PMID(sorted descending)
immunization with live nonpathogenic h5n3 duck influenza virus protects chickens against highly pathogenic h5n1 virus.development of an effective, broadly-active and safe vaccine for protection of poultry from h5n1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (hpaivs) remains an important practical goal. in this study we used a low pathogenic wild aquatic bird virus isolate а/duck/moscow/4182/2010 (h5n3) (dk/4182) as a live candidate vaccine. we compared this virus with four live 1:7 reassortant anti-h5n1 candidate vaccine viruses with modified hemagglutinin from either a/vietnam/1203/04 (h5n1) or a/kurgan/3/05 (h ...201727640442
evolutionary consequences of a decade of vaccination against subtype h6n2 influenza.the evolutionary dynamics of chicken-origin h6n2 viruses isolated in south africa between 2002 and 2013 were investigated. sub-lineages i and ii continued to co-circulate under vaccination pressure, but sub-lineage i, from which the inactivated vaccine was derived, displayed a markedly higher mutation rate and a three-fold increase in the emergence of potential antigenic sites on the globular head of ha compared to sub-lineage ii. immunological pressure culminated in a critical phenotypic change ...201627619928
evaluation of different chemical adjuvants on an avian influenza h6 dna vaccine in chickens.this study assessed the ability of three adjuvants (aluminium hydroxide, essai (microparticle) and phema (nanoparticle)) to enhance the immune response of chickens to an h6n2 avian influenza dna vaccine. no haemagglutination inhibition antibody was detected following two intramuscular immunizations with the adjuvanted and non-adjuvanted pcag-hak vaccine, which has previously been shown to induce moderate h6 haemagglutinin antibody response in spf chickens. following virus challenge, neither the ...201627314157
[genomic characteristics of 2 strains of influenza a(h9n2)virus isolated from human infection cases in anhui province].to understand genomic characteristics of 2 strains of influenza a(h9n2)virus isolated from human infection cases in anhui province in 2015.201627188368
inactivation of avian influenza viruses on porous and non-porous surfaces is enhanced by elevating absolute humidity.this study was to evaluate the effect of absolute humidity (ah), a combined factor of temperature and relative humidity (rh), on inactivation of avian influenza viruses (aivs) on surfaces. suspensions of the h9n2 or h6n2 aiv were deposited onto carrier surfaces that were either porous (pine wood) or non-porous (stainless steel, synthetic rubber and glass). the inoculated carriers were incubated at 23, 35 or 45°c with 25% or 55% rh for up to 28 days. after incubation, virus was recovered and quan ...201627059695
[testing of apathogenic influenza virus h5n3 as a poultry live vaccine].four h5n2 experimental vaccine strains and the apathogenic wild duck h5n3 influenza virus a/duck/ moscow/4182/2010 (dk/4182) were tested as a live poultry vaccine. experimental strains had the hemagglutinin of the a/vietnam/1203/04 strain lacking the polybasic ha cleavage site or the hemagglutinin from attenuated virus (ku/ at) that was derived from the highly pathogenic influenza virus a/chicken/kurgan/3/2005 (h5n1). the hemagglutinin of the ku-at has the amino acid substitutions asp54/asn and ...201526665435
duck interferon-inducible transmembrane protein 3 mediates restriction of influenza viruses.interferon-inducible transmembrane proteins (ifitms) can restrict the entry of a wide range of viruses. ifitm3 localizes to endosomes and can potently restrict the replication of influenza a viruses (iav) and several other viruses that also enter host cells through the endocytic pathway. here, we investigate whether ifitms are involved in protection in ducks, the natural host of influenza virus. we identify and sequence duck ifitm1, ifitm2, ifitm3, and ifitm5. using quantitative pcr (qpcr), we d ...201526468537
molecular characterization of novel reassortant h6n2 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from poultry in eastern china, in 2014.during the surveillance for avian influenza viruses (aivs) in live poultry markets in eastern china, in 2014, seven h6n2 aivs were isolated from poultry. phylogenetic analysis showed that these strains received their genes from h6, h3, and h9 aivs of poultry in china. these strains were found to demonstrate moderate pathogenicity in mice, and were able to replicate in mice without prior adaptation. considering that novel reassorted h6n2 viruses were isolated from poultry in this study, it is pos ...201526341862
immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the norovirus p particle-m2e chimeric vaccine in chickens.the ectodomain of the influenza matrix protein 2 (m2e) is highly conserved across strains and has been shown to be a promising candidate for universal influenza vaccine in the mouse model. in this study, we tested immune response and protective efficacy of a chimeric norovirus p particle containing the avian m2e protein against challenges with three avian influenza (ai) viruses (h5n2, h6n2, h7n2) in chickens. two-week-old specific pathogen free chickens were vaccinated 3 times with an m2e-p part ...201526232342
phylogenetic and pathogenic analysis of a novel h6n2 avian influenza virus isolated from a green peafowl in a wildlife park.h6 subtype avian influenza virus, which has been circulating among different species, causes considerable concern for both veterinary medicine and public health. we isolated a strain of h6n2 avian influenza virus from healthy green peafowl (pavo muticus) in qinghuangdao wildlife park in hebei province, china, in 2012. a phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolated h6n2 strain had the same gene constellation as southern china strains, which were predominantly isolated from waterfowl distribu ...201425619010
an impedance immunosensor based on low-cost microelectrodes and specific monoclonal antibodies for rapid detection of avian influenza virus h5n1 in chicken swabs.early screening of suspected cases is the key to control the spread of avian influenza (ai) h5n1. in our previous studies, an impedance biosensor with an interdigitated array microelectrode based biochip was developed and validated with pure ai h5 virus, but had limitations in cost and reliability of the biochip, specificity of the antibody against asian in-field h5n1 virus and detection of h5n1 virus in real samples. the purpose of this study is to develop a low-cost impedance immunosensor for ...201525263315
the zoonotic potential of avian influenza viruses isolated from wild waterfowl in zambia.whilst remarkable progress in elucidating the mechanisms governing interspecies transmission and pathogenicity of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (aivs) has been made, similar studies focusing on low-pathogenic aivs isolated from the wild waterfowl reservoir are limited. we previously reported that two aiv strains (subtypes h6n2 and h3n8) isolated from wild waterfowl in zambia harbored some amino acid residues preferentially associated with human influenza virus proteins (so-called hum ...201424862188
potency of an inactivated influenza vaccine prepared from a/duck/hong kong/960/1980 (h6n2) against a challenge with a/duck/vietnam/oie-0033/2012 (h6n2) in mice.h6 influenza viruses are prevalent in domestic and wild birds in eurasian countries and have been isolated from pigs and a human. to prepare for an influenza pandemic, we have established an influenza virus library consisting of more than 1,300 influenza virus strains, including 144 combinations of 16 hemagglutinin and 9 neuraminidase subtypes. h6 viruses in the library were classified into early, group ii, group iii, and w312 sublineages and the north america lineage on the basis of their phylo ...201424824346
effect of the pb2 and m genes on the replication of h6 influenza virus in chickens.h6 subtype influenza viruses are commonly isolated from wild aquatic birds. however, limited information is available regarding h6 influenza virus isolated from chickens. we compared the viral genome segment between a/chicken/hong kong/w312/97 (h6n1), which was able to grow in chicken trachea, and a/duck/shantou/5540/01 (h6n2), which was isolated from wild aquatic duck, to explore the factors for effective replication in chicken. when chickens were inoculated with 7 + 1 reassortants (w312 backgr ...201424696782
epidemiological surveillance of low pathogenic avian influenza virus (lpaiv) from poultry in guangxi province, southern china.low pathogenic avian influenza virus (lpaiv) usually causes mild disease or asymptomatic infection in poultry. however, some lpaiv strains can be transmitted to humans and cause severe infection. genetic rearrangement and recombination of even low pathogenic influenza may generate a novel virus with increased virulence, posing a substantial risk to public health. southern china is regarded as the world "influenza epicenter", due to a rash of outbreaks of influenza in recent years. in this study, ...201324204754
emerging multiple reassortant h5n5 avian influenza viruses in ducks, china, 2008.three highly pathogenic h5n5 avian influenza viruses (hpai), a/duck/guangdong/wy11/2008 (wy11), a/duck/guangdong/wy19/2008 (wy19), and a/duck/guangdong/wy24/2008 (wy24) were isolated from ducks in southern china in april 2008. here, we characterized these viruses by performing sequencing and phylogenetic analyses of their viral genes, assessing their virulence in ducks and mice, and performing cross-protection experiments in chickens. sequence analysis revealed that the ha genes of these h5n5 vi ...201324080350
serological investigation of highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n2 in ostriches (struthio camelus).an ostrich farm of 929 birds that tested polymerase chain reaction-positive for highly pathogenic avian influenza h5n2 in a single sample was designated for culling, despite no evidence of sero-conversion as assessed by haemagglutination inhibition (hi) tests. a month later and immediately prior to culling, all birds were bled and tested with an idexx avian influenza virus (aiv) nucleoprotein (np)-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and a high sero-prevalence was detected. to addr ...201323607480
molecular analysis of the 2011 hpai h5n2 outbreak in ostriches, south africa.the third outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) h5n2 in less than seven years affected ostriches of south africa's western cape during 2011. twenty farms tested pcr positive for the presence of hpai h5n2 between march and november 2011. three hpai h5n2 (ai2114, ai2214, ai2512) and 1 h1n2 (ai2887) viruses were isolated during this period, but h6n2 and h1n2 infections of ostriches were also confirmed by pcr. hpai h5n2 isolate ai2114 produced an intravenous pathogenicity index (ivpi) ...201223402106
surveillance and characterization of avian influenza viruses from migratory water birds in eastern hokkaido, the northern part of japan, 2009-2010.avian influenza virus (aiv) surveillance was conducted around a small pond in obihiro, eastern hokkaido, japan. eleven aivs were isolated from a total of 1,269 fecal samples of migratory wild birds collected during 2009 and 2010. the sample number covered approximately 60 % of the total number of birds observed during sampling periods. the subtypes of the isolates included h3n8 (4 isolates), h5n2 (3), h6n2 (2), h6n1 (1), and h11n2 (1). the h3n8 subtype was most prevalent as in the previous studi ...201223264106
complete genome sequence of a novel reassortant h11n2 avian influenza virus isolated from a live poultry market in eastern china.a/chicken/nanjing/908/2009(h11n2) (ck908) was isolated from a live poultry market in nanjing, china. using pcr and sequencing analysis, we obtained the complete genome sequences of the ck908 virus. the sequence analysis demonstrated that this h11n2 virus was a novel reassortant aiv whose pb1, pb2, pa, ha, np, na, m, and ns genes originated from h9n2, h7n7, h5n2, h11n8, h3n6, h6n2, h1n1, and h5n1, respectively. knowledge regarding the complete genome sequences of the ck908 virus will be useful fo ...201223087108
low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses infect chicken layers by different routes of order to develop better control measures against avian influenza, it is necessary to understand how the virus transmits in poultry. in a previous study in which the infectivity and transmissibility of the pandemic h1n1 influenza virus was examined in different poultry species, we found that no or minimal infection occurred in chicken and turkeys intranasally (in) inoculated with the virus. however, we demonstrated that the virus can infect laying turkey hens by the intracloacal (ic) and intra ...201222856182
complete genomic sequence of a novel natural recombinant h6n2 influenza virus from chickens in guangdong, southern, we reported the complete genome sequence of a novel h6n2 avian influenza virus (aiv) isolated from chicken in guangdong, southern china, in 2011 which was a natural recombinant virus between the h6n2 and h5n1 subtypes. it will help to understand the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of h6n2 influenza virus in southern china.201222733882
low-pathogenic avian influenza viruses in wild house mice.avian influenza viruses are known to productively infect a number of mammal species, several of which are commonly found on or near poultry and gamebird farms. while control of rodent species is often used to limit avian influenza virus transmission within and among outbreak sites, few studies have investigated the potential role of these species in outbreak dynamics.201222720076
[the generation and characteristics of reassortant influenza a virus with h5 hemagglutinin and other genes from the apathogenic virus h6n2].the experimental reassortant vaccine strain vn-gull (h5n2) containing h5 hemagglutinin (ha) with a removed polybasic site in the connecting peptide and other genes from the apathogenic h6n2 virus a/gull/moscow/3100/2006 (gull/m) was obtained using a two-step protocol. at step 1, the reassortant with ha of a/vietnam/1203/04-pr8/ cdc-rg and other genes from cold-adapted a/leningrad/17/47 (vn-len) viruses was generated due to selection with antibody to h2n2 at 26 degrees c. at step 2, the reassorta ...201122359942
in vitro inhibition of influenza virus infection by a crude extract from isatis indigotica root resulting in the prevention of viral attachment.isatis indigotica root (iir) has been widely used as a chinese medicinal herb to treat regular seasonal influenza over the long history of traditional chinese medicinal practice. however, its inhibitory activities against influenza virus infections along with the associated mechanisms have not been investigated comprehensively. in this study, the chemical nature, mode of action and in vitro anti-influenza activities of a crude extract ( ...201122179315
comparative safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of several anti-h5n1 influenza experimental vaccines in a mouse and chicken models (testing of killed and live h5 vaccine).please cite this paper as: gambaryan et al. (2011) comparative safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of several anti-h5n1 influenza experimental vaccines in a mouse and chicken models. parallel testing of killed and live h5 vaccine. influenza and other respiratory viruses doi: 10.1111/j.1750-2659.2011.00291.x. objective  parallel testing of inactivated (split and whole virion) and live vaccine was conducted to compare the immunogenicity and protective efficacy against homologous and heterosubtypi ...201121951678
prevalence of low pathogenicity avian influenza virus during 2005 in two u.s. live bird market systems.oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected from poultry sold in two live bird market (lbm) systems to estimate the prevalence of low pathogenicity avian influenza virus (lpaiv) shedding during the summer and fall of 2005. random sampling was conducted in three lbms in minnesota where 50 birds were sampled twice weekly for 4 wk, and in three lbms in a california marketing system. a stratified systematic sampling method was used to collect samples from southern california lbms, where lpaiv was ...201121793439
a novel chicken lung epithelial cell line: characterization and response to low pathogenicity avian influenza virus.avian influenza virus (aiv) infections of the chicken occur via the respiratory route. unlike ducks which are considered as a natural aiv reservoir, chickens are highly susceptible to aiv infections and do not possess the rig-i pattern recognition receptor involved in triggering the antiviral interferon response. to study the chicken innate immune response to aiv in the respiratory tract, we established an epithelial cell line (clec213) from lung explants of white leghorn chickens. clec213 cells ...201121557972
the use of fta® filter papers for diagnosis of avian influenza virus.avian influenza viruses (aivs) infect a wide range of host species including domestic poultry and wild birds; also, aivs may infect humans in whom some highly pathogenic viruses (hpaiv) may cause acute fatal disease. accurate laboratory diagnosis of aiv infections requires time-consuming and logistically complex precautionary measures for shipment of specimens or viruses to avoid biohazard exposure. the feasibility was investigated of the flinders technology associates filter paper (fta® card) f ...201121419801
strategies for improving the efficacy of a h6 subtype avian influenza dna vaccine in chickens.a low-pathogenicity avian influenza h6n2 virus was used to investigate approaches to improve dna vaccine efficacy. the viral hemagglutinin (ha) gene or its chicken biased ha gene, incorporating a kozak sequence, was cloned into a pcaggs vector to produce the pcag-hak and pcag-optihak constructs. following two intramuscular injections, the seroconversion rate in vaccinated chickens with 10, 100 or 300 µg pcag-hak were 87.5%, 75% and 75%, respectively. the profile of h6 hemagglutination inhibition ...201121333689
potential of low pathogenicity avian influenza viruses of wild bird origin to establish experimental infections in turkeys and chickens.the potential of low pathogenicity (lp) avian influenza virus (aiv) isolates of wild bird origin to establish infection in commercial turkeys and broiler chickens was studied. isolates, representing subtypes h5n1, h7n3, h6n2, and h3n6, were recovered in 2005 and 2006 from waterfowl and shorebirds in the delmarva peninsula region of the east coast of the united states. the lp aiv isolates were not pathogenic for 2-wk-old meat-type turkeys and broiler chickens. no mortality, clinical signs, or gro ...201020945794
biologic characterization of chicken-derived h6n2 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses in chickens and ducks.low pathogenic avian influenza h6n2 viruses were biologically characterized by infecting chickens and ducks in order to compare adaptation of these viruses in these species. we examined the clinical signs, virus shedding, and immune response to infection in 4-wk-old white leghorn chickens and in 2-wk-old pekin ducks. five h6n2 viruses isolated between 2000 and 2004 from chickens in california, and one h6n2 virus isolated from chickens in new york in 1998, were given intrachoanally at a dose of 1 ...201020408410
biological and genetic characterization of a low-pathogenicity avian influenza h6n2 virus originating from a healthy eurasian coot.influenza a virus, a/eurasian coot/western australia/2727/79 (h6n2), from an apparently healthy coot was characterized. this virus was able to grow on mdck cells and produce a cytopathic effect in the absence of exogenous trypsin and was further characterized as a low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus, with an intravenous pathogenicity index of 0.15 and a (321)pqaetrg(328) motif at the cleavage site of the haemagglutinin gene. it infected domestic chickens, resulting in seroconversion and inte ...201020112121
genetic relatedness of h6 subtype avian influenza viruses isolated from wild birds and domestic ducks in korea and their pathogenicity in animals.we report the genetic characterization of h6 avian influenza (ai) viruses isolated from domestic ducks and wild birds in korea between april 2008 and april 2009. a phylogenetic analysis showed that the h6n1 viruses of wild birds and domestic ducks were of the same genotype (k-1) and were similar to the h6n1 virus isolated from a live poultry market in 2003, as six of the eight gene segments of those viruses had a common source. however, the h6n2 viruses of domestic poultry were separated into fo ...201019812266
an evaluation of transmission routes for low pathogenicity avian influenza virus among chickens sold in live bird markets.many theories about the modes of avian influenza virus (aiv) transmission have been proposed, but few have been quantified, and none within a flock or live bird market (lbm) setting where birds are often kept in stacked cages. we describe a novel experimental design and the results collected for the purpose of estimating transmission rates specific to the potential modes of aiv transmission within an lbm. chickens of the strains and ages found in california lbms were inoculated with low pathogen ...200919747706
survival of avian influenza and newcastle disease viruses in compost and at ambient temperatures based on virus isolation and real-time reverse transcriptase four composting experiments, survival of avian influenza (ai) and newcastle disease (nd) viruses was assessed by virus isolation in embryonated chicken eggs (eces) and by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. specimens contained in nylon mesh bags consisted of 20-g samples of chicken manure, used litter, or feed that had been inoculated with allantoic fluid containing an ai virus (h6n2, expt. 1) or an nd vaccine virus (expt. 2). other specimens consisted of 20-g samples o ...200919432000
[the study of the nonpathogenic influenza virus a/gull/moscow/3100/2006 (h6n2) isolated in moscow].the influenza virus a/gull/moscow/3100/2006 (h6n2) was isolated from gull feces within the precincts of moscow in autumn 2006. the nucleotide sequence of the complete genome (genbank, eu152234-eu152241) and genotype (k, g, d, 6b, f, 2d, f, 1e) for this virus were determined. phylogenetic analysis suggests that the h6n2 virus derived by numerous reassortment between viruses that have been circulating among different birds in europe since 1999 and in south-east asia (na gene) for last years. migra ...200919280991
[monitoring influenza a virus and newcastle disease virus in migratory waterfowls in sanjiang natural reserve of heilongjiang province].in order to monitor the present situation of avian influenza virus (aiv) and newcastle disease virus (ndv) in migratory waterfowls effectively, 158 tracheal and cloacal swab samples for wild birds were collected from sanjiang natural reserve during migratory seasons in october 2005, april 2006 and october 2006.200819160826
transmission of low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus of subtype h6n2 from chickens to pekin ducks and japanese quail (coturnix coturnix japonica).in this experiment we evaluated the transmission characteristics of a chicken-adapted low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (lpaiv) of subtype h6n2, from infected chickens to japanese quail and pekin ducks, which are commonly sold in live bird markets located in southern california. the layout of the cages and bird-handling practices were similar to those found in southern california live bird markets. five out of 20 chickens were inoculated with lpaiv h6n2, and placed in direct contact with f ...200919156581
modulation of the immune responses in chickens by low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus h9n2.most low-pathogenicity avian influenza (lpai) viruses cause no or mild disease in avian species. little is known about the mechanisms of host defence and the immune responses of avian influenza-infected birds. this study showed that chicken macrophages are susceptible to infection with lpai h9n2 and h6n2 viruses and that infection led to apoptosis. in h9n2 virus-infected chicken macrophages, toll-like receptor 7 responded to infection and mediated the cytokine responses. whilst pro-inflammatory ...200818420808
use of tetanus toxoid as a differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (diva) strategy for sero-surveillance of avian influenza virus vaccination in poultry.strategies for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals (diva) require improvement for increased surveillance of avian influenza (ai), where vaccination is employed to control disease. we propose a novel diva approach for chickens using tetanus toxoid (tt) as an exogenous marker independent of serotype and relatedness of circulating and vaccine strains. of 1779 chickens tested from australia, hong kong and china, 100% were seronegative for tt-specific antibodies without vaccination. teta ...200717583393
phylogenetic analysis of low-pathogenicity avian influenza h6n2 viruses from chicken outbreaks (2001-2005) suggest that they are reassortants of historic ostrich low-pathogenicity avian influenza h9n2 and h6n8 viruses.low-pathogenicity (lpai) and high-pathogenicity (hpai) avian influenza viruses are periodically isolated from south african ostriches, but during 2002 the first recorded outbreak of lpai (h6n2) in south african chickens occurred on commercial farms in the camperdown area of kwazulu/natal (kzn) province. sequence analysis of all eight genes were performed and phylogenetic analysis was done based on the hemagglutinin and neuraminidasc sequences. results from phylogenetic analyses indicated that th ...200717494567
genome characterisation of the newly discovered avian influenza a h5n7 virus subtype denmark, in 2003, a previously unknown subtype combination of avian influenza a virus, h5n7 (a/mallard/denmark/64650/03), was isolated from a flock of 12,000 mallards. the h5n7 subtype combination might be a reassortant between recent european avian influenza a h5, h7, and a third subtype, possibly an h6. the haemagglutinin and the acidic polymerase genes of the virus were closely related to a low-pathogenic danish h5n2 virus a/duck/denmark/65041/04 (h5n2). the neuraminidase gene and the non- ...200717115305
detection of antibodies in serum and egg yolk following infection of chickens with an h6n2 avian influenza serologic surveillance programs to detect avian influenza viruses (aivs) in table egg-laying chickens have been initiated by several states as a response to the economic threat posed by these viruses. most outbreaks of avian influenza in domestic poultry are caused by mildly pathogenic aivs. in the study reported here, infection by an h6n2 aiv was used as a model of mildly pathogenic aiv infections in egg-type chickens. the total number of eggs laid by 5 control hens was 619 or 0.904 eggs ...200617037610
outbreaks of avian influenza h6n2 viruses in chickens arose by a reassortment of h6n8 and h9n2 ostrich viruses.the first recorded outbreak of avian influenza (ai) in south african chickens (low pathogenicity h6n2) occurred at camperdown, kwazulu/natal province (kzn) in june 2002. to determine the source of the outbreak, we defined the phylogenetic relationships between various h6n2 isolates, and the previously unpublished gene sequences of an h6n8 virus isolated in 1998 from ostriches in the leeu gamka region (a/ostrich/south africa/kk98/98). we demonstrated that two distinct genetic h6n2 lineages (sub-l ...200716927114
molecular epizootiology of recurrent low pathogenic avian influenza by h9n2 subtype virus in korea.the first outbreak of low pathogenic avian influenza (lpai), h9n2 virus subtype, in 1996 prompted an eradication response, but lpai returned to korea in 1999. the relationship between the first and the recurrent viruses is unclear. to determine the molecular epizootiology of recurrent lpai, we performed phylogenetic analysis with partial nucleotide sequences of four gene segments (ha, na, np and pb2) from eight chicken-origin h9n2 viruses. the recurrent h9n2 viruses showed higher nucleotide simi ...200616854644
commercial immunoassay kits for the detection of influenza virus type a: evaluation of their use with poultry.five antigen capture immunoassay test kits, directigen flu a (becton dickinson), quickvue influenza test kit (quidel), flu oia (thermobiostar), zstat flu (zymetx, inc.) and now flu a test (binax) were used to detect avian influenza virus (aiv) in clinical specimens as per manufacturers' protocols. each kit was shown to be specific for aiv propagated in embryonating chicken eggs (ece); other respiratory viruses of poultry tested gave negative results. the directigen flu a kit proved to be 10-fold ...200516404986
[phylogenetic analysis of the surface glycoprotein genes of an aquatic bird origin influenza virus isolate a/duck/yangzhou/233/2002 (h6n2)].several h6 subtype avian a influenza viruses were isolated from aquatic birds in some live bird markets when we surveyed the ecology of the influenza in east china for more than two years and identified by specific rt-pcr. in this paper, the hemagglutinin (ha) and neuraminidase (na) gene of one representative virus named a/duck/yangzhou/233/ 2002 (h6n2) (dk/yz/233/02) had been sequenced. phylogenetic analysis of the h6 gene sequences available in the influenza sequence database showed that the d ...200516245856
the occurrence of avian influenza a subtype h6n2 in commercial layer flocks in southern california (2000-02): clinicopathologic findings.between february 2000 and february 2002, the california animal health and food safety laboratory system diagnosed 26 cases of low-pathogenic h6n2 avian influenza from 12 commercial egg-laying farms. the most common gross and histologic lesions observed in infected chickens were fibrinous yolk peritonitis, salpingitis, oophoritis, and nephritis. edema of the mesentery of the oviduct and pale, swollen kidneys were also observed. mortality in infected flocks ranged from 0.25% to 3%, and egg product ...200314575145
multiple genotypes of nonpathogenic h6n2 influenza viruses isolated from chickens in california.from february 2000 through september 2001, a limited number of h6n2 influenza viruses were isolated from chickens in california. this report describes the genetic characterization of nine of these h6n2 viruses. all of the viruses analyzed had phylogenetically similar hemagglutinin (ha) and neuraminidase molecules that suggested the viruses shared a recent common ancestor. the analysis of the ha sequence of these viruses with all available h6 viruses from different hosts and locations showed that ...200314575084
low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (h6n2) in chickens in california, 2000-02.during 2000, 2001, and january 2002, avian influenza virus was isolated from chickens from 12 different locations in california. all the isolates were typed as h6n2 and determined to be of low pathogenicity for chickens. nine of the isolates came from commercial layer flocks; one from a backyard flock; one from a mixed age flock, where ducks and squabs were also present; and one from a primary broiler breeder. although a drop in egg production and increased mortality were among the disease signs ...200314575080
the quest of influenza a viruses for new hosts.there is increasing evidence that stable lineages of influenza viruses are being established in chickens. h9n2 viruses are established in chickens in eurasia, and there are increasing reports of h3n2, h6n1, and h6n2 influenza viruses in chickens both in asia and north america. surveillance in a live poultry market in nanchang, south central china, reveals that influenza viruses were isolated form 1% of fecal samples taken from healthy poultry over the course of 16 months. the highest isolation r ...200314575076
avian influenza in the western hemisphere including the pacific islands and australia.between 1997 and 2001, there was one report of highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) in the western hemisphere and pacific basin. in 1997, in new south wales, australia, an outbreak caused by avian influenza (ai) virus subtype h7n4 involved both chickens and emus. all other reports of infections in poultry and isolations from wild bird species in the region pertained to low pathogenicity (lp) ai virus. animal health officials in canada reported isolations of subtypes h1, h6, h7, and h10 from ...200314575067
reassortment and interspecies transmission of north american h6n2 influenza viruses.h6n2 influenza viruses were isolated from california chickens in 2000 and 2001. here we report the characterization of these h6n2 viruses, one of the few descriptions of non-h5, non-h7 subtype influenza viruses in this host. the h6n2 viruses were nonpathogenic in experimentally infected chickens and could be divided into three genotypes. all three genotypes of virus had similar surface glycoproteins and all contained an 18 amino acid deletion in the neuraminidase, a characteristic of other chick ...200212033764
observations on the relationship in chickens between the virulence of some avian influenza viruses and their pathogenicity for various organs.comparative histological and immunocytochemical studies were conducted on formalin-fixed tissues from chickens infected with avian influenza viruses of varying virulence. results showed a distinct pattern of disease that depended on the virulence of the virus and the susceptibility of the birds. at 3 days post-intranasal inoculation with a highly virulent h7n7 virus, all 6-to-8-week-old specific-pathogen-free (spf) birds were affected, and all developed pancreatic necrosis and encephalitis assoc ...19958561728
isolation of influenza a viruses from birds in great britain during 1980 and 1981.during 1980 and 1981 influenza a viruses of subtypes h3n2, h3n8, h4n1, h4n6, h6n2, h6n8, h7n7, h11n8 and h11n9 were isolated from birds in great britain, usually as a result of investigations of disease or death. however, all viruses were shown to be of low virulence for chickens in pathogenicity index tests. there was one occurrence of influenza virus infection of turkeys (h6n8) but viruses were frequently obtained from domestic ducks. other viruses were isolated from exotic birds in zoos or bi ...19826815876
isolation of ortho- and paramyxoviruses from wild birds in western australia, and the characterization of novel influenza a part of the world health organization's international programme on the ecology of influenza, cloacal swabs were collected from 3,736 birds belonging to 67 species over a 3-year period in western australia for the isolation of ortho- and paramyxoviruses. a total of 24 influenza a viruses were isolated from various species of ducks, shearwaters , noddies , terns and a coot , and were subtyped as h1n9 , h3n8 , h4n4 , h4n6 , h6n2 , h6n4 , h?n2, h?n6 and h? n9 . the h? haemagglutinins did not reac ...19846430260
characterization of virulent and avirulent a/chicken/pennsylvania/83 influenza a viruses: potential role of defective interfering rnas in april 1983, an influenza virus of low virulence appeared in chickens in pennsylvania. subsequently, in october 1983, the virus became virulent and caused high mortality in poultry. the causative agent has been identified as an influenza virus of the h5n2 serotype. the hemagglutinin is antigenically closely related to tern/south africa/61 (h5n3) and the neuraminidase is similar to that from human h2n2 strains (e.g., a/japan/305/57) and from some avian influenza virus strains (e.g., a/turkey/ma ...19853973976
comparison of hemagglutination-inhibition, agar gel precipitin, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for measuring antibodies against influenza viruses in chickens.individual variations in serological response to avian influenza virus infection were demonstrated after experimental infection of specific-pathogen-free chickens with h6n2 influenza virus. homologous antibodies were detected from the 6th to the 157th day after infection using hemagglutination-inhibition or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and from the 11th to the 157th day by agar gel precipitation test.19872960313
avian cells expressing the murine mx1 protein are resistant to influenza virus infection.the cdna encoding the murine mx1 protein, a mediator of resistance to influenza virus, was inserted into a replication-competent avian retroviral vector in either the sense (referred to as mx+) or the antisense (referred to as mx-) orientation relative to the viral structural genes. both vectors produced virus retaining the mx insert (mx recombinant viruses referred to as mx+ and mx-) following transfection into chicken embryo fibroblasts (cef). mx protein of the appropriate size and nuclear loc ...19911989389
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