identification and real-time pcr quantification of phocine distemper virus from two colonies of scottish grey seals in 2002.the north sea european harbour seal (phoca vitulina) population has endured two phocine distemper virus (pdv) epidemics in 1988 and 2002. the grey seal (halichoerus grypus) is a sympatric seal species that shows little or no mortality from pdv. two scottish grey seal breeding colonies were sampled for evidence of pdv infection approximately 2 months after the peak of the 2002 epidemic. in both colonies, a proportion of mothers (13/109) and pups (6/84) tested positive for pdv in their leukocytes. ...200516099915
the 1988 and 2002 phocine distemper virus epidemics in european harbour seals.we present new and revised data for the phocine distemper virus (pdv) epidemics that resulted in the deaths of more than 23 000 harbour seals phoca vitulina in 1988 and 30,000 in 2002. on both occasions the epidemics started at the danish island of anholt in central kattegat, and subsequently spread to adjacent colonies in a stepwise fashion. however, this pattern was not maintained throughout the epidemics and new centres of infection appeared far from infected populations on some occasions: in ...200616532603
in search of virus carriers of the 1988 and 2002 phocine distemper virus outbreaks in european harbour seals.european harbour seal (phoca vitulina) populations decreased substantially during the phocine distemper virus (pdv) outbreaks of 1988 and 2002. different hypotheses have stated that various seals and terrestrial carnivore species might be the source of infection. to further analyse these hypotheses, grey (halichoerus grypus) and ringed (phoca hispida) seals, polar bears (ursus maritimus) and minks (mustela lutreola) were sampled from the north sea and east greenland coasts between 1988 and 2004 ...200817896075
neurological signs in juvenile harbour seals (phoca vitulina) with fatal phocine 2002, the northern european harbour seal (phoca vitulina) population experienced an epidemic of phocine distemper virus (pdv) in which 22,000 seals died. clinical signs were recorded in 20 harbour seal pups admitted to the seal rehabilitation and research centre with clinical disease, and they were diagnosed pdv infection-positive by rt-pcr postmortem. all 20 had respiratory signs, 14 had conjunctivitis and 10 had neurological signs. severe neurological signs were one of the criteria for euth ...200919287028
variation in european harbour seal immune response genes and susceptibility to phocine distemper virus (pdv).phocine distemper virus (pdv) has caused two mass mortalities of european harbour seals (phoca vitulina) in recent decades. levels of mortality varied considerably among european populations in both the 1988 and 2002 epidemics, with higher mortality in continental european populations in comparison to uk populations. high levels of genetic differentiation at neutral makers among seal populations allow for the possibility that there could be potential genetic differences at functional loci that m ...201121712101
age- and sex-specific mortality patterns in an emerging wildlife epidemic: the phocine distemper in european harbour seals.analyses of the dynamics of diseases in wild populations typically assume all individuals to be identical. however, profound effects on the long-term impact on the host population can be expected if the disease has age and sex dependent dynamics. the phocine distemper virus (pdv) caused two mass mortalities in european harbour seals in 1988 and in 2002. we show the mortality patterns were highly age specific on both occasions, where young of the year and adult (>4 yrs) animals suffered extremely ...200717849016
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