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[a study on primary liver cancer in tree shrews induced by human hepatitis b virus and aflatoxin b1].among 41 tree shrews exposed to aflatoxin b1(afb1), 17 were experimental infected by human hepatitis b virus (hhbv) and 24 were uninfected. after 158 weeks, 9 cases (52.94%) of primary liver cancer (plc) were found out of the 17 tree shrews infected by hhbv and only 3 cases (12.5%) developed plc in the 24 uninfected animals. significant difference of plc incidence was seen between the hhbv-infected and uninfected groups (p less than 0.05). moreover, 1/9 of the tree shrews that had been infected ...19892505943
[experimental infection of human hepatitis b virus (hbv) in adult tree shrews]. 19872962750
human hepatitis b virus and hepatocellular carcinoma. i. experimental infection of tree shrews with hepatitis b virus.tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinenesis) can be experimentally infected with human hepatitis b virus (hbv) by inoculation with human serum positive for hbv, the experimental infection rate being 55.21%. successive infections have been passed through five generations among the tree shrews inoculated with hbv-positive sera from the infected animals, the average infection rate being 94.0%. the experimental infection of tree shrews with hbv may be prevented by immunization with hepatitis b vaccine, ...19968609151
human hepatitis b virus and hepatocellular carcinoma. ii. experimental induction of hepatocellular carcinoma in tree shrews exposed to hepatitis b virus and aflatoxin b1.on the basis of the successful establishment of an animal model in tree shrews experimentally infected with human hepatitis b virus (hbv), a study on the hepatocarcinogenic effects of hbv and/or aflatoxin b1 (afb1) was conducted. the results showed that the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc) was significantly higher in the animals both infected with hbv and exposed to afb1 (52.94%) than in those solely infected with hbv (11.11%) or exposed to afb1 (12.50%). no hcc of precancerous lesion ...19968609152
hepatitis b virus infection of tupaia hepatocytes in vitro and in vivo.for the systematic analysis of various clinical and molecular aspects of hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection, an experimental small animal system of hbv infection would be a great advance. the susceptibility to hbv infection, therefore, of hepatocytes from the tree shrew species tupaia belangeri was studied in vitro and in vivo. primary hepatocytes isolated from livers of tupaias can be reproducibly infected with hbv. in vitro infection results in viral dna and rna synthesis in hepatocytes and sec ...19968707245
[clinical and experimental study on treatment of chronic hepatitis b with yanggan aoping mixture].to assess the efficacy of yanggan aoping mixture (ygapm) in treating hepatitis b.19979863082
the expression of insulin-like growth factor ii, hepatitis b virus x antigen and p21 in experimental hepatocarcinogenesis in tree shrews.the purpose of this paper was to study the mechanism of synergistic effect in hepatocarcinogenesis induced by hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection and aflatoxin b1 (afb1) intake. immunohistochemical staining was used in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections of cancer and liver tissues. the incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas (hccs) was 52.9% in experimental tree shrews that received both hbv and afb1. it was significantly higher than that of animals exposed to hbv (11.1%, group b), or (afb1 ...199910374027
synergistic effect of hepatitis b virus and aflatoxin b1 in hepatocarcinogenesis in tree shrews.an animal experiment with tree shrews was performed to detect the synergistic effects of hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection and dietary aflatoxin b1 (afb1) in hepatocarcinogenesis. adult healthy tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinensis) were divided into four groups: group a (hbv + afb1)--animals were infected with human hbv serum at first, then fed afb1 diluted with milk, 150 ug/kg.bw/day, 6 days/week for 105 weeks. group b (hbv)--animals were infected with human hbv as group a, but no afb1 treat ...199910374028
reduction of aflatoxin b(1) adduct biomarkers by oltipraz in the tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis).the risk of liver cancer is greatest in people both infected with hepatitis b virus (hbv) and highly exposed to aflatoxin b(1) (afb(1)). the tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) is a unique species that can be infected with human hbv, is susceptible to afb(1)-induced liver cancer, and shows a synergistic interaction between hbv and afb(1) for liver cancer. in this regard, the tree shrew may be useful for evaluating experimental chemoprevention strategies relevant to high-risk human population ...200010799742
mutations in the p53 tumor suppressor gene in tree shrew hepatocellular carcinoma associated with hepatitis b virus infection and intake of aflatoxin b1.infection with hepadnaviruses and exposure to aflatoxin b1 (afb1) are considered to be major risk factors in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc) in humans. a high rate of p53 mutations at codon 249 has been reported in these tumors. the tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) is a useful animal model for the development of hcc after human hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection or afb1 treatment. therefore, it was of particular interest to determine whether the p53 gene in tree shrew hcc ...200010863098
hepatitis b virus (hbv) virion and covalently closed circular dna formation in primary tupaia hepatocytes and human hepatoma cell lines upon hbv genome transduction with replication-defective adenovirus vectors.hepatitis b virus (hbv), the causative agent of b-type hepatitis in humans, is a hepatotropic dna-containing virus that replicates via reverse transcription. because of its narrow host range, there is as yet no practical small-animal system for hbv infection. the hosts of the few related animal viruses, including woodchuck hepatitis b virus and duck hepatitis b virus, are either difficult to keep or only distantly related to humans. some evidence suggests that tree shrews (tupaias) may be suscep ...200111152483
[alteration of p53 gene during tree shrews' hepatocarcinogenesis].to detect the expression and variation of p53 gene during tree shrews' hepatocarcinogenesis induced by hepatitis b virus (hbv) and aflatoxin b1 (afb1).200312681064
the tree shrews: adjuncts and alternatives to primates as models for biomedical research.the tree shrews are non-rodent, primate-like, small animals. there is increasing interest in using them to establish animal models for medical and biological research. this review focuses on the use of the tree shrews in in vivo studies on viral hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc), myopia, and psychosocial stress. because of the susceptibility of the tree shrews (tupaia belangeri) and their hepatocytes to infection with human hepatitis b virus (hbv) in vivo and in vitro, these animals have ...200312823622
[human hepatitis b virus infection of tree shrews and macaca assamensis in vivo].to examine sensitivity of the tree shrews and macaca assamensis to human hepatitis b virus (hhbv) by serologic methods.200312884835
pre-s1 antigen-dependent infection of tupaia hepatocyte cultures with human hepatitis b virus.the susceptibility of the tree shrew tupaia belangeri to human hepatitis b virus (hbv) has been demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro. in this study, we show that purified hbv infects primary t. belangeri hepatocyte cultures in a very specific manner, as detected by hbv covalently closed circular dna, mrna, hbv e antigen, and hbsag production. a monoclonal antibody (mab), ma18/7, directed against the pre-s1 domain of the large hbs protein, which has been shown to neutralize infectivity of hbv f ...200312915565
[differentially expressed genes in hepatocellular carcinoma of tree shrew induced by different factors].previous studies on differentially expressed genes in hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc) used to perform with para-cancerous tissues as normal control. however, the para-cancerous tissue of hcc is actually abnormal because they frequently contain hepatitis, cirrhosis, hyperplastic nodules or foci, etc. in order to explore the molecular mechanism and the responsible genes for hepatocarcinogenesis, through applying the hcc model of tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis), this study was designed to co ...200314558942
[serial pathologic changes in livers of tree shrews and macaca assamensises infected with human hepatitis b virus].to serially observe the pathologic changes in livers of tree shrews and macaca assamensises infected with hhbv.200315340568
alteration of p53 and p21 during hepatocarcinogenesis in tree shrews.to investigate p53 mutation and p21 expression in hepatocarcinogenesis induced by hepatitis b virus (hbv) and aflatoxin b(1) (afb(1)) in tree shrews, and to reveal the role of these genes in hepatocarcinogenesis.200415534906
chronic infection with hepatitis b viruses and antiviral drug evaluation in upa mice after liver repopulation with tupaia hepatocytes.transplantation of primary human hepatocytes and establishment of hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection in immunodeficient urokinase plasminogen activator (upa) transgenic mice was shown. however, the availability of usable primary human hepatocytes is very limited. therefore, alternative and more accessible sources of hepatocytes permissive for hbv infection are highly desirable. here we investigated the potential of primary hepatocytes from the tree shrew tupaia belangeri that were shown to be sus ...200515629507
hepatitis b virus mutations associated with fulminant hepatitis induce apoptosis in primary tupaia hepatocytes.hepatitis b virus (hbv) core promoter mutations have been implicated in the pathogenesis of fulminant hepatitis b. due to the limited availability of primary human hepatocytes, the functional characterization of hbv mutants has been performed predominantly in transformed cells, which may not represent ideal model systems for studying virus-cell interactions. we and others have shown that primary hepatocytes of the tree shrew tupaia belangeri support hbv infection and replication. in this study, ...200515660384
the tree shrews: useful animal models for the viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma.hepatitis b virus (hbv)-induced hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc) are major diseases worldwide. hbv infection and chemical carcinogens such as aflatoxin b1 are known to be two key factors in the development of hcc. animal models for hepatitis and hcc are very useful in the in vivo studies of mechanism involved in the development and prevention of these diseases and the pre-clinical research of drugs for the treatment of these diseases. now, several animals, such as woodchucks, ground ...200515816489
attachment sites and neutralising epitopes of hepatitis b virus.hepatitis b virus (hbv), the prototype of the family hepadnaviridae is an organ and species-specific human pathogen. although our knowledge about the molecular biology of this highly liver-specific virus has increased, the mechanism of attachment and entry into its host cell, the differentiated hepatocytes is still enigmatic. numerous potential cellular binding sites for the 3 hbv-surface proteins have been described in the past, but none of them have been proven to be a functional receptor. the ...200616554703
candidate genes responsible for human hepatocellular carcinoma identified from differentially expressed genes in hepatocarcinogenesis of the tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinesis).aim: to explore gene expression profiles during hepatocarcinogenesis of the tree shrew, and to find the genes responsible for human hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc). methods: tree shrews were used as an animal model for hcc induction employing aflatoxin b(1) (afb(1)) alone or afb(1) plus hepatitis b virus (hbv) as etiological factors. gene expression profiles from the tissues of hcc, hcc-surrounding liver tissues (para-hcc) and the corresponding biopsies taken from the same animals before hcc had ...200817714471
a novel approach of prophylaxis to hbv recurrence after liver transplantation.liver transplantation (lt) in patients with hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection is associated with a high rate of graft loss and poor survival, unless re-infection can be prevented. human hepatitis b immune globulin (hbig) and nucleoside analogues (na) have long been utilized to prevent re-infection. previously, we generated a human monoclonal antibody (mab), hb that recognizes the surface antigen of hepatitis b virus (hbv). we have constructed a secreted version of hb and cloned its genes into re ...200818945464
[long-term observation of hepatitis b virus (hbv) replication in new-born tree shrews inoculated with hbv].to observe the hepatitis b virus (hbv) replication in the tree shrews that were inoculated with hbv at neonatal period.200919719914
apobec1 and apobec3 cytidine deaminases as restriction factors for hepadnaviral genomes in non-humans in vivo.reverse transcription of the hepadnavirus rna pre-genome means that nascent cdna may be vulnerable to genetic editing by host cell apobec cytidine deaminases that have specificity single-stranded dna as substrate. hepatitis b virus (hbv) is particularly vulnerable to editing by apobec3g (ha3g) in late-stage disease where up to 35% of genomes can be edited. yet, the organization of the a3 locus varies considerably among mammals with a single gene for the mouse and seven genes for old and new worl ...201020546753
[sero-epidemiology of six viruses natural infection in tupaia belangeri chinensis].tupaia (tupaia belangeris chinensis, tree shrew) as a new experiment animal in medicine are non-rodent, small animals and close to primates in evolution. experimental animals infected with viruses will affect the animal's health, interference experiment, and even endanger the operator's safety. therefore, the viral infection in experimental animals has long been considered an important part of quality control. lack of clearer viral natural infection information on the t. belangeris limits its us ...201121341379
[progress on establishment of tree shrew (tupaia) chronic infection with hbv in vivo].hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection is one of the important health problems worldwide, especially in china. feasible and effective animal models of hbv infection in vivo are prerequisite for the hbv-related basic and clinical studies. located in the highly prevalent region of hbv and hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc), the laboratory of guangxi cancer institute has focused on the cause, pathogenesis and chemoprevention of hcc, and has started the work of establishing tree shrew (tupaia) models of hbv ...201121341392
extracellular vesicles including exosomes regulate innate immune responses to hepatitis b virus infection.the innate immune system is essential for controlling viral infection. hepatitis b virus (hbv) persistently infects human hepatocytes and causes hepatocellular carcinoma. however, the innate immune response to hbv infection in vivo remains unclear. using a tree shrew animal model, we showed that hbv infection induced hepatic interferon (ifn)-γ expression during early infection. our in vitro study demonstrated that hepatic nk cells produced ifn-γ in response to hbv only in the presence of hepatic ...201627630638
chronic hepatitis b virus infection and occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinensis).hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection has been believed as a major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (hcc) for a long time, however, the evidences of which are mostly from clinical and epidemiological investigations while there is no evidence from animal experiments. tree shrew (tupaia) is a small animal closely related to primates evolutionarily, with about 8 years of lifespan. our previous study proved that tree shrews can be chronically hbv-infected after being inoculated neonatally with hbv. the ...201525889678
animal models and the molecular biology of hepadnavirus infection.australian antigen, the envelope protein of hepatitis b virus (hbv), was discovered in 1967 as a prevalent serum antigen in hepatitis b patients. early electron microscopy (em) studies showed that this antigen was present in 22-nm particles in patient sera, which were believed to be incomplete virus. complete virus, much less abundant than the 22-nm particles, was finally visualized in 1970. hbv was soon found to infect chimpanzees, gorillas, orangutans, gibbon apes, and, more recently, tree shr ...201525833941
molecular determinants of hepatitis b and d virus entry restriction in mouse sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide.human hepatitis b virus (hbv) and its satellite virus, hepatitis d virus (hdv), primarily infect humans, chimpanzees, or tree shrews (tupaia belangeri). viral infections in other species are known to be mainly restricted at the entry level since viral replication can be achieved in the cells by transfection of the viral genome. sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide (ntcp) is a functional receptor for hbv and hdv, and amino acids 157 to 165 of ntcp are critical for viral entry and likely ...201323678176
novel recombinant hepatitis b virus vectors efficiently deliver protein and rna encoding genes into primary hepatocytes.hepatitis b virus (hbv) has extremely restricted host and hepatocyte tropism. hbv-based vectors could form the basis of novel therapies for chronic hepatitis b and other liver diseases and would also be invaluable for the study of hbv infection. previous attempts at developing hbv-based vectors encountered low yields of recombinant viruses and/or lack of sufficient infectivity/cargo gene expression in primary hepatocytes, which hampered follow-up applications. in this work, we constructed a nove ...201323552416
[factors influencing long-term hepatitis b virus infection of the tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) as an in vivo model of chronic hepatitis b].to determine the methods for establishing an in vivo model of long-term hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection in the chinese tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis).201223207228
experimental chronic hepatitis b infection of neonatal tree shrews (tupaia belangeri chinensis): a model to study molecular causes for susceptibility and disease progression to chronic hepatitis in humans.hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection continues to be an escalating global health problem. feasible and effective animal models for hbv infection are the prerequisite for developing novel therapies for this disease. the tree shrew (tupaia) is a small animal species evolutionary closely related to humans, and thus is permissive to certain human viral pathogens. whether tree shrews could be chronically infected with hbv in vivo has been controversial for decades. most published research has been repor ...201222913805
viral and cellular determinants involved in hepadnaviral entry.hepadnaviridae is a family of hepatotropic dna viruses that is divided into the genera orthohepadnavirus of mammals and avihepadnavirus of birds. all members of this family can cause acute and chronic hepatic infection, which in the case of human hepatitis b virus (hbv) constitutes a major global health problem. although our knowledge about the molecular biology of these highly liver-specific viruses has profoundly increased in the last two decades, the mechanisms of attachment and productive en ...200717206752
inhibitory effect of adefovir and lamivudine on the initiation of hepatitis b virus infection in primary tupaia hepatocytes.adefovir dipivoxil and lamivudine are two safe and efficacious drugs licensed for the treatment of chronic hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection. both drugs inhibit the viral polymerase, resulting in a profound suppression of virus production. blocking the viral polymerase may also affect the initiation of hbv infection, because hbv virions harbor a partially double-stranded genome and productive infection requires completion of viral plus-strand dna synthesis with subsequent formation of covalently ...200314647052
alteration of the p53 gene during tree shrews' hepatocarcinogenesis.to detect the expression and variation of the p53 gene in hepatocarcinogenesis of tree shrews induced by hepatitis b virus (hbv) and aflatoxin b1 (afb1).200314627531
efficient infection of primary tupaia hepatocytes with purified human and woolly monkey hepatitis b virus.the asian tree shrew, tupaia belangeri, has been proposed as a novel animal model for studying hepatitis b virus (hbv) infection. here, we describe a protocol for efficient and reproducible infection of primary tupaia hepatocytes with hbv. we report that human serum interferes with hbv binding to the hepatocytes, thus limiting the maximum multiplicity of infection. purification of hbv virions by gradient sedimentation greatly enhances virus binding and infectivity. covalently closed circular dna ...200111333889
histopathological changes in the liver of tree shrew (tupaia belangeri chinensis) persistently infected with hepatitis b virus.an animal model for hbv that more closely approximates the disease in humans is needed. the tree shrew (tupaia belangeri) is closely related to primates and susceptible to hbv. we previously established that neonatal tree shrews can be persistently infected with hbv in vivo, and here present a six year follow-up histopathological study of these animals.201324220021
[expressions and significance of tlr2 and tlr4 in kupffer cells of tree shrews chronically infected with hepatitis b virus].to investigate the mrna expression levels of toll-like receptors 2 (tlr2) and tlr4 in kupffer cells of tree shrews that were chronically infected with hepatitis b virus (hbv), and the effects of these receptors on the function of kupffer cells.201425001929
tupaia belangeri as an experimental animal model for viral infection.tupaias, or tree shrews, are small mammals that are similar in appearance to squirrels. the morphological and behavioral characteristics of the group have been extensively characterized, and despite previously being classified as primates, recent studies have placed the group in its own family, the tupaiidae. genomic analysis has revealed that the genus tupaia is closer to humans than it is to rodents. in addition, tupaias are susceptible to hepatitis b virus and hepatitis c virus. the only othe ...201425048261
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