loss of lyme disease spirochetes from ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on european determine whether blackbirds (turdus merula), the most abundant and most abundantly tick-infested ecotonal bird of central europe, may contribute to the transmission of the lyme disease spirochete (borrelia burgdorferi), we compared the infectivity to ticks of naturally as well as experimentally infected blackbirds and rodents. european blackbirds experience intense exposure to ixodes ricinus ticks and to the pathogens that they transmit. in nature, subadult i. ricinus ticks found feeding on ...19921740177
ixodes ricinus immatures on birds in a focus of lyme borreliosis.the infestation of birds by immature ixodes ricinus was studied during 6 months in a swiss woodland, where lyme borreliosis is endemic. thirteen passerine species were found to be parasitized by i. ricinus subadults and specially turdus merula, t. philomelos and erithacus rubecula. overall, 300 larvae and 162 nymphs were collected on 95 avian hosts. prevalence of infestation of nymphs on birds was higher in spring; larvae peaked in summer. the infection of birds by borrelia burgdorferi was also ...19938314179
borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection in passerine birds from the mazurian lake region (northeastern poland).the aim of the present study was to evaluate a potential role of different passerine birds species in mazurian lake region (northeast poland) in the spread of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the spirochaete that causes lyme disease. a total number of 1254 birds (representing 42 species) were captured during the 3-year study period. blood samples were collected from birds and analyzed with a nested polymerase chain reaction technique in order to detect fragments of the pathogen dna. positive res ...200414681070
borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato infection in larval ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae) feeding on blackbirds in northwestern italy.birds belonging to 59 species (n = 1,206) were live captured in piemonte, northwestern italy, in 2001. ixodes ricinus (l.) larvae were collected from 59 birds belonging to nine species, and nymphs were recovered on 79 birds belonging to 10 species. eurasian blackbirds, turdus merula l., had significantly higher levels of infestation by ticks than other passerine species. larval i. ricinus of blackbirds peaked in summer, when prevalence was 39% (95% confidence interval 24.2-55.5) and mean number ...200515799526
role of birds in thuringia, germany, in the natural cycle of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the lyme disease spirochaete.three hundred and twenty-two birds belonging to 35 species were live-captured in reifenstein, middle germany, from march to october 2004, to investigate their role as hosts of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and its vector ticks. a total of 141 ixodes ricinus ticks collected from 53 birds belonging to eight species was investigated for the prevalence of b. burgdorferi by a pcr-rflp analysis of the ospa gene. three of these bird species, the blackbird (turdus merula), the song thrush (t. philomel ...200616530003
ticks (ixodidae) from passerine birds in the carpathian region.birds have been found to be a reservoir host of borrelia. in order to assess the situation in slovakia ticks were collected from a total of 3057 mist-netted, ringed and released passerine birds in two locations at 500 m (in 2001) and 1000 m (in 2003) above sea level in the bukovské vrchy hills, part of the carpathian region in the north-east of slovakia. a total of 75 birds of 16 species were infested with subadult ticks of ixodes ricinus species (prevalence of parasitization 5%). sixty-two larv ...200617186172
differential role of passerine birds in distribution of borrelia spirochetes, based on data from ticks collected from birds during the postbreeding migration period in central europe.borrelia spirochetes in bird-feeding ticks were studied in the czech republic. during the postbreeding period (july to september 2005), 1,080 passerine birds infested by 2,240 ixodes ricinus subadult ticks were examined. borrelia garinii was detected in 22.2% of the ticks, borrelia valaisiana was detected in 12.8% of the ticks, borrelia afzelii was detected in 1.6% of the ticks, and borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto was detected in 0.3% of the ticks. after analysis of infections in which the bl ...200919060160
the importance of ixodes arboricola in transmission of rickettsia spp., anaplasma phagocytophilum, and borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the czech republic, central europe.abstract wild birds are known to be a reservoir of infectious disease agents and disseminatory hosts of ticks. the purpose of this work was to obtain information about the occurrence of rickettsial, anaplasmal, and borrelial infections in some ticks that parasitize wild birds in the czech republic. a total of 549 subadult ticks of three species ixodes arboricola (75.0%), ixodes ricinus (23.1%), and haemaphysalis concinna (1.8%) were collected from 20 species of birds (passeriformes). rickettsiae ...201121612531
long-term study of the prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. infection in ticks (ixodes ricinus) feeding on blackbirds (turdus merula) in ne poland.seeking evidence to confirm that blackbirds (turdus merula) may be involved in environmental maintenance of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. (the causative agent of lyme borreliosis), we conducted a long-term study over three separate 2-year periods, together embracing a span of almost 20 years, all in the same area in northeastern poland. we examined a total of 78 blackbirds and collected 623 ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on them. the tick infestation prevalence was found to be very high (89.7 %). amon ...201627631764
patterns of tick infestation and their borrelia burgdorferi s.l. infection in wild birds in portugal.wild birds may act as reservoirs for zoonotic pathogens and may be mechanical carriers of pathogen infected vector ticks through long distances during migration. the aim of this study was to assess tick infestation patterns in birds in portugal and the prevalence of tick infection by borrelia burgdorferi s.l. using pcr techniques. seven tick species were collected from birds including haemaphysalis punctata, hyalomma spp., ixodes acuminatus, ixodes arboricola, ixodes frontalis, ixodes ricinus an ...201526159798
characterization through multilocus sequence analysis of borrelia turdi isolates from portugal.borrelia turdi is a spirochete from the borrelia burgdorferi complex, first reported in japan, that has been increasingly detected in europe. this genospecies is mostly associated with avian hosts and their ornithophilic ticks such as ixodes frontalis. in this study, we isolated b. turdi from five i. frontalis feeding on turdus merula, turdus philomelos, parus major and troglodytes troglodytes, and one ixodes ricinus feeding on a t. merula in portugal. these isolates were genetically characteris ...201626311126
do ticks and borrelia burgdorferi s.l. constitute a burden to birds?ticks consume resources from their hosts shaping their life-history traits and are vectors of many zoonotic pathogens. several studies have focused on the health effects of blood-sucking ectoparasites on avian hosts, but there is limited information on the effects of ticks on adult and sub-adult birds, which may actively avoid ticks and are likely to present low infestation intensities. we evaluated the effects of the presence of feeding ticks and intensity of infestation on health variables of ...201323430359
birds as reservoirs for borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in western europe: circulation of b. turdi and other genospecies in bird-tick cycles in portugal.birds are important in the ecology of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) because they are important hosts for vector tick immature stages and are known reservoirs for some borrelia genospecies. the aim of our study was to assess the role of common passerine bird species as reservoirs for b. burgdorferi s.l. in western europe. we surveyed birds in enzootic areas in portugal, where no information is available for birds as reservoirs for this aetiologic agent and where b. lusitaniae, for which ...201322882497
which forest bird species are the main hosts of the tick, ixodes ricinus, the vector of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, during the breeding season?wild birds are important hosts for vector-borne pathogens, especially those borne by ticks. however, few studies have been conducted on the role of different bird species within a community as hosts of vector-borne pathogens. this study addressed individual and species factors that could explain the burden of ixodes ricinus on forest birds during the reproductive periods of both vectors and hosts. the goal was to identify which bird species contribute the most to the tick population at the commu ...201222732161
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