cerumen of australian stingless bees (tetragonula carbonaria): gas chromatography-mass spectrometry fingerprints and potential anti-inflammatory properties.cerumen, or propolis, is a mixture of plant resins enriched with bee secretions. in australia, stingless bees are important pollinators that use cerumen for nest construction and possibly for colony's health. while extensive research attests to the therapeutic properties of honeybee (apis mellifera) propolis, the biological and medicinal properties of australian stingless bee cerumen are largely unknown. in this study, the chemical and biological properties of polar extracts of cerumen from tetr ...201121347735
bees at war: interspecific battles and nest usurpation in stingless bees.we provide the first evidence for interspecific warfare in bees, a spectacular natural phenomenon that involves a series of aerial battles and leads to thousands of fatalities from both attacking and defending colonies. molecular analysis of fights at a hive of the australian stingless bee tetragonula carbonaria revealed that the attack was launched by a related species, tetragonula hockingsi, which has only recently extended its habitat into southeastern queensland. following a succession of at ...201425438177
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