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myristoylation of budgerigar fledgling disease virus capsid protein vp2.we present evidence that the structural protein vp2 of budgerigar fledgling disease virus, an avian polyomavirus, is specifically modified by covalent attachment of myristic acid. the fatty acid linkage is insensitive to hydroxylamine treatment and thus represents the amide type of fatty acylation of proteins.19892535744
the genome of budgerigar fledgling disease virus, an avian polyomavirus.budgerigar fledgling disease virus (bfdv) represents the first avian member of the polyomavirus family. in contrast to mammalian polyomaviruses bfdv exhibits unique biological properties, in particular it is able to cause an acute disease with distinct organ manifestations in affected birds. here we present the complete nucleotide sequence of the bfdv genome, consisting of 4980 bp. when compared to published nucleotide sequences of other polyomaviruses, the bfdv genome exposes a number of very s ...19882838972
cloning and characterization of budgerigar fledgling disease virus, an avian polyomavirus.the dna of a virus isolated from fledgling budgerigars, designated bfdv, was cloned and analyzed with regard to its relationship to the polyomavirus subgroup of the papovavirus family. under relaxed conditions, the dna of bfdv cross-hybridized with the dnas of members of the polyomavirus subgroup, such as the mouse polyomavirus, the monkey viruses simian virus 40, stump-tailed macaque virus, and lymphotropic papovavirus, and the human viruses jcv and bkv. under stringent conditions, however, no ...19863010557
characterization of a calcium binding domain in the vp1 protein of the avian polyomavirus, budgerigar fledgling disease virus.calcium ions appear to play a major role in maintaining the structural integrity and assembly of papovavirus virions and are likely involved in the process of viral uncoating. recently it was reported that the purified recombinant vp1 protein of budgerigar fledgling disease virus (bfdv) was capable of assembling into capsid-like particles in the presence of calcium. it is now reported that the major capsid protein vp1 of bfdv binds calcium ions in an in vitro calcium binding assay. two deletions ...19968879141
infection with the avian polyomavirus, bfdv, selectively affects myofibril structure in embryonic chick ventricle cardiomyocytes.embryonic cardiomyocytes can both beat and divide. they assemble cardiac muscle-specific proteins into sarcomeric myofibrils and contract. in addition, they periodically synthesize dna, complete mitosis, disassemble sarcomeric myofibrils in the area of the mitotic spindle, assemble cytoplasmic isoform-specific proteins into a cleavage furrow contractile ring, undergo cytokinesis, and then reform sarcomeric myofibrils in daughter cells. little is known about how embryonic cardiomyocytes disassemb ...19938228865
host restriction in the productive cycle of avian polyomavirus budgerigar fledgling disease virus type 3 depends on a single amino acid change in the common region of structural proteins vp2/vp3.the three avian polyomaviruses budgerigar fledgling disease virus types 1 to 3 (bfdv-1 to -3) contain genomes of identical size, 4981 bp. with differences of up to only 15 bp between the three genomes, these viruses show distinct tropism for cultured cells of various avian species: infection of chicken embryo (ce) cells with bfdv-1 and -2 results in virus propagation, whereas bfdv-3 is not replicated; all three viruses replicate, with different efficiencies, in infected muscovy duck cells. trans ...19948077924
early and late pre-mrna processing of budgerigar fledgling disease virus 1: identification of viral rna 5' and 3' ends and internal splice junctions.budgerigar fledgling disease virus 1 (bfdv-1) is the first avian polyomavirus to be identified, and it possesses uncommon structural and biological properties. here we present an analysis of the processed viral rnas in infected chicken embryo fibroblast cells. two early and 18 late bfdv-1 mrnas were defined according to their 5' ends and internal splice patterns. in the early region of the genome an incomplete splice reaction covering 195 nt is responsible for creating two mrnas that could encod ...19957844527
avian polymavirus in wild birds: genome analysis of isolates from falconiformes and psittaciformes.avian polyomavirus (apv) infections have been reported to cause fatal disease in a wide range of psittacine species. here we demonstrate apv infections in buzzards (buteo buteo) and in a falcon (falco tinnunculus) found dead in germany, and in lovebirds (agapornis pullaria) with fatal disease, wild-caught in moçambique. apv infection in buzzards was determined by pcr amplification of parts of the viral genome followed by southern blot hybridisation. the genomes of the isolates obtained from the ...19989739329
[polyomavirus infections in exotic birds in switzerland].polyomavirus infections in budgerigars, in other parrots as well as in passeriformes have been described in many countries, but not in switzerland so far. this paper reports on cases of polyomavirus infections in three different bird collections in switzerland. the first outbreak occurred in a mixed collection of passeriformes, the second in a collection of parrotlets (genus forpus), and the third in a large groups of parrots (psittaciformes), of which only one recently acquired kea (nestor nota ...199910354740
avian polyomavirus expression patterns of bicistronic late mrnas.avian polyomavirus (apv, previously called budgerigar fledgling disease virus, bfdv-1) differs from other polyoma viruses by a complex arrangement within its late genes: p(l1)-promoted agno-genes 1a and 1b overlap p(l2)-promoted agno-genes 2a and 2b in different reading frames, and are located upstream of standard late vp genes. as a minimal set, agno-gene 1a plus vp1, vp2, vp3 support effective viral propagation in cell culture, together with the origin-region and t-antigen section. all viral l ...200919329136
the effect of space flight on monoclonal antibody synthesis in a hybridoma mouse cell line.the hybridoma cell line, 3g10g5, producing a monoclonal antibody to the major capsid protein vp1 from the avian polyomavirus budgerigar fledgling disease virus, was produced from a balb/c mouse. this cell line was used to test the effects of microgravity on cellular processes, specifically protein synthesis. a time course study utilizing incorporation of [35s]methionine into newly synthesized monoclonal antibody was performed on sts-77. after 5.5 days, it was observed that cell counts for the sa ...19979024803
evidence for translation of vp3 of avian polyomavirus bfdv by leaky ribosomal scanning.due to several incomplete splicing reactions, budgerigar fledgling disease virus (bfdv) late mature mrnas are either bicistronic or polycistronic with an agnogene located upstream of viral protein (vp) genes. while the bicistronic mrnas code for the vast majority of vp1, the polycistronic mrnas contain the coding sequences of vp2, vp3, and vp1 (as the most distal cistron relative to vp2 and vp3). in this work, the translation initiation mechanism of vp3 was investigated in chicken embryo fibrobl ...200010752562
agnoprotein-1a of avian polyomavirus budgerigar fledgling disease virus: identification of phosphorylation sites and functional importance in the virus life-cycle.the avian polyomavirus budgerigar fledgling disease virus (bfdv) encodes an unusual set of four agnoproteins in its late upstream region. of the two pairs of these proteins, which overlap each other in two different reading frames, the p(l1)-promoted agnoprotein-1a (agno-1a) is the dominant species and is able to support virus propagation in the absence of the other three polypeptides. viral bfdv agno-1a, and also agno-1a expressed via an influenza virus vector, consists of a complex series of e ...200010644834
production of avian polyomavirus seronegative budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus) from seropositive adults.adult budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus) with 2 years of breeding experience were removed from an aviary with enzootic avian polyomavirus (apv) disease and maintained in an isolation unit. following a 7-month respite from breeding, these birds were allowed to breed without interruption for 2 years. although the adults were seropositive both at the beginning and end of the experiment, all 102 of their offspring were seronegative. these data suggest that apv can be eliminated from a budgerigar ...19958719226
Prevalence and genetic characterization of avian polyomavirus and psittacine beak and feather disease virus isolated from budgerigars in Mainland China.Budgerigar fledgling disease (BFD) and psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD) are caused by avian polyomavirus (APV) and psittacine beak and feather disease virus (PBFDV), respectively. These diseases frequently infect psittacine birds and result in similar clinical manifestations. In this study, we observed the prevalence of PBFDV infection and a dual infection of APV and PBFDV in a budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) in Mainland China for the first time. One PBFDV isolate and two APV isol ...201122002652
Avian polyomavirus infection of a fledgling budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) and differential diagnoses of viral inclusions in psittacine birds--case report and mini-review.A two-week-old budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) of an outdoor aviary died suddenly and was submitted for determination the cause of illness and death. Macroscopically, the sparsely feathered animal was in a poor body condition. Histopathological examination revealed in various mesenchymal and epithelial tissues, numerous up to 15 microm in diameter large intranuclear, amphophilic to basophilic inclusion bodies with a clearing of the centre. Additionally, a feather dysplasia and retention hyp ...201122059291
survey of captive parrot populations around port phillip bay, victoria, australia, for psittacine beak and feather disease virus, avian polyomavirus and psittacine adenovirus.this study investigated the prevalence of psittacine beak and feather disease virus (bfdv), avian polyomavirus (apv) and psittacine adenovirus (psadv) in captive psittacine birds around port phillip bay, victoria, australia.201526220322
avian polyomavirus genome sequences recovered from parrots in captive breeding facilities in poland.eight genomes of avian polyomaviruses (apvs) were recovered and sequenced from deceased psittacula eupatria, psittacula krameri, and melopsittacus undulatus from various breeding facilities in poland. of these apv-positive samples, six had previously tested positive for beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) and/or parrot hepatitis b virus (phbv).201526404592
molecular characterization of avian polyomavirus isolated from psittacine birds based on the whole genome sequence analysis.seven avian polyomaviruses (apvs) were isolated from seven psittacine birds of four species. their whole genome sequences were genetically analyzed. comparing with the sequence of bfdv1 strain, nucleotide substitutions in the sequences of seven apv isolates were found at 63 loci and a high level of conservation of amino acid sequence in each viral protein (vp1, vp2, vp3, vp4, and t/t antigen) was predicted. an a-to-t nucleotide substitution was observed in non-control region of all seven apv seq ...200919345024
disease screening of three breeding populations of adult exhibition budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus) in new zealand reveals a high prevalence of a novel polyomavirus and avian malaria infection.disease surveillance is vital to the management of new zealand's endemic and threatened avian species. three infectious agents that are potential threats to new zealand's endemic birds include avian polyomavirus (apv), beak and feather disease virus (bfdv), and avian malaria. all three agents have been reported in new zealand; however, possible reservoir populations have not been identified. in this communication, we report the first study of apv, bfdv, and avian malaria in introduced adult exhi ...201424758122
detection of beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) and avian polyomavirus (apv) dna in psittacine birds in italy.beak and feather disease (psittacine circovirus) and budgerigar fledgling disease (avian polyomavirus) are viral diseases that can frequently affect captive psittacine birds. we designed the first survey to investigate the presence of beak and feather disease virus (bfdv) and avian polyomavirus (apv) inside the population of captive psittacine birds in italy. samples were collected in 18 italian psittacine breeding centres and four trade centres over a 4-year period. a total of 1516 birds were t ...200515752264
development of a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of avian polyomavirus-specific antibodies.avian polyomavirus, described originally as budgerigar fledgling disease virus, has been associated with devastating contagious disease outbreaks in budgerigar aviaries. at present, this virus affects a wide range of psittacine and non-psittacine birds worldwide, and the serum neutralisation test is used for the serodiagnosis of avian polyomavirus infections. a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was developed for the screening of large numbers of sera collected from various avian species ...200010996638
molecular characterizations of avian polyomavirus isolated from budgerigar in china.budgerigar fledgling disease is an acute viral infectious disease caused by avian polyomavirus (apv). in this study, 34 liver tissue samples of young, dead budgerigar with typical symptoms were collected in 2004. all the samples had positive polymerase chain reaction (pcr) test based on the vp1 specific primers. vp1 genes of these samples were sequenced and had high similarities to each other (99%-100%). a strain (hbym02) was isolated and sequenced. as shown in the phylogenetic tree, there are t ...200818939634
an outbreak of the polyomavirus infection in budgerigars and cockatiels in slovakia, including a genome analysis of an avian polyomavirus isolate.in winter 2003-04, large numbers of budgerigars (mellopsitacus undulatus) and cockatiels (nymphicus hollandicus) fell ill and died in a large parrot-breeding aviary in slovakia. in budgerigars, the disease outbreak occurred at the age of 2-3 weeks; cockatiels died within their first 7 days of life. in budgerigars, symptoms of the disease included delayed growth, tremor, darkish discoloration of skin, quill bleeding, and feathering defects. cockatiels often died without any symptoms and with a fu ...200616617994
fatal avian polyomavirus infection during quarantine in adult wild-caught red-faced lovebirds (agapornis pullaria).an outbreak of avian polyomavirus infection is reported in a group of six wild-caught red-faced lovebirds (agapornis pullaria), all of which died during quarantine. the birds had not shown any previous symptoms. histologic examination of the lungs, kidneys, livers, and spleens revealed the presence of basophilic intranuclear inclusions. avian polyomavirus was isolated from the liver and the spleen. neutralizing antibodies were detected in the sera from other lovebirds (agapornis personata, agapo ...19979201423
failure of maternally derived yolk igg to reach detectable concentrations in the sera of nestling budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus).transfer of maternal immunoglobulin g (igg) to the yolk and nestling was investigated in the budgerigar. specific antibodies to avian polyomavirus and newcastle disease virus could be detected in 82% of yolk extracts of eggs from seropositive hens. using a double immunodiffusion assay with anti-chicken igg antibodies, igg could also be detected in yolk supernatants with virus neutralizing activity. in all assays, igg concentrations in the yolk extracts were significantly less than those of the a ...19958719202
duplex shuttle pcr for differential diagnosis of budgerigar fledgling disease and psittacine beak and feather disease.two common viral diseases in psittacine birds including budgerigar fledgling disease (bfd), generally called avian polyomavirus (apv) infection, and psittacine beak and feather disease (pbfd) have similar clinical manifestations characterized by feather disorders. a duplex shuttle pcr was developed for detection of apv and pbfd virus (pbfdv). two pairs of oligonucleotide primers were designed to amplify a 298-bp fragment of the t/t antigen region of apv genome and a 495-bp fragment of the capsid ...200515781996
organ distribution of avian polyomavirus dna and virus-neutralizing antibody titers in healthy adult budgerigars.tissue specimens and serum samples obtained from adult budgerigars in various stages of reproduction housed in an aviary with enzootic avian polyomavirus (apv) disease were examined by means of polymerase chain reaction techniques for apv dna. although the birds were apparently healthy, apv dna could be detected in all 40 birds examined (inapparent infection rate, 100%). viral dna was found in most organ systems examined. analysis of data suggested that organ virus concentrations were lower in b ...19938116935
recombinant expression of late genes agno-2a and agno-2b of avian polyomavirus bfdv.budgerigar fledgling disease virus (bfdv) genome contains two times two (two pairs) open reading frames (agnogenes) at the 5' end of the late coding region. recombinant influenza a viruses were constructed to express the second pair of bfdv agnoproteins, agno-2a and agno-2b, with a fusion of a histidine-tag at their carboxy-termini, respectively. specific proteins were detected in western blot analysis using anti histidine-tag monoclonal antibody. by indirect immunofluorescence experiments agno- ...199910595409
development and application of an immunohistochemical staining technique to detect avian polyomaviral antigen in tissue sections.an immunohistochemical staining technique was developed to detect polyomaviral antigens of budgerigar fledgling disease in formalin-fixed tissue sections. this technique used an indirect avidin-biotin, alkaline phosphatase labeling system with a mixture of monoclonal antibodies developed against the virus major capsid protein. the staining technique was applied retrospectively to 24 avian accessions which were originally diagnosed as budgerigar fledgling disease or avian polyomavirus infection b ...19958580163
polymerase chain reaction assay for avian polyomavirus.a polymerase chain reaction assay was developed for detection of budgerigar fledgling disease virus (bfdv). the assay used a single set of primers complementary to sequences located in the putative coding region for the bfdv vp1 gene. the observed amplification product had the expected size of 550 bp and was confirmed to derive from bfdv dna by its restriction digestion pattern. this assay was specific for bfdv and highly sensitive, being able to detect as few as 20 copies of the virus. by using ...19911647403
a concurrent outbreak of psittacine beak and feather disease virus, and avian polyomavirus infection in budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus).a dual natural infection with psittacine beak and feather disease virus and budgerigar fledgling disease virus in a breeding aviary of budgerigars (melopsittacus undulatus) is described. one-hundred per cent of newly-hatched birds were affected and mortality was high (85%). most surviving birds had diarrhoea, feather alterations and 30% mortality after a 5- to 10-week period. necropsies of 1-week-old and 2-month-old birds demonstrated non-specific lesions, but histologically nuclear inclusions s ...199818483964
genetic diversity in twenty variants of the avian polyomavirus.to determine if different pathotypes of the avian polyomavirus (apv) exist and to compare the genomes of apvs originating from different geographic areas, dates, and species of birds, the partial sequences of 18 apvs were determined. new viral sequences were compared with three published apv sequences. two of the new viruses had identical sequences. forty point mutations were found at 31 loci. a 27-bp deletion was found in the vp2 and vp3 open reading frames of one virus. a duplication of the pu ...199910396633
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