutinin and fusion proteins protects juvenile and infant rhesus macaques against measles virus.a measles virus vaccine for infants under 6 months of age would help control measles. dna vaccines hold promise, but none has provided full protection from challenge. codon-optimized plasmid dnas encoding the measles virus hemagglutinin and fusion glycoproteins were formulated with the cationic lipid-based adjuvant vaxfectin. in mice, antibody and gamma interferon (ifn-gamma) production were increased by two- to threefold. in macaques, juveniles vaccinated at 0 and 28 days with 500 microg of dna ...200818524884
measles virus blind to its epithelial cell receptor remains virulent in rhesus monkeys but cannot cross the airway epithelium and is not shed.the current model of measles virus (mv) pathogenesis implies that apical infection of airway epithelial cells precedes systemic spread. an alternative model suggests that primarily infected lymphatic cells carry mv to the basolateral surface of epithelial cells, supporting mv shedding into the airway lumen and contagion. this model predicts that a mutant mv, unable to enter cells through the unidentified epithelial cell receptor (epr), would remain virulent but not be shed. to test this model, w ...200818568079
measles virus breaks through epithelial cell barriers to achieve transmission.measles is a highly contagious disease that causes immunosuppression in patients. measles virus infection has been thought to begin in the respiratory epithelium and then spread to lymphoid tissue. in this issue of the jci, leonard et al. provide data to suggest an alternative model of measles virus pathogenesis (see the related article beginning on page 2448). in human primary epithelial cells and rhesus monkeys in vivo, the authors show that initial infection of respiratory epithelium is not n ...200818568081
toxicology study of repeat intracerebral administration of a measles virus derivative producing carcinoembryonic antigen in rhesus macaques in support of a phase i/ii clinical trial for patients with recurrent gliomas.gliomas have a dismal prognosis, with the median survival of patients with the most common histology, glioblastoma multiforme, being only 12-15 months. development of novel therapeutic agents is urgently needed. we have previously demonstrated that oncolytic measles virus strains derived from the edmonston vaccine lineage have significant antitumor activity against gliomas [phuong, l.k., allen, c., peng, k.w., giannini, c., greiner, s., teneyck, c.j., mishra, p.k., macura, s.i., russell, s.j., g ...200818576918
adaptation to cell culture induces functional differences in measles virus proteins.live, attenuated measles virus (mev) vaccine strains were generated by adaptation to cell culture. the genetic basis for the attenuation of the vaccine strains is unknown. we previously reported that adaptation of a pathogenic, wild-type mev to vero cells or primary chicken embryo fibroblasts (cefs) resulted in a loss of pathogenicity in rhesus macaques. the cef-adapted virus (d-cef) contained single amino acid changes in the c and matrix (m) proteins and two substitutions in the shared amino te ...200818954437
protective anti-hepatitis b virus responses in rhesus monkeys primed with a vectored measles virus and boosted with a single dose of hepatitis b surface antigen.the widely used hepatitis b virus (hbv) vaccine is based on three doses of hepatitis b surface antigen (hbsag) protein. we previously showed that vectored measles viruses (mv) expressing hbsag retain measles vaccine function in monkeys but do not induce a protective anti-hbs response in all animals. we show here that a single dose of hbsag protein following a three-dose vaccination regimen with an optimized hbsag-expressing mv elicits protective anti-hbs responses in all four vaccinated rhesus m ...200919535451
measles virus selectively blind to signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (slam; cd150) is attenuated and induces strong adaptive immune responses in rhesus monkeys.the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (slam; cd150) is the immune cell receptor for measles virus (mv). to assess the importance of the slam-mv interactions for virus spread and pathogenesis, we generated a wild-type ic-b mv selectively unable to recognize human slam (slam-blind). this virus differs from the fully virulent wild-type ic-b strain by a single arginine-to-alanine substitution at amino acid 533 of the attachment protein hemagglutinin and infects cells through slam about 40 ti ...201020071568
a chimeric alphavirus replicon particle vaccine expressing the hemagglutinin and fusion proteins protects juvenile and infant rhesus macaques from measles.measles remains a major cause of child mortality, in part due to an inability to vaccinate young infants with the current live attenuated virus vaccine (lav). to explore new approaches to infant vaccination, chimeric venezuelan equine encephalitis/sindbis virus (vee/sin) replicon particles were used to express the hemagglutinin (h) and fusion (f) proteins of measles virus (mv). juvenile rhesus macaques vaccinated intradermally with a single dose of vee/sin expressing h or h and f proteins (vee/s ...201020130066
successful respiratory immunization with dry powder live-attenuated measles virus vaccine in rhesus macaques.measles remains an important cause of childhood mortality worldwide. sustained high vaccination coverage is the key to preventing measles deaths. because measles vaccine is delivered by injection, hurdles to high coverage include the need for trained medical personnel and a cold chain, waste of vaccine in multidose vials and risks associated with needle use and disposal. respiratory vaccine delivery could lower these barriers and facilitate sustained high coverage. we developed a novel single un ...201121282608
priming t-cell responses with recombinant measles vaccine vector in a heterologous prime-boost setting in non-human primates.licensed live attenuated virus vaccines capable of expressing transgenes from other pathogens have the potential to reduce the number of childhood immunizations by eliciting robust immunity to multiple pathogens simultaneously. recombinant attenuated measles virus (rmv) derived from the edmonston zagreb vaccine strain was engineered to express simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) gag protein for the purpose of evaluating the immunogenicity of rmv as a vaccine vector in rhesus macaques. rmv-gag im ...201222732429
evaluation of measles vaccine virus as a vector to deliver respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein or epstein-barr virus glycoprotein gp350.live attenuated recombinant measles vaccine virus (mv) edmonston-zagreb (ez) strain was evaluated as a viral vector to express the ectodomains of fusion protein of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv f) or glycoprotein 350 of epstein-barr virus (ebv gp350) as candidate vaccines for prophylaxis of rsv and ebv. the glycoprotein gene was inserted at the 1(st) or the 3(rd) position of the measles virus genome and the recombinant viruses were generated. insertion of the foreign gene at the 3(rd) positio ...201222383906
vaxfectin adjuvant improves antibody responses of juvenile rhesus macaques to a dna vaccine encoding the measles virus hemagglutinin and fusion proteins.dna vaccines formulated with the cationic lipid-based adjuvant vaxfectin induce protective immunity in macaques after intradermal (i.d.) or intramuscular (i.m.) delivery of 0.5 to 1 mg of codon-optimized dna encoding the hemagglutinin (h) and fusion (f) proteins of measles virus (mev). to characterize the effect of vaxfectin at lower doses of h+f dna, rhesus macaques were vaccinated twice with 20 μg of dna plus vaxfectin i.d., 100 μg of dna plus vaxfectin i.d., 100 μg of dna plus vaxfectin i.m. ...201323552419
poor immune responses of newborn rhesus macaques to measles virus dna vaccines expressing the hemagglutinin and fusion glycoproteins.a vaccine that would protect young infants against measles could facilitate elimination efforts and decrease morbidity and mortality in developing countries. however, immaturity of the immune system is an important obstacle to the development of such a vaccine. in this study, dna vaccines expressing the measles virus (mev) hemagglutinin (h) protein or h and fusion (f) proteins, previously shown to protect juvenile macaques, were used to immunize groups of 4 newborn rhesus macaques. monkeys were ...201323239799
prolonged persistence of measles virus rna is characteristic of primary infection dynamics.measles virus (mev) is the poster child for acute infection followed by lifelong immunity. however, recent work shows the presence of mev rna in multiple sites for up to 3 mo after infection in a proportion of infected children. here, we use experimental infection of rhesus macaques to show that prolonged rna presence is characteristic of primary infection. we found that viral rna persisted in the blood, respiratory tract, or lymph nodes four to five times longer than the infectious virus and th ...201222872860
host and viral traits predict zoonotic spillover from mammals.the majority of human emerging infectious diseases are zoonotic, with viruses that originate in wild mammals of particular concern (for example, hiv, ebola and sars). understanding patterns of viral diversity in wildlife and determinants of successful cross-species transmission, or spillover, are therefore key goals for pandemic surveillance programs. however, few analytical tools exist to identify which host species are likely to harbour the next human virus, or which viruses can cross species ...201728636590
global mammal parasite database version 2.0.illuminating the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of parasites is one of the most pressing issues facing modern science, and is critical for basic science, the global economy, and human health. extremely important to this effort are data on the disease-causing organisms of wild animal hosts (including viruses, bacteria, protozoa, helminths, arthropods, and fungi). here we present an updated version of the global mammal parasite database, a database of the parasites of wild ungulates (artioda ...201728273333
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