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mixed infections of trypanosomes in tsetse and pigs and their epidemiological significance in a sleeping sickness focus of côte d'ivoire.in a sleeping sickness focus of côte d'ivoire, trypanosomes were characterized in humans, pigs and tsetse using various techniques. out of 74 patients, all the 43 stocks isolated by kivi (kit for in vitro isolation) appeared to belong to only one zymodeme of trypanosoma brucei gambiense group 1 (the major zymodeme z3). the only stock isolated on rodents belonged to a different, new, zymodeme (z50), of t. b. gambiense group 1. from 18 pigs sampled in the same locations as the patients, pcr showed ...200415648692
tsetse fly blood meal modification and trypanosome identification in two sleeping sickness foci in the forest of southern cameroon.the blood meal origins of 222 tsetse flies (213 glossina palpalis palpalis, 7 glossina pallicera pallicera, one glossina nigrofusca and one glossina caliginea) caught in 2008 in two human african trypanosomiasis foci (bipindi and campo) of south cameroon were investigated. 88.7% of tsetse flies blood meals were identified using the heteroduplex method and the origin of the remaining blood meals (11.3%) was identified by sequencing the cytochrome b gene. most of the meals were from humans (45.9%) ...201020541513
a new transmission risk index for human african trypanosomiasis and its application in the identification of sites of high transmission of sleeping sickness in the fontem focus of southwest cameroon.a new index for the risk for transmission of human african trypanosomiasis was developed from an earlier index by adding terms for the proportion of tsetse infected with trypanosoma brucei gambiense group 1 and the contribution of animals to tsetse diet. the validity of the new index was then assessed in the fontem focus of southwest cameroon. averages of 0.66 and 4.85 glossina palpalis palpalis (diptera: glossinidae) were caught per trap/day at the end of one rainy season (november) and the sta ...201021198712
high frequency of (kinetoplastida: trypanosomatidae) type among (diptera: glossinidae) in a historic trypanosoma foci in north-eastern gabon: preliminary study.human african trypanosomiasis became a neglected disease after the 1960s, when case numbers dropped dramatically. it again became a public health problem in sub-saharan africa at the end of the 1990s, when new cases were reported, notably in central africa, and specifically in gabon, where historic foci existed and new cases have been reported. therefore, the present study reports on an entomological survey conducted in may 2012 to determine the pathogenic trypanosome infection rate in tsetse fl ...201627113105
challenges towards the elimination of human african trypanosomiasis in the sleeping sickness focus of campo in southern cameroon.the sleeping sickness focus of campo lies along the atlantic coast and extends along the ntem river, which constitutes the cameroonian and equatorial guinean border. it is a hypo-endemic focus with the disease prevalence varying from 0.3 to 0.86% during the last few decades. investigations on animal reservoirs revealed a prevalence of trypanosoma brucei gambiense of 0.6% in wild animals and 4.83% in domestic animals of this focus. from 2001 to 2012, about 19 931 tsetse were collected in this foc ...201425129168
identification of different trypanosome species in the mid-guts of tsetse flies of the malanga (kimpese) sleeping sickness focus of the democratic republic of congo.the malanga sleeping sickness focus of the democratic republic of congo has shown an epidemic evolution of disease during the last century. however, following case detection and treatment, the prevalence of the disease decreased considerably. no active survey has been undertaken in this focus for a couple of years. to understand the current epidemiological status of sleeping sickness as well as the animal african trypanosomiasis in the malanga focus, we undertook the identification of tsetse blo ...201222992486
diversity and spatial distribution of vectors and hosts of t. brucei gambiense in forest zones of, southern cameroon: epidemiological implications.host and vector distribution of trypanosoma brucei gambiense was studied in relation to habitat types and seasons. six (19.35%) of the 31 mammal species recorded in bipindi were reservoir hosts. cercopithecus nictitans was confined to the undisturbed forest and the low intensive shifting cultivation zones, while cephalophus monticola, cephalophus dorsalis, cricetomys gambianus, atherurus africanus and nandinia binotata occurred in all the habitat types. as for vectors of human african trypanosom ...201020067756
influence of habitat and seasonal variation on wild mammal diversity and distribution with special reference to the trypanosoma brucei gambiense host-reservoir in bipindi (cameroon).to evaluate the role of wildlife in the resurgence and perenisation of human african trypanosomiasis (hat), we investigated the influence of habitat and seasonal variations on the diversity and spatial distribution of wild mammals, with special reference to those recognised as potential host-reservoirs of trypanosoma brucei gambiense in bipindi (southwestern cameroon). to achieve this, we carried out transect surveys in four habitat types over two years. a total of 31 mammal species were recorde ...200919732737
tsetse fly host preference from sleeping sickness foci in cameroon: epidemiological implications.to determine the tsetse fly host preferences in two sleeping sickness foci of southern cameroon, four entomological surveys (two in each focus) were carried out. for the whole study, 4929 tsetse flies were caught: 3933 (79.8%) glossina palpalis palpalis, 626 (12.7%) glossina pallicera pallicera, 276 (5.6%) glossina nigrofusca and 94 (1.9%) glossina caliginea. one hundred and thirty-eight blood meals were collected and the origin of 118 (85.5%) meals was successfully identified: 38.4% from man, 2 ...200817977803
transcriptional profiling of midguts prepared from trypanosoma/t. congolense-positive glossina palpalis palpalis collected from two distinct cameroonian foci: coordinated signatures of the midguts' remodeling as t. congolense-supportive niches.our previous transcriptomic analysis of glossina palpalis gambiensis experimentally infected or not with trypanosoma brucei gambiense aimed to detect differentially expressed genes (degs) associated with infection. specifically, we selected candidate genes governing tsetse fly vector competence that could be used in the context of an anti-vector strategy, to control human and/or animal trypanosomiasis. the present study aimed to verify whether gene expression in field tsetse flies (g. p. palpali ...201728804485
xenomonitoring of sleeping sickness transmission in campo (cameroon).the sleeping sickness focus of campo in south cameroon is still active, at a low endemic level, for more than a century, despite a regular medical surveillance. the present study focuses on the spatial distribution of xenomonitoring information obtained from an entomological survey performed in the dry season 2012. it appears that humans constitute a third of the blood meals and that the flies' densities were coherent with those classically observed in the different biotopes. paradoxically, the ...201627071554
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