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mass mortality in seals caused by a newly discovered morbillivirus.during a recent disease outbreak among harbour seals (phoca vitulina) in the north and baltic seas, more than 17,000 animals have died. the clinical symptoms and pathological findings were similar to those of distemper in dogs. based on a seroepizootiological study, using a canine distemper virus (cdv) neutralization assay, it was shown that cdv or a closely related morbillivirus (phocid distemper virus-pdv) was the primary cause of the disease. the virus was isolated in cell culture from the or ...19902205971
morbilliviruses and morbillivirus diseases of marine mammals.in recent years, serious disease outbreaks among seals and dolphins were attributed to infection with established or newly recognized morbilliviruses. the first identification of a morbillivirus as causative agent of mass mortality among marine mammals was in 1988, when the previously unrecognized phocine distemper virus (pdv) caused the death of 20,000 harbor seals (phoca vitulina) in northwestern europe. a similar epizootic among baikal seals (phoca sibirica) in siberia in 1987 was later attri ...19958548190
round table on morbilliviruses in marine mammals.since 1988 morbilliviruses have been increasingly recognized and held responsible for mass mortality amongst harbour seals (phoca vitulina) and other seal species. virus isolations and characterization proved that morbilliviruses from seals in northwest europe were genetically distinct from other known members of this group including canine distemper virus (cdv), rinderpest virus, peste des petits ruminants virus and measles virus. an epidemic in baikal seals in 1987 was apparently caused by a m ...19921481361
fusion protein gene nucleotide sequence similarities, shared antigenic sites and phylogenetic analysis suggest that phocid distemper virus type 2 and canine distemper virus belong to the same virus entity.nucleotide sequencing of the fusion protein (f) gene of phocid distemper virus-2 (pdv-2), recently isolated from baikal seals (phoca sibirica), revealed an open reading frame (nucleotides 84 to 2075) with two potential in-frame atg translation initiation codons. we suggest that the second in-frame atg triplet at positions 264 to 266 initiates the translation, resulting in a protein of 537 amino acid residues with a calculated m(r) of 63,035. the putative f1/f2 cleavage site, located approximatel ...19938376973
comparison of two morbilliviruses isolated from seals during outbreaks of distemper in north west europe and siberia.recently morbilliviruses were isolated from harbour seals (phoca vitulina) in north west europe (phocid distemper virus-1: pdv-1) and from baikal seals (phoca sibirica) in siberia (phocid distemper virus-2: pdv-2) during outbreaks of severe disease which resembled distemper in dogs. pdv-1 and pdv-2 were passaged in spf dogs, in which they caused distemper-like disease symptoms, and were subsequently passaged in vero cells in which they caused cytopathic changes. pdv-1, pdv-2, and canine distempe ...19902141248
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