differential role of passerine birds in distribution of borrelia spirochetes, based on data from ticks collected from birds during the postbreeding migration period in central europe.borrelia spirochetes in bird-feeding ticks were studied in the czech republic. during the postbreeding period (july to september 2005), 1,080 passerine birds infested by 2,240 ixodes ricinus subadult ticks were examined. borrelia garinii was detected in 22.2% of the ticks, borrelia valaisiana was detected in 12.8% of the ticks, borrelia afzelii was detected in 1.6% of the ticks, and borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto was detected in 0.3% of the ticks. after analysis of infections in which the bl ...200919060160
the importance of ixodes arboricola in transmission of rickettsia spp., anaplasma phagocytophilum, and borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the czech republic, central europe.abstract wild birds are known to be a reservoir of infectious disease agents and disseminatory hosts of ticks. the purpose of this work was to obtain information about the occurrence of rickettsial, anaplasmal, and borrelial infections in some ticks that parasitize wild birds in the czech republic. a total of 549 subadult ticks of three species ixodes arboricola (75.0%), ixodes ricinus (23.1%), and haemaphysalis concinna (1.8%) were collected from 20 species of birds (passeriformes). rickettsiae ...201121612531
transmission dynamics of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in a bird tick community.we examined the borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato circulation in a tick community consisting of three species (ixodes ricinus, i. frontalis, i. arboricola) with contrasting ecologies, but sharing two european songbird hosts (parus major and cyanistes caeruleus). parus major had the highest infestation rates, primarily due to larger numbers of i. ricinus, and probably because of their greater low-level foraging. the prevalence of borrelia in feeding ticks did not significantly differ between the tw ...201223279105
tick-borne pathogens in ticks feeding on migratory passerines in western part of estonia.during southward migration in the years 2006-2009, 178 migratory passerines of 24 bird species infested with ticks were captured at bird stations in western estonia. in total, 249 nymphal ticks were removed and analyzed individually for the presence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.), tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev), and anaplasma phagocytophilum. the majority of ticks were collected from acrocephalus (58%), turdus (13%), sylvia (8%), and parus (6%) bird species. tick-borne pathogens ...201323590318
virulence of recurrent infestations with borrelia-infected ticks in a borrelia-amplifying bird.lyme disease cases caused by borrelia burgdorferi s.l. bacteria is increasing steadily in europe, in part due to the expansion of the vector, ixodes ricinus. wild reservoir hosts are typically recurrently infested. understanding the impact of these cumulative parasite exposures on the host's health is, therefore, central to predict the distribution of tick populations and their pathogens. here, we have experimentally investigated the symptoms of disease caused by recurrent infestations in a comm ...201526553505
songbirds as general transmitters but selective amplifiers of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato genotypes in ixodes rinicus ticks.we investigated to what extent a european songbird (parus major) selectively transmits and amplifies borrelia burgdorferi s.l. bacteria. borrelia-naïve birds were recurrently exposed to ixodes ricinus nymphs carrying a community of more than 34 5s-23s genotypes belonging to five genospecies (borrelia garinii, borrelia valaisiana, borrelia afzelii, b. burgdorferi s.s. and borrelia spielmanii). fed ticks were screened for borrelia after moulting. we found evidence for co-feeding transmission of av ...201424118930
patterns of tick infestation and their borrelia burgdorferi s.l. infection in wild birds in portugal.wild birds may act as reservoirs for zoonotic pathogens and may be mechanical carriers of pathogen infected vector ticks through long distances during migration. the aim of this study was to assess tick infestation patterns in birds in portugal and the prevalence of tick infection by borrelia burgdorferi s.l. using pcr techniques. seven tick species were collected from birds including haemaphysalis punctata, hyalomma spp., ixodes acuminatus, ixodes arboricola, ixodes frontalis, ixodes ricinus an ...201526159798
characterization through multilocus sequence analysis of borrelia turdi isolates from portugal.borrelia turdi is a spirochete from the borrelia burgdorferi complex, first reported in japan, that has been increasingly detected in europe. this genospecies is mostly associated with avian hosts and their ornithophilic ticks such as ixodes frontalis. in this study, we isolated b. turdi from five i. frontalis feeding on turdus merula, turdus philomelos, parus major and troglodytes troglodytes, and one ixodes ricinus feeding on a t. merula in portugal. these isolates were genetically characteris ...201626311126
are the specialized bird ticks, ixodes arboricola and i. frontalis, competent vectors for borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato?our study tested whether two european bird-specialized ticks, ixodes arboricola and i. frontalis, can act as vectors in the transmission cycles of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. the ticks have contrasting ecologies but share songbird hosts (such as the great tit, parus major) with the generalist i. ricinus which may therefore act as a bridging vector. in the first phase of the experiment, we obtained borrelia-infected ornithophilic nymphs by exposing larvae to great tits that had previously been expo ...201424237635
ecological factors that determine ixodes ricinus tick burdens in the great tit (parus major), an avian reservoir of borrelia burgdorferi s.l.although bird-tick systems affect the human risk of tick-borne diseases, very little is known about the ecological factors that shape the spatio-temporal variation of tick infestations in terrestrial songbirds. we present a risk model that explains the levels of infestation of ixodes ricinus, the main vector of borrelia burgdorferi s.l., during the breeding season of the great tit (parus major), one of europe's most abundant avian reservoir hosts of b. burgdorferi s.l. tit tick burden were model ...201323597868
birds as reservoirs for borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in western europe: circulation of b. turdi and other genospecies in bird-tick cycles in portugal.birds are important in the ecology of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) because they are important hosts for vector tick immature stages and are known reservoirs for some borrelia genospecies. the aim of our study was to assess the role of common passerine bird species as reservoirs for b. burgdorferi s.l. in western europe. we surveyed birds in enzootic areas in portugal, where no information is available for birds as reservoirs for this aetiologic agent and where b. lusitaniae, for which ...201322882497
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