homologous and cross-reactive precipitins in anti-pneumococcal sera raised in mules.serial bleedings were obtained from two mules during prolonged immunization, one with type xxv the other with type viii pneumococcal vaccine. igga, iggb, iggc, igb, igg(t) and igm present among purified pn anti-xxv and pn anti-viii immunoglobulin isolated from various bleedings were identified by use of rabbit anti-equine heavy chain specific reagents. radioimmunodiffusion with 14c-labelled type xxv pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide and horse and donkey reagents with species specificity direc ...197828285
acute phase protein response of ewes and the release of pgfm in relation to uterine involution and the presence of intrauterine bacteria.the rate of uterine involution postpartum was monitored in 13 suckling mule ewes by using radio-opaque markers and radiography, and each ewe was also monitored for intrauterine bacterial contamination during the first week, using a sterile guarded swab. peripheral plasma or serum concentrations of haptoglobin, seromucoid, ceruloplasmin and 15-keto-13,14-dihydro-prostaglandin f2 alpha (pgfm) were measured up to six weeks postpartum. the maximum reduction in the length of the uterine body and in t ...199910358889
bacteria and nematodes in the conjunctiva of mule deer from wyoming and utah.swabs of conjunctiva were collected from 44 live and 226 hunter-harvested mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) from wyoming and utah (usa). we identified 29 gram negative and 22 gram positive bacterial taxonomic categories, but many isolates from hunter-harvested animals were environmental contaminants. staphylococcus spp. and micrococcus spp. were the most common gram positive bacteria isolated, and enterobacter spp., escherichia coli, and pseudomonas spp. were common gram negative bacteria isolated ...200011085445
an analysis of human pathogens found in horse/mule manure along the john muir trail in kings canyon and sequoia and yosemite national determine the prevalence of microorganisms that are potentially pathogenic for humans in horse/mule manure along the john muir trail (jmt).200212092962
evaluation of repetitive extragenic palindromic-pcr for discrimination of fecal escherichia coli from humans, and different domestic- and wild-animals.the objective of this study was to investigate the potential of repetitive extragenic palindromic anchored polymerase chain reaction (rep-pcr) in differentiating fecal escherichia coli isolates of human, domestic- and wild-animal origin that might be used as a molecular tool to identify the possible source(s) of fecal pollution of source water. a total of 625 fecal e. coli isolates of human, 3 domestic- (cow, dog and horse) and 7 wild-animal (black bear, coyote, elk, marmot, mule deer, raccoon a ...200717704635
development, evaluation, and laboratory validation of immunoassays for the diagnosis of equine infectious anemia (eia) using recombinant protein produced from a synthetic p26 gene of eia virus.equine infectious anemia (eia)-a retroviral disease caused by equine infectious anemia virus (eiav)-is a chronic, debilitating disease of horses, mules, and donkeys. eiav infection has been reported worldwide and is recognized as pathogen of significant economic importance to the horse industry. this disease falls under regulatory control program in many countries including india. control of eia is based on identification of inapparent carriers by detection of antibodies to eiav in serologic tes ...201324426297
wild ungulates as disseminators of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli in urban 2008, children playing on a soccer field in colorado were sickened with a strain of shiga toxin-producing escherichia coli (stec) o157:h7, which was ultimately linked to feces from wild rocky mountain elk. we addressed whether wild cervids were a potential source of stec infections in humans and whether stec was ubiquitous throughout wild cervid populations in colorado.201324349083
identification of a new diagnostic antigen for glanders using immunoproteome analysis.glanders is a disease of horses, donkeys and mules. the causative agent burkholderia mallei, is a biorisk group 3 pathogen and is also a biothreat agent. simple and rapid diagnostic tool is essential for control of glanders. using a proteomic approach and immunoblotting with equine sera, we identified 12 protein antigens that may have diagnostic potential. various immunoreactive proteins e.g. groel, translation elongation factor tu, elongation factor ts, arginine deiminase, malate dehydrogenase, ...201728750864
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