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cutaneous leishmaniasis of man due to leishmania (viannia) shawi lainson, de souza, póvoa, ishikawa & silveira, in pará state, brazil.leishmania (viannia) shawi lainson, braga, de souza, póvoa, ishikawa & silveira, 1989, was originally recorded from monkeys (cebus apella and chiropotes satanas), sloths (choloepus didactylus and bradypus tridactylus) and coatis (nasua nasua) and the sandfly, lutzomyia whitmani. with a panel of leishmania specific monoclonal antibodies, it was found that 30.5% of the leishmania strains from patients, who had contracted cutaneous leishmaniasis in pará state, were similar, but not identical to l. ...19911822654
[experimental infection of lutzomyia whitmani in dogs infected with leishmania braziliensis braziliensis].lutzomyia (n.) whitmani was infected on leishmaniotic lesions of three out of nine dogs infected with leishmania braziliensis braziliensis. the infectivity rates in these sandflies were 8.3% (1/12), 7.1% (1/14) and 1.8% (3/160), respectively. in addition, 180 lu. whitmani fed on non-ulcerated regions of one of the infected dogs and none became infected. we emphasize the vector potentiality of lu. whitmani for l.b. braziliensis in the endemic region of três braços, bahia, brazil.19863796276
lutzomyia whitmani (diptera: psychodidae) as vector of leishmania (v.) braziliensis in paraná state, southern brazil.the phlebotomine sandflies in the northern areas of the state of paraná, brazil, particularly those in the '16a' health region, were investigated over a 3-year period. using cdc light traps (with and without hamster bait) and shannon traps (with lights and horse or human bait), 16 species were collected from seven municipal districts which were known foci for cutaneous leishmaniasis: arapongas; apucarana; cambira; marumbi; faxinal; florestópolis; and sabáudia. although the frequency at which eac ...200011064764
genetic variation in populations of leishmania species in brazil.the population structure of strains of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis sensu lato from pará state and paraná state in brazil, of l. (v.) shawi and l. (leishmania) amazonensis from pará state, and the relationships of type strains of the subgenera l. (viannia) and l. (leishmania) were examined by the random-amplified polymorphic deoxyribonucleic acid (rapd) technique. four different primers (m13-40, qg1, l15996 and delta gt11r) were used. the bands were analysed using the neighbor-joining (nj) ...200212055823
species diversity of leishmania (viannia) parasites circulating in an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis located in the atlantic rainforest region of northeastern brazil.to identify the aetiological agents of cutaneous leishmaniasis and to investigate the genetic polymorphism of leishmania (viannia) parasites circulating in an area with endemic cutaneous leishmaniasis (cl) in the atlantic rainforest region of northeastern brazil.200919708899
phlebotomine fauna (diptera: psychodidae) of an american cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area in the state of mato grosso do sul, brazil.the occurrence of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with leishmania (leishmania) amazonensis in the municipality of bela vista, state of mato grosso do sul, brazil, and the absence of information on its vectors in this area led the authors to undertake captures of phlebotomine sand flies, using shannon traps and automatic cdc light traps, in domiciles, forested areas and animal shelters from february 2004-january 2006. a total of 808 specimens belonging to 18 sandfly species have ...200919820827
epidemiological study on leishmaniasis in an area of environmental tourism and ecotourism, state of mato grosso do sul, 2006-2007.the aims of this study were to carry out a serological survey of canine leishmaniasis and identify the phlebotomine fauna in the urban area of bonito, mato grosso do sul. the serological survey was conducted on a sample of 303 dogs, by means of the indirect immunofluorescence test. phlebotomines were captured using automated light traps. the serological survey found that 30% of the dogs were seropositive, both from the center and from all districts of the town. a total of 2,772 specimens of phle ...200919967228
sandflies (diptera, psychodidae) from forest areas in botucatu municipality, central western são paulo state, brazil.the study of the distribution and ecology of sandfly species is essential for epidemiological surveillance and estimation of the transmission risk of leishmania spp. infection.201323849624
natural leishmania (viannia) spp. infections in phlebotomine sand flies (diptera: psychodidae) from the brazilian amazon region reveal new putative transmission cycles of american cutaneous leishmaniasis.in amazonian brazil the etiological agents of american cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl) belong to at least seven leishmania species but little is known about the putative phlebotomine sand fly vectors in different biomes. in 2002-2003 a survey of the phlebotomine fauna was undertaken in the "floresta nacional do tapajós", belterra municipality, in the lower amazon region, western pará state, brazil, where we recently confirmed the presence of a putative hybrid parasite, l. (v.) guyanensis × l. (v.) ...201627235194
the phlebotomine sand flies fauna in parque estadual do rio doce, minas gerais, brazil.phlebotomine sand flies are dipterans of the family psychodidae. they are very important to veterinary medicine because some species are vectors of infective forms of leishmania spp., the etiological agents of leishmaniasis. the parque estadual do rio doce is located in an area with constant reports of cases of leishmaniasis. in order to better understanding the phlebotamine sand fly fauna of the park, the present work was undertaken with the goal of analyzing phlebotomine sand flies collected t ...201526626880
detection of leishmania (viannia) in nyssomyia neivai and nyssomyia whitmani by multiplex polymerase chain reaction, in southern brazil.sandflies transmit pathogens of leishmaniasis. the natural infection of sandflies by leishmania (viannia) was assessed in municipalities, in the state of paraná, in southern brazil. sandflies were collected with falcão and shannon traps. after dissection in search of flagellates in digestive tubes and identification of the species, female sandflies were submitted to the multiplex polymerase chain reaction (multiplex pcr) for detection of the fragment of the kdna of leishmania (viannia) and the f ...025229218
host-biting rate and susceptibility of some suspected vectors to leishmania braziliensis.american tegumentary leishmaniasis is a serious brazilian public health problem. this diseases is attributed to seven species of leishmania, however, the majority of cases are associated with leishmania braziliensis. some phlebotomine species have been implicated in the transmission of this parasite, nonetheless only psychodopygus wellcomei has had its vectorial competence demonstrated. thus this study sought to assess some parameters related to the vectorial capacity of anthropophilic species o ...201424684943
nycthemeral rhythm of phlebotominae (diptera: psychodidae) in a craggy region, transitioning between the wetland and the plateau, brazil.recording the nycthemeral rhythm of sand flies allows the evaluation of the daily activity in different ecotypes, the period of greatest activity, and their degree of anthropophily. we investigated the fauna and the rhythm of sand fly activity in an ecotourism region in mato grosso do sul (ms) state, brazil. sand flies were captured monthly, using a shannon trap for 24 h periods between july 2012 and june 2014. we collected 1,815 sand flies, in which lutzomyia whitmani (=nyssomyia whitmani, sens ...201728082638
ecology of sand flies in a low-density residential rural area, with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation, in north-eastern brazil.cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by leishmania braziliensis is endemic in brazil, where lutzomyia whitmani is the most important vector involved in the transmission to humans, particularly in the peridomestic environment. herein, we assessed the ecology of sand flies, including lu. whitmani, in a low-density residential rural area with mixed forest/agricultural exploitation in north-eastern brazil, where cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic. particularly, we hypothesized that sand fly abundance was ...201525792416
ecological aspects of phlebotomine sand flies (diptera, psychodidae, phlebotominae) in areas of american cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the municipality of paraty, rio de janeiro, brazil. i-index of abundance by location and type of capture.the description of the first and autochthonous case of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in the municipality of paraty, state of rio de janeiro, brought the interest of this study. sand flies were captured over a 3-yr period. using manual suction tubes, sand flies were collected from the inner and outer walls of homes, in the living spaces of domestic animals, and in shannon light traps, which were set up outside homes and in the forest. cdc light traps were installed inside homes, around the exte ...201526336245
first description of migonemyia migonei (frança) and nyssomyia whitmani (antunes & coutinho) (psychodidae: phlebotominae) natural infected by leishmania infantum in argentina.leishmania infantum is the etiological agent of the visceral leishmaniasis (vl) disease in america, with lutzomyia longipalpis phlebotomine sandflies as its proven vectors in argentina, and infected dogs as its main urban reservoir. in puerto iguazú city (misiones province, argentina), human and canine cases of vl were recorded. additionally, in the rural area known as "2000 hectáreas", less than 10km away from the city, several human cases of tegumentary leishmaniasis (tl) were registered deter ...201526409011
experimental infection of lutzomyia (nyssomyia) whitmani (diptera: psychodidae: phlebotominae) with leishmania (viannia) braziliensis and leishmania (l.) amazonensis, etiological agents of american tugumentary leishmaniasis.leishmania (l.) amazonensis (lainson & shaw, 1972) and leishmania (viannia) braziliensis (vianna, 1911) are the principal causative agents of american tegumentary leishmaniasis (atl) in brazil. l. amazonensis also causes diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (dcl) vectored principally by lutzomyia flaviscutellata and secondarily by lutzomyia whitmani (antunes & coutinho, 1939). the latter is the most common phlebotomine in the state of maranhão, and it is the focal species for potential atl transmissi ...201626487245
an integrated approach using spatial analysis to study the risk factors for leishmaniasis in area of recent transmission.some epidemiological aspects of leishmaniasis in the municipality of formiga, brazil, an important touristic site, were evaluated. those included phlebotomine sand fly vectors, canine infection, and geoprocessing analysis for determining critical transmission areas. sand flies (224 insects) belonging to ten different species were captured. the most captured species included lutzomyia longipalpis (35.3%), lutzomyia cortelezzii (33.5%), and lutzomyia whitmani (18.3%). a significant correlation bet ...201526229961
sand flies (diptera, psychodidae, phlebotominae), vectors of leishmania protozoa, at an atlantic forest conservation unit in the municipality of nísia floresta, rio grande do norte state, brazil.sand flies are insect vectors of protozoa from the genus leishmania, causative parasites of visceral and american tegumentary leishmaniases. the present study discusses the bioecological aspects of sand fly species, transmitters of leishmania protozoa, in different ecotopes of an atlantic forest conservation unit located in the metropolitan region of natal, rio grande do norte state, brazil.201626864023
immunity to lutzomyia whitmani saliva protects against experimental leishmania braziliensis infection.previous works showed that immunization with saliva from lutzomyia intermedia, a vector of leishmania braziliensis, does not protect against experimental infection. however, l. braziliensis is also transmitted by lutzomyia whitmani, a sand fly species closely related to lu. intermedia. herein we describe the immune response following immunization with lu. whitmani saliva and the outcome of this response after l. braziliensis infection.201627812113
the phlebotomine fauna (diptera: psychodidae) of guaraí, state of tocantins, with an emphasis on the putative vectors of american cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural settlement and periurban areas.phlebotomine sandflies were captured in rural settlement and periurban areas of the municipality of guaraí in the state of tocantins (to), an endemic area of american cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl). forty-three phlebotomine species were identified, nine of which have already been recognised as acl vectors. eleven species were recorded for the first time in to. nyssomyia whitmani was the most abundant species, followed by evandromyia bourrouli, nyssomyia antunesi and psychodopygus complexus. the s ...023903972
the sand fly fauna (psychodidae: phlebotominae) in the region of saquarema, state of rio de janeiro, brazil, an endemic area of cutaneous leishmaniasis transmission.cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by leishmania (viannia) braziliensis, is sporadic in many rural and suburban areas of rio de janeiro state. an investigation was carried out during 2008/9 in the municipality of saquarema, rio de janeiro, southeast brazil, in order to identify the phlebotomine sand fly fauna. more than 2,100 sand flies were collected in peridomestic areas in two chicken coops using cdc light traps. nine species of phlebotomine sand flies were identified: nyssomyia intermedia, nyss ...201121366786
phlebotomine sand flies (diptera: psychodidae) and leishmania infection in gafanhoto park, divinópolis, brazil.the potential of gafanhoto park as an american cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl) focus was evaluated by examination of sand fly vectors of the leishmania parasite. this forest remnant is located in a periurban area of divin6polis, brazil, where autochthonous cases of acl have been reported. sand fly populations were monitored over a 2-yr period (2006-2008) by using light traps (hp and shannon). during systematic collections with hp traps, 824 specimens in total (342 males and 482 females) of 21 spec ...201021175074
natural infection of nyssomyia neivai by leishmania (viannia) spp. in the state of paraná, southern brazil, detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction.natural sandfly infection by leishmania spp. in an area endemic for american cutaneous leishmaniasis was analyzed using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr). the sandflies were captured using falcão light traps in an endemic area of the municipality of doutor camargo during march, april, and june 2008. in total, 1803 females were analyzed; 1755 were nyssomyia neivai (pinto) and 48 were nyssomyia whitmani (antunes and coutinho). multiplex pcr analyses using mp3h-mp1l and 5llcac-3llcac primer ...201021142960
differential midgut attachment of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis in the sand flies lutzomyia (nyssomyia) whitmani and lutzomyia (nyssomyia) intermedia.the interaction between leishmania and sand flies has been demonstrated in many old and new world species. besides the morphological differentiation from procyclic to infective metacyclic promastigotes, the parasite undergoes biochemical transformations in its major surface lipophosphoglycan (lpg). an upregulation of beta-glucose residues was previously shown in the lpg repeat units from procyclic to metacyclic phase in leishmania (viannia) braziliensis, which has not been reported in any leishm ...201020011070
the finding of lutzomyia almerioi and lutzomyia longipalpis naturally infected by leishmania spp. in a cutaneous and canine visceral leishmaniases focus in serra da bodoquena, brazil.to identify natural infections by leishmania spp. in insect vectors of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, we performed field studies in natural and anthropic environments in the guaicurus settlement (bodoquena range) of the bonito municipality, mato grosso do sul state, brazil. from october 2002 to october 2003, a total of 1395 sandfly females were captured with shannon and light traps and dissected in search of flagellates. the sample is composed of a total of 13 species, with lutzomyia alme ...200919062193
lutzomyia (nyssomyia) whitmani s.l . (antunes & coutinho, 1939)(diptera: psychodidae: phlebotominae): geographical distribution and the epidemiology of american cutaneous leishmaniasis in brazil--mini-review.the aim of the present study, in view of the widespread geographical distribution of lutzomyia (nyssomyia) whitmani s.l. in brazil, in close association with the regions of transmission of leishmania (viannia) braziliensis and l. (v.) shawi, is to investigate the distribution of this sand fly species and american cutaneous leishmaniasis (acl) in relationship to vegetation and landscape ecology throughout brazil. thematic maps were elaborated by the mapinfo programme, giving information on the sp ...200717426877
heparin binding proteins from leishmania (viannia) braziliensis promastigotes.we have examined the heparin binding proteins from leishmania (viannia) braziliensis promastigotes (hbp-lb) by chromatography assays. the proposed strategy to isolate an enriched fraction of the hbp-lb consisted of an association of the triton x-114 method with affinity chromatography in heparin-sepharose 4b column. sds-page analysis of the eluted proteins showed two main protein bands (65.0 and 54.5 kda), while a single protein band was observed in native electrophoresis gel. the hemagglutinati ...200717292553
[human and canine american cutaneous leishmaniasis in mariluz, paraná state, brazil].an outbreak of american cutaneous leishmaniasis was reported in 2002 in mariluz, northwestern paraná state, brazil. of 38 humans who were investigated, four had healed lesions, ten showed lesions in the healing process, and 24 had active lesions. of the 126 dogs, 20 (15.9%) presented suggestive lesions and 24 (19%) had positive serology. parasites isolated from two patients and three dogs were identified as leishmania (viannia) braziliensis serodeme i. the captured sand flies were identified as ...200617096049
recent observations on the sand fly (diptera: psychodidae) fauna of the state of rondônia, western amazônia, brazil: the importance of psychdopygus davisi as a vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis.sand flies were collected in the central region of the state of rondônia (w 64 degrees 30' to 63 degrees 00' and s 10 degrees 00'to 11 degrees 00') using shannon and cdc light traps from october 1997 to august 2000. a total of 85,850 specimens representing 78 named species were captured. of these 14 were new records for rondônia. the proportion of males/females was 1/1.131. trypanosomatids, that are presently being identified, were detected in 11 species. leishmania (viannia) naiffi was recorded ...200314595450
effect of lutzomyia whitmani (diptera: psychodidae) salivary gland lysates on leishmania (viannia) braziliensis infection in balb/c mice.previous reports showed that lutzomyia longipalpis saliva exacerbate leishmania braziliensis infection in mice. the sand fly lu. whitmani is one of the vectors of l. (viannia) braziliensis (lvb), a causative agent of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the state of ceará, brazil. to determine whether saliva of lu. whitmani could increase the infectivity of lvb in mice, we inoculated groups of balb/c mice with lvb promastigotes in the presence or absence of the salivary glands lysate from lu. whitmani. we ...200111313642
morphometric and phenetic studies of five geographical populations of lutzomyia whitmani (diptera: psychodidae) in brazil.a morphometric survey examined adult specimens of lutzomyia whitmani (antunes & coutinho) captured at 5 municipalities in southeastern and northeastern brazil to compare the populations. the localities were ilhéus (bahia), martinho campos (minas gerais), corte de pedra (bahia), baturité (ceará), and amaraji (pernambuco): all are known foci of american cutaneous leishmaniasis. fifteen males and 15 females from each population were analyzed morphometrically for 42 and 37 characters, respectively. ...199910593089
cutaneous leishmaniasis in ceara state in northeastern brazil: incrimination of lutzomyia whitmani (diptera: psychodidae) as a vector of leishmania braziliensis in baturite municipality.baturite is an important endemic zone of american cutaneous leishmaniasis in the state of ceara, where an entomologic survey has been carried out to obtain information about transmission of the disease. from october 1989 through august 1991, natural infections with flagellates were detected in 34 of 3,000 lutzomyia whitmani, five of 1,667 lu. migonei, three of 5,278 lu. wellcomei, one of 646 lu. shannoni, and one of 21 lu. evandroi. thirty-five infections were peripylarian (i.e., behind the pylo ...19948024061
leishmania (viannia) shawi sp. n., a parasite of monkeys, sloths and procyonids in amazonian brazil.leishmania (viannia) shawi sp. n., is described from the monkeys cebus apella and chiropotes satanus, the sloths choloepus didactylus and bradypus tridactylus, the procyonid nasua nasua, and the phlebotomine sandfly lutzomyia whitmani, all from primary forest in the state of pará, north brazil. l. (v.) shawi is variably distinguished from all other known species within the subgenus viannia by a combination of biological, biochemical and serological characters, as revealed by studies on morpholog ...19892504099
epidemiological surveys confirm an increasing burden of cutaneous leishmaniasis in north-east brazil.health service records for north-east brazil suggest a consistent rise in numbers of cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to leishmania (viannia) braziliensis over the past decade. in a study site in pernambuco, prospective, cross-sectional and retrospective epidemiological surveys of infection (a positive montenegro skin test response) and/or clinical symptoms confirmed a high current force of infection (0.092/year), and an approximately 10-fold increase in transmission during the last 10 years ...199910696402
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