effects of concurrent infections on growth, development, distribution, and infectivity of adult philophthalmus megalurus and philophthalmus gralli.chickens were infected concurrently with 10 and 20 metacercariae/eye of philophthalmus megalurus and philophthalmus gralli. after 14 and 34 days of growth, the adults were removed and worm lengths, return rates, stage of development, and distribution within the host recorded. in a second experiment, chickens infected on day 1 with 10 metacercariae/eye of p. megalurus were concurrently infected with a similar dose of p. gralli on day 14. at day 34, the worms were removed and evaluated for the sam ...19892918429
the effects of gossypol on spermatogenesis and development of the eyefluke, philophthalmus gralli, and its chicken determine the effects of gossypol, a male antifertility drug, on the eyefluke, p. gralli, this chemical was administered orally to chickens in long-term and short-term regimens. gossypol acetic acid (gaa), fed to juvenile chickens from 1 to 35 days, caused a decreased weight gain when compared to controls on untreated feed. an feso4 supplement to the gaa-fed chickens provided partial protection from the toxic effects of gaa. worms from gaa-fed chickens were significantly larger than controls, ...19873625427
pathology and first report of natural eye infection with the trematode philophthalmus gralli (digenea, philophthalmidae) in tinamus major (tinamiformes, tinamidae), costa rica.the eye-fluke philophthalmus gralli (philophthalmidae looss, 1899) was found in six birds known as great tinamous (tinamus major) reared in a wild animal shelter located in alajuela, costa rica. the birds presented conjunctival hyperemia, blepharitis, anorexia and weakness. some of them suffered from unilateral blindness and ocular loss. after morphometric analysis, the specimens showed characteristics compatible with the digenean trematode p. gralli. the clinical signs of infection were resolve ...201323993998
melanoides tuberculata as intermediate host of philophthalmus gralli in brazil.melanoides tuberculata that naturally harbored trematode larvae were collected at the pampulha dam, belo horizonte (minas gerais, brazil), during malacological surveys conducted from 2006 to 2010. from 7,164 specimens of m. tuberculata collected, 25 (0.35%) were infected by cercariae, which have been morphologically characterized as belonging to the megalurous group, genus philophthalmus. excysted metacercariae were used for successful experimental infection of gallus gallus domesticus, and adul ...201021225216
experimental life cycle of philophthalmus gralli (trematoda: philophthalmidae) in venezuela.descriptions of the miracidium, mother redia, daughter redia, grandaughter redia, cercaria, metacercaria and adult stages of philophthalmus gralli mathis and leger, 1910 recovered from experimental infections are presented. the intermediate host, melanoides tuberculata, was collected from freshwater rivulets in aguasanta and yaguracual, sucre state, venezuela. chicken were orally infected with cercariae and metacercariae, and metacercariae were introduced directly into the eyes by pipette. both ...200212298291
a comparison of texan and hawaiian strains of the avian eyefluke, philophthalmus gralli, with a cautionary note on the importation of exotic animals.philophthalmus gralli (mathis and leger, 1910) was introduced into the san antonio, texas area within the last 25-30 years from an unknown foreign source. strains of p. gralli originally from texas and hawaii were compared for differences in morphology, growth patterns, mating compatibility, and isozyme mobilities. metacercarial cysts of the 2 strains were compared for viability after storage at room temperature. adult stages of the 2 strains were indistinguishable based on sucker ratios, vitell ...19854057005
the effects of crowding on adults of philophthalmus gralli (trematoda) grown in chickens.chickens were infected with six, 10, 30, 50, or 100 metacercariae of philophthalmus gralli per eye and the adults were harvested 9, 14, 21, 35, and 50 days later. the worms recovered were measured and assessed for maturity. significantly more adults from infections of six and 10 metacercariae per eye were recovered than from infections of 100 per eye. when metacercariae were placed in one eye, over one-fourth of the resulting adults were found in the opposite eye. worms recovered from groups of ...19836681840
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