Publications

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description of an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in domestic ostriches (struthio camelus) in south africa in 2011.in 2011, the commercial ostrich production industry of south africa experienced an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai), subtype h5n2. surveillance using antibody and antigen detection revealed 42 infected farms with a between-farm prevalence in the affected area of 16%. the outbreak was controlled using depopulation of infected farms, resulting in the direct loss of 10% of the country's domestic ostrich population. various factors in the ostrich production system were observed t ...201627237385
serological investigation of highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n2 in ostriches (struthio camelus).an ostrich farm of 929 birds that tested polymerase chain reaction-positive for highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n2 in a single sample was designated for culling, despite no evidence of sero-conversion as assessed by haemagglutination inhibition (hi) tests. a month later and immediately prior to culling, all birds were bled and tested with an idexx avian influenza virus (aiv) nucleoprotein (np)-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and a high sero-prevalence was detected. to addr ...201323607480
evaluation of different serological tests for the detection of antibodies against highly pathogenic avian influenza in experimentally infected ostriches (struthio camelus).in the present study we collected 177 serum samples from ostriches (struthio camelus) infected experimentally with a/ostrich/south africa/middleton/2004 (h5n2) highly pathogenic avian influenza virus. we tested these samples using the haemagglutination inhibition (hi) test, the agar gel immunodiffusion test and three enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. we considered the hi test, with homologous antigen and including pre-treatment of sera with 10% chicken red blood cells, as the gold standard ...201020390531
pathogenicity of a ratite-origin influenza a h5 virus in ostriches (struthio camelus).ostriches were inoculated with a highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) virus of ratite origin, a/emu/texas/39924/93 (h5n2) done clb. the aim of this study was to evaluate the pathogenicity of this isolate for ostriches and to assess the ability of routine virologic and serologic tests to detect infection. avian influenza virus (aiv) was isolated from tracheal swabs from 2 to 12 days postinfection and from cloacal swabs from 3 to 10 days postinfection. aiv was also isolated from a wide range o ...200314575143
assessment of the pathogenicity of an emu-origin influenza a h5 virus in ostriches (struthio camelus).ostriches were inoculated with a laboratory-derived highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) virus of emu origin, a/emu/tx/39924/93 (h5n2) clone c1b. the aim of this study was to evaluate the pathogenicity of this isolate for ostriches and assess the ability of routine virological and serological tests to detect infection. avian influenza virus (aiv) was isolated from cloacal and tracheal swabs from 2 to 12 days post-infection. aiv was also isolated from brain, thymus, eyelid, spleen, ovary/test ...200119184878
isolation of influenza a virus, subtype h5n2, and avian paramyxovirus type 1 from a flock of ostriches in europe.a total of 146 of 506 ostriches (struthio camelus) introduced into a quarantine in denmark died within the first 23 days. the majority of deaths were in young birds up to 10 kg body weight. avian influenza a viruses (aivs) were isolated from 14 pools of organ tissues representing seven groups each of three or four ostriches, which died over the first 3 weeks. the aivs were detected in respiratory tissues, kidneys and intestines. all were subtype h5n2. the intravenous pathogenicity index of each ...199818483960
experimental assessment of the pathogenicity of two avian influenza a h5 viruses in ostrich chicks (struthio camelus) and chickens.virus excretion, immune response, and, for chickens, deaths were recorded in 3-week-old ostriches and chickens inoculated by either the intramuscular or intranasal route with one of two influenza a viruses of subtype h5. one of the viruses, a/turkey/england/50-92/91 (h5n1) (50/92), was highly pathogenic for chickens causing 5/5 deaths by each route of inoculation. the other virus, a/ostrich/denmark-q/72420/96 (h5n2) (72420/96), isolated from ostriches in quarantine in denmark during 1996, was of ...199818484019
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