seroepidemiological and molecular evidence for the presence of two h3n8 equine influenza viruses in china in may 1993, a severe epidemic of respiratory disease began in horses in inner mongolia and spread throughout horses in china. the disease affected mules and donkeys as well as horses but did not spread to other species, including humans. the severity of the disease raised the question of whether the outbreak might have been caused by the new avian-like influenza viruses detected in horses in china in 1989 or by current variants ofa/equine/miami/1/63 (h3n8) (equine-2) or by a reassortant between ...19957636481
an epizootic of equine influenza in upper egypt in 2000.this study describes an epizootic of respiratory tract disease caused by influenza virus infection in a large population of equines in luxor and aswan, upper egypt, during the winter of 2000. the epizootic started in january and the infection rate reached its peak in february before gradually decreasing until the end of april, 2000. horses, donkeys and mules of all ages and both sexes were affected. free movement of the infected equines and direct contact between the animals at markets facilitat ...200415861887
development of specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays to evaluate the duck immune response after experimental infection with h5n1 and h7n1 low pathogenic avian influenza viruses.the role of wild ducks as vectors of avian influenza viruses (aivs) is well known but the immune response induced by aiv has different patterns according to the species of duck. the local antibody produced on the mucosal surface may play an important role not only in protection but also in limitation of the primary replication at the portal of entry and shedding of the virus. with this aim, specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (elisas) for duck igy, ig light chain, igy (heavy chain), iga, ...201020521711
descriptive epidemiology of equine influenza in india (2008-2009): temporal and spatial trends.equine influenza is a contagious viral disease that affects all members of the family equidae, i.e., horses, donkeys and mules. the authors describe the pattern of equine influenza outbreaks in a number of states of india from july 2008 to june 2009. the disease was first reported in june 2008 in katra (jammu and kashmir) and spread to ten other states within a year. all outbreaks of equine influenza in the various states were confirmed by laboratory investigations (virus isolation and/or serolo ...201021120800
surveillance programme for important equine infectious respiratory pathogens in the usa.the prevalence and epidemiology of important viral (equine influenza virus [eiv], equine herpesvirus type 1 [ehv-1] and ehv-4) and bacterial (streptococcus equi subspecies equi) respiratory pathogens shed by horses presented to equine veterinarians with upper respiratory tract signs and/or acute febrile neurological disease were studied. veterinarians from throughout the usa were enrolled in a surveillance programme and were asked to collect blood and nasal secretions from equine cases with acut ...201121676986
immune responses and protection against h5n1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus induced by the newcastle disease virus h5 vaccine in ducks.ducks play an important role in the epidemiology of avian influenza, and there is a need for new avian influenza vaccines that are suitable for mass vaccination in ducks. the immune responses as well as highly pathogenic avian influenza (hpai) h5n1 protection induced by a newcastle disease virus (ndv) vector expressing an h5n1 hemagglutinin (rndv-h5) were investigated in mule ducks, a hybrid between muscovy (cairina moschata domesticus) males and pekin (anas platyrhynchos domesticus) females. im ...201223402116
investigation of equine influenza virus in two geographical regions of pakistan.the present study was an attempt to elucidate the seroprevalence of equine influenza virus (h3n8) in two geographically distinct regions of pakistan where vaccination is not routinely practiced.201322923059
voluntary surveillance program for equine influenza virus in the united states from 2010 to 2013.recent surveillance studies for equine respiratory viruses have shown that equine influenza virus (eiv) continues to be a prevalent respiratory virus of equids throughout the united states and europe.201525586234
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