isolation and characterization of dromedary camel coronavirus uae-hku23 from dromedaries of the middle east: minimal serological cross-reactivity between mers coronavirus and dromedary camel coronavirus uae-hku23.recently, we reported the discovery of a dromedary camel coronavirus uae-hku23 (dccov uae-hku23) from dromedaries in the middle east. in this study, dccov uae-hku23 was successfully isolated in two of the 14 dromedary fecal samples using hrt-18g cells, with cytopathic effects observed five days after inoculation. northern blot analysis revealed at least seven distinct rna species, corresponding to predicted subgenomic mrnas and confirming the core sequence of transcription regulatory sequence mo ...201627164099
evidence for an ancestral association of human coronavirus 229e with bats.we previously showed that close relatives of human coronavirus 229e (hcov-229e) exist in african bats. the small sample and limited genomic characterizations have prevented further analyses so far. here, we tested 2,087 fecal specimens from 11 bat species sampled in ghana for hcov-229e-related viruses by reverse transcription-pcr (rt-pcr). only hipposiderid bats tested positive. to compare the genetic diversity of bat viruses and hcov-229e, we tested historical isolates and diagnostic specimens ...201526378164
middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov) origin and animal reservoir.middle east respiratory syndrome-coronavirus (mers-cov) is a novel coronavirus discovered in 2012 and is responsible for acute respiratory syndrome in humans. though not confirmed yet, multiple surveillance and phylogenetic studies suggest a bat origin. the disease is heavily endemic in dromedary camel populations of east africa and the middle east. it is unclear as to when the virus was introduced to dromedary camels, but data from studies that investigated stored dromedary camel sera and geogr ...201627255185
mers-cov infection of alpaca in a region where mers-cov is endemic. 201627070501
infection, replication, and transmission of middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus in alpacas.middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus is a recently emerged pathogen associated with severe human disease. zoonotic spillover from camels appears to play a major role in transmission. because of logistic difficulties in working with dromedaries in containment, a more manageable animal model would be desirable. we report shedding and transmission of this virus in experimentally infected alpacas (n = 3) or those infected by contact (n = 3). infectious virus was detected in all infected anim ...201627070385
middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus experimental transmission using a pig model.dromedary camels are the main reservoir of middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov), but other livestock species (i.e., alpacas, llamas, and pigs) are also susceptible to infection with mers-cov. animal-to-animal transmission in alpacas was reported, but evidence for transmission in other species has not been proved. this study explored pig-to-pig mers-cov transmission experimentally. virus was present in nasal swabs of infected animals, and limited amounts of viral rna, but no in ...201728653496
experimental infection and response to rechallenge of alpacas with middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus.we conducted a challenge/rechallenge trial in which 3 alpacas were infected with middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus. the alpacas shed virus at challenge but were refractory to further shedding at rechallenge on day 21. the trial indicates that alpacas may be suitable models for infection and shedding dynamics of this virus.201627070733
efficacy of an adjuvanted middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus spike protein vaccine in dromedary camels and alpacas.mers-cov is present in dromedary camels throughout the middle east and africa. dromedary camels are the primary zoonotic reservoir for human infections. interruption of the zoonotic transmission chain from camels to humans, therefore, may be an effective strategy to control the ongoing mers-cov outbreak. here we show that vaccination with an adjuvanted mers-cov spike protein subunit vaccine confers complete protection from mers-cov disease in alpaca and results in reduced and delayed viral shedd ...201930832356
bactrian camels shed large quantities of middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov) after experimental 2012, middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov) emerged. to date, more than 2300 cases have been reported, with an approximate case fatality rate of 35%. epidemiological investigations identified dromedary camels as the source of mers-cov zoonotic transmission and evidence of mers-cov circulation has been observed throughout the original range of distribution. other new-world camelids, alpacas and llamas, are also susceptible to mers-cov infection. currently, it is unknown wheth ...201931119984
middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus specific antibodies in naturally exposed israeli llamas, alpacas and camels.thus far, no human mers-cov infections have been reported from israel. evidence for the circulation of mers-cov in dromedaries has been reported from almost all the countries of the middle east, except israel. therefore, we aimed to analyze mers-cov infection in israeli camelids, sampled between 2012 and 2017. a total of 411 camels, 102 alpacas and 19 llamas' sera were tested for the presence of antibodies to mers-cov. our findings indicate a lower mers-cov seropositivity among israeli dromedari ...201829911167
detection of mers-cov antigen on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded nasal tissue of alpacas by immunohistochemistry using human monoclonal antibodies directed against different epitopes of the spike protein.middle east respiratory syndrome (mers) represents an important respiratory disease accompanied by lethal outcome in one third of human patients. in recent years, several investigators developed protective antibodies which could be used as prophylaxis in prospective human epidemics. in the current study, eight human monoclonal antibodies (mabs) with neutralizing and non-neutralizing capabilities, directed against different epitopes of the mers-coronavirus (mers-cov) spike (mers-s) protein, were ...201931526954
[construction and identification of nanobody phage display library targeting middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus].objective to construct a phage display library of specific nano-antibodies against the middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (mers-cov) and apply it to the screening of neutralizing nano-antibodies. methods mers-cov receptor-binding domain (rbd) recombinant protein was used to immunize alpaca. after the last immunization, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs) were isolated from the whole blood and total rna was extracted. the vhh gene was amplified by pcr and used to construct recomb ...201729382428
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