natural infection with canine distemper virus in a japanese monkey (macaca fuscata).a case of encephalitis in a japanese monkey (macaca fuscata) was examined histopathologically and serologically. the animal had brain lesions consisting of perivascular cuffs, malacia, inclusion bodies and giant cells. monoclonal antibody to the nucleoprotein of canine distemper virus (cdv) stained the inclusions, and the distribution of the virus antigen was closely associated with that of the histological lesions. serologically, all the 22 monkeys in the same group as the diseased monkey had r ...19892672547
measles in the cynomolgus monkey (macaca fascicularis).the measles virus is known to infect several species of monkeys. a group of 87 cynomolgus monkeys (macaca fascicularis) was screened to observe whether there was an association between measles and the cold symptoms seen in most of the animals. another 23 monkeys were vaccinated with attenuated measles vaccine and their antibody titres monitored to ascertain whether the vaccine would protect them against measles.19892929098
growth of measles virus in epithelial and lymphoid tissues of cynomolgus monkeys. 19863796316
natural infection of cynomolgus monkeys with measles virus. 19734214280
various antibody holding status against viruses in cercopithecus aethiops and macaca irus. i. the presence of neutralizing antibodies to measles virus and polio virus. 19674303327
absence of antibodies against sv5, measles and herpes simplex in indoor colony-bred cynomolgus hundred and eighty-one cynomolgus monkeys born and raised at tsukuba primate center for medical science (tpc) were serologically examined for the presence of antibodies against simian virus 5, measles virus and herpes simplex virus. all of them were virtually free from infections with these viruses, whereas wild-originated breeders kept at tpc were highly positive for these antibodies. these results can be regarded as demonstrating that an indoor breeding system such as tpc's is useful and v ...19816278179
viral replication and development of specific immunity in macaques after infection with different measles virus strains.cynomolgus monkeys (macaca fascicularis) were experimentally infected with a wild type measles virus (mv) strain (mv-bil). following intratracheal inoculation with different infectious doses, the virus could be isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc), lung lavage cells, and pharyngeal cells. the kinetics of the cell-associated viremia was similar in all infected animals. they developed specific serum igm, igg, and neutralizing antibody responses as well as mv-specific t cell-medi ...19948035034
concentrations of c-reactive protein in normal monkeys (macaca irus) and in monkeys inoculated with bordetella bronchiseptica r-5 and measles virus.the concentrations of c-reactive protein (crp) in serum from normal crab-eating monkeys (macaca irus) were measured by means of a monkey-specific turbidimetric immunoassay (tia), and the changes in the serum crp concentrations in crab-eating monkeys inoculated with bordetella bronchiseptica r-5 and measles virus (ichinose or nk 3 strain) were also examined. the crp concentrations in sera from 54 normal crab-eating monkeys ranged from 0 to 8.3 microg/ml (mean 2.2 +/- 1.9). no significant differen ...199910493113
recovery of pathogenic measles virus from cloned cdna.reverse genetics technology so far established for measles virus (mev) is based on the edmonston strain, which was isolated several decades ago, has been passaged in nonlymphoid cell lines, and is no longer pathogenic in monkey models. on the other hand, mevs isolated and passaged in the epstein-barr virus-transformed marmoset b-lymphoblastoid cell line b95a would retain their original pathogenicity (f. kobune et al., j. virol. 64:700-705, 1990). here we have developed mev reverse genetics syste ...200010864679
priming of measles virus-specific humoral- and cellular-immune responses in macaques by dna vaccination.although the currently used live attenuated measles vaccines are safe and effective, they are dependent on cold chain maintenance and are often ineffective in young infants due to interference by maternal antibody. therefore, besides vector-based vaccines, different new generation non-replicating candidate measles vaccines are being considered, including nucleic acid vaccines. we have vaccinated cynomolgus macaques transdermally with dna plasmids encoding measles virus (mv) proteins. following t ...200211972970
immunization of macaques with formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) induces interleukin-13-associated hypersensitivity to subsequent rsv infection.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is a major cause of severe respiratory disease in infants and the elderly. rsv vaccine development has been hampered by results of clinical trials in the 1960s, when formalin-inactivated whole-rsv preparations adjuvated with alum (fi-rsv) were found to predispose infants for enhanced disease following subsequent natural rsv infection. we have reproduced this apparently immunopathological phenomenon in infant cynomolgus macaques and identified immunological and p ...200212388717
detection of measles viral antigen in the lymph nodes of cynomolgus monkeys infected with measles. 196414280998
[development of animal model for understanding of pathogenesis of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis using non-human primates].many animal models using experimental small animals for subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (sspe) had been reported. but these models were not enough for understanding of pathogenesis of sspe. after pathogenic measles virus was isolated with highly susceptible b95a cells, mimic infection of measles in human beings became easily produced in non-human primates. in this article, our attempt to develop sspe model using cynomolgus monkeys will be introduced.200717695292
establishment of specific pathogen-free macaque colonies in tsukuba primate research center of japan for aids research.cynomolgus monkeys have been maintained in indoor facilities as closed colony monkeys in tsukuba primate research center in japan since 1978. several microorganisms, including bacteria, parasites and viruses, were eliminated from the cynomolgus monkeys in this colony of tprc. various kinds of viruses (b virus, measles virus, simian varicella virus, simian immunodeficiency virus, simian t cell leukemia virus, simian d type retrovirus, simian cytomegalovirus, simian epstein-barr virus, and simian ...201020510748
immunogenicity of a recombinant measles-hiv-1 clade b candidate attenuated measles virus is one of the most efficient and safest vaccines available, making it an attractive candidate vector for a hiv/aids vaccine aimed at eliciting cell-mediated immune responses (cmi). here we have characterized the potency of cmi responses generated in mice and non-human primates after intramuscular immunisation with a candidate recombinant measles vaccine carrying an hiv-1 insert encoding clade b gag, rt and nef (mv1-f4). eight mauritian derived, mhc-typed cynomolgus ...201223226275
toxicology, biodistribution and shedding profile of a recombinant measles vaccine vector expressing hiv-1 antigens, in cynomolgus a new human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (hiv-1) vaccine approach, the live-attenuated measles virus (mv) schwarz vaccine strain was genetically engineered to express the f4 antigen (mv1-f4). f4 is a fusion protein comprising hiv-1 antigens p17 and p24, reverse transcriptase and nef. this study assessed the toxicity, biodistribution and shedding profiles of mv1-f4. cynomolgus macaques were intramuscularly immunized one or three times with the highest dose of mv1-f4 intended for clinical use, ...201222983013
measles virus fusion protein- and hemagglutinin-transfected cell lines are a sensitive tool for the detection of specific antibodies by a facs-measured immunofluorescence assay.a facs-measured immunofluorescence assay was developed for the detection of antibodies directed against the hemagglutinin (h) and fusion (f) glycoproteins of measles virus (mv). human melanoma cell lines transfected with either the mv h or f genes, which showed a high surface expression of the respective proteins in their native conformation, were used as target cells. the cells were incubated with diluted plasma samples, and stained subsequently with fitc-conjugated secondary antibodies. the fa ...19989628219
nectin-4-dependent measles virus spread to the cynomolgus monkey tracheal epithelium: role of infected immune cells infiltrating the lamina propria.after the contagion measles virus (mv) crosses the respiratory epithelium within myeloid cells that express the primary receptor signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (slam), it replicates briskly in slam-expressing cells in lymphatic organs. later, the infection spreads to epithelia expressing nectin-4, an adherens junction protein expressed preferentially in the trachea, but how it gets there is not understood. to characterize the mechanisms of spread, we infected groups of 5 or 6 cynomolg ...201323255790
considering human-primate transmission of measles virus through the prism of risk analysis.measles is a respiratory virus that is endemic to humans. human-nonhuman primate (nhp) transmission of the measles virus has been shown to cause significant morbidity and mortality in nhp populations. we investigated serological evidence of exposure to measles virus in two free-ranging populations of macaques at the bukit timah (btnr) and central catchment nature (ccnr) reserves in singapore and the swoyambhu temple in katmandu, nepal. at btnr/ccnr none of the 38 macaques (macaca fascicularis) s ...200616900498
measles virus attenuation associated with transcriptional impediment and a few amino acid changes in the polymerase and accessory proteins.measles virus (mv) isolated in b95a cells, a marmoset b-cell line, retains full pathogenicity for cynomolgus monkeys, while its derivative obtained by adaptation to the growth in vero cells, a monkey kidney cell line, loses the pathogenic potential (f. kobune, h. sakata, and a. sugiura, j. virol. 64:700-705, 1990). here, we show with a pair of strains, a fresh isolate (9301b) in b95a cells and its vero cell-adapted form (9301v), that the in vivo attenuation parallels the decrease of replication ...19989765410
optimization and dose estimation of aerosol delivery to non-human pre-clinical animal studies, the uniformity of dosing across subjects and routes of administration is a crucial requirement. in preparation for a study in which aerosolized live-attenuated measles virus vaccine was administered to cynomolgus monkeys (macaca fascicularis) by inhalation, we assessed the percentage of a nebulized dose inhaled under varying conditions.201626646908
early target cells of measles virus after aerosol infection of non-human primates.measles virus (mv) is highly infectious, and has long been thought to enter the host by infecting epithelial cells of the respiratory tract. however, epithelial cells do not express signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (cd150), which is the high-affinity cellular receptor for wild-type mv strains. we have generated a new recombinant mv strain expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp), based on a wild-type genotype b3 virus isolate from khartoum, sudan (ks). cynomolgus macaques wer ...201121304593
predominant infection of cd150+ lymphocytes and dendritic cells during measles virus infection of macaques.measles virus (mv) is hypothesized to enter the host by infecting epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, followed by viremia mediated by infected monocytes. however, neither of these cell types express signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (cd150), which has been identified as the receptor for wild-type mv. we have infected rhesus and cynomolgus macaques with a recombinant mv strain expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp); thus bringing together the optimal animal model for m ...200718020706
immunization of macaques with formalin-inactivated human metapneumovirus induces hypersensitivity to hmpv infection.human metapneumovirus (hmpv), a member of the family paramyxoviridae, is an important cause of acute respiratory tract disease. in the 1960s, vaccination with formalin-inactivated paramyxovirus preparations--respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and measles virus (mv)--resulted in predisposition for enhanced disease upon natural infection. we have produced a formalin-inactivated hmpv preparation (fi-hmpv), which was used to immunize young cynomolgus macaques. six days after challenge fi-hmpv-primed ...200717996988
infection of cynomolgus macaques (macaca fascicularis) and rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta) with different wild-type measles viruses.both rhesus and cynomolgus macaques have been used as animal models for measles vaccination and immunopathogenesis studies. a number of studies have suggested that experimental measles virus (mv) infection induces more-characteristic clinical features in rhesus than in cynomolgus monkeys. in the present study, both macaque species were infected with two different wild-type mv strains and clinical, virological and immunological parameters were compared. the viruses used were a genotype c2 virus i ...200717554037
immune responses against measles virus in cynomolgus monkeys.measles virus (mv) induces profound suppression of the immune response during and for weeks after acute infection. on the other hand, virus-specific immune responses that mediate viral clearance and confer long-lasting immunity are efficiently generated. to investigate this paradox, we studied the immune responses to mv using a monkey model of acute measles. cynomolgus monkeys were experimentally infected with wild-type mv (mv-hl) and showed marked leukopenia associated with a steady reduction i ...200817512593
aerosol measles vaccination in macaques: preclinical studies of immune responses and safety.the comparative efficacy and safety of measles vaccination via the aerosol route versus subcutaneous injection has not been fully resolved. we vaccinated cynomolgus monkeys (macaca fascicularis) with the live-attenuated edmonston-zagreb measles virus (mv) vaccine and compared different routes of administration in the immunocompetent and the immunocompromised host. immunogenicity and protective efficacy of aerosol vaccination using devices similar to those previously used in humans were comparabl ...200616934375
stringent requirement for the c protein of wild-type measles virus for growth both in vitro and in macaques.the p gene of measles virus (mv) encodes the p protein and three accessory proteins (c, v, and r). however, the role of these accessory proteins in the natural course of mv infection remains unclear. for this study, we generated a recombinant wild-type mv lacking the c protein, called wtmv(c-), by using a reverse genetics system (m. takeda, k. takeuchi, n. miyajima, f. kobune, y. ami, n. nagata, y. suzaki, y. nagai, and m. tashiro, j. virol. 74:6643-6647). when 293 cells expressing the mv recept ...200515919937
[antibodies against measles virus in the monkey macaca irus imported to japan]. 196114495811
nectin-4 interactions govern measles virus virulence in a new model of pathogenesis, the squirrel monkey (saimiri sciureus).in addition to humans, only certain nonhuman primates are naturally susceptible to measles virus (mev) infection. disease severity is species dependent, ranging from mild to moderate for macaques to severe and even lethal for certain new world monkey species. to investigate if squirrel monkeys (saimiri sciureus), which are reported to develop a course of disease similar to humans, may be better suited than macaques for the identification of virulence determinants or the evaluation of therapeutic ...201728331086
in vivo tropism of attenuated and pathogenic measles virus expressing green fluorescent protein in macaques.the global increase in measles vaccination has resulted in a significant reduction of measles mortality. the standard route of administration for the live-attenuated measles virus (mv) vaccine is subcutaneous injection, although alternative needle-free routes, including aerosol delivery, are under investigation. in vitro, attenuated mv has a much wider tropism than clinical isolates, as it can use both cd46 and cd150 as cellular receptors. to compare the in vivo tropism of attenuated and pathoge ...201020181691
development of a semi-quantitative real-time rt-pcr for the detection of measles virus.real-time detection of polymerase chain reactions allows convenient detection and quantification of virus-derived nucleic acids in clinical specimens. we have developed a real-time rt-pcr assay for the detection of measles virus (mv) genomic rna, and compared it to a well-established conventional rt-pcr assay. based on a serial dilution of the live-attenuated mv edmonston zagreb vaccine, the detection limits were approximately 0.1 and 0.02 cell culture infectious dose 50% units (ccid50) per test ...200515780811
wild-type measles virus with the hemagglutinin protein of the edmonston vaccine strain retains wild-type tropism in macaques.a major difference between vaccine and wild-type strains of measles virus (mv) in vitro is the wider cell specificity of vaccine strains, resulting from the receptor usage of the hemagglutinin (h) protein. wild-type h proteins recognize the signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (slam; cd150), which is expressed on certain cells of the immune system, whereas vaccine h proteins recognize cd46, which is ubiquitously expressed on all nucleated human and monkey cells, in addition to slam. to exami ...201222238320
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