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mixed rickettsia-virus infection in dermacentor reticulatus imago.electron microscopic examination revealed replication and accumulation of rickettsia sibirica in the fat body of experimentally infected dermacentor reticulatus ticks. rickettsia are released from the fat body cells by budding being surrounded with cytoplasm and plasmalemma of the host cell. eukaryotic cell structures have been detected consisting of lamella layers whirled around the intact rickettsiae. in addition to rickettsia, microorganisms morphologically resembling francisella tularensis a ...19911681715
francisella tularensis from ixodid ticks in czechoslovakia.a total of 26,478 ixodid ticks (935 pools) were examined by intracerebral inoculation of suckling mice. six species of ticks were tested: ixodes ricinus (23,470 individuals), i. trianguliceps (12), haemaphysalis punctata (831), h. concinna (39), dermacentor reticulatus (69) and d. marginatus (2,057). the ticks were collected largely by flagging vegetation, a substantial minority (4%) from animals. three strains of francisella tularensis were isolated, one each from i. ricinus (males, district br ...19902227710
prevalence of ticks infected with francisella tularensis in natural foci of tularemia in western slovakia.the prevalence of ticks infected with f. tularensis was followed during a systematic surveillance in endemic area of tularemia in western slovakia over the years 1984-93. ticks were collected from vegetation in localities of podunajské biskupice, in the vicinity of the capital of slovakia, bratislava, near the river danube. in total 6033 ticks, mostly adults of dermacentor reticulatus and ixodes ricinus (4994 and 1004, respectively) and 35 nymphs of haemaphysalis concinna, were examined for the ...19958549717
frequent isolation of francisella tularensis from dermacentor reticulatus ticks in an enzootic focus of tularaemia.a total of 924 questing dermacentor reticulatus (fabricius), 504 ixodes ricinus (l.), sixty haemaphysalis concinna koch and 718 mosquitoes (aedes spp.) were examined in a floodplain forest ecosystem during the 1994-95 outbreak of tularaemia in south moravia, czech republic. francisella tularensis was not isolated from h.concinna ticks or aedes spp. mosquitoes, whereas twenty-one isolates were recovered from the other haematophagous arthropods. dermacentor reticulatus revealed a significantly hig ...19968887334
mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae), in contrast to ticks (acari: ixodidae), do not carry francisella tularensis in a natural focus of tularemia in the czech republic.in total, 9,167 mosquitoes (aedes spp.) and 1,987 ixodid ticks--1,423 dermacentor reticulatus (f.), 504 ixodes ricinus (l.), and 60 haemaphysalis concinna koch--were examined in an active enzootic focus (floodplain forest-meadow ecosystem) of tularemia in south moravia. czech republic. although no f. tularensis was detected in mosquitoes or h. concinna, 30 isolates were recovered from d. reticulatus (infection rate, 2.1%) and 1 isolate from i. ricinus (infection rate, 0.2%). ixodid ticks, especi ...19979439120
prevalence of francisella tularensis in dermacentor reticulatus ticks collected in adjacent areas of the czech and austrian republics.a total of 1098 host-seeking adult dermacentor reticulatus ticks were examined in an active enzootic focus (floodplain meadow and forest ecosystem) of tularemia along the lower reaches of the thaya (dyje) river in south moravia (czech republic) and adjacent austria during the spring of 1996. twenty-five isolates of francisella tularensis were recovered (i.e., the overall minimum infection rate was 2.3%). the prevalence rate varied between 0.6% and 3.5% among four localities examined (two in mora ...19979457420
francisella tularensis in dermacentor reticulatus ticks from the czech republic and austria.host-seeking adult dermacentor reticulatus ticks were examined for the prevalence of francisella tularensis in an active natural focus of tularemia along the lower reaches of the dyje (thaya) river in south moravia (czech republic) and adjacent lower austria, in four localities of the flood plain forest-meadow ecosystem during the spring of 1996. the ticks were pooled (10 male or female ticks per group) and inoculated subcutaneously in 4-week-old spf mice. dead mice were sectioned, the spleens w ...199810048175
importance of surveillance of tularemia natural foci in the known endemic area of central europe, 1991-1997.marked activation of natural foci of tularemia in the known endemic area of central europe, comprising the borderland of slovakia, austria and the czech republic, led to an epidemic outbreak in western slovakia and an increase in the number of human tularemia cases in the adjoining regions of northeastern austria and southern moravia from 1995 to 1997. the aim of this paper was to present the results of a longitudinal study on the prevalence of infection with francisella tularensis in small mamm ...200111467089
detection of a novel francisella in dermacentor reticulatus: a need for careful evaluation of pcr-based identification of francisella tularensis in eurasian ticks.francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, has been detected in ixodid ticks in some regions of north america, europe, and asia. in the present study, 245 dermacentor reticulatus, 211 ixodes ricinus, and 194 haemaphysalis concinna adults from hungary were tested for the presence of f. tularensis by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays based on 16s ribosomal rna (16s rdna) and t-cell epitope of a francisella membrane protein (tul4). no francisella-specific amplification products ...200818945184
francisella-like endosymbiont in dermacentor reticulatus collected in portugal.in portugal, recent studies have confirmed the presence of francisella tularensis in dermacentor reticulatus. bacterial endosymbionts with significant homology to f. tularensis have been described in several species of ticks. in this work we identified francisella-like endosymbionts in d. reticulatus ticks (39%), confirming the presence of these bacteria in portugal. this finding should be considered in future studies using molecular approaches to detect francisella prevalence in ticks and envir ...201120575645
prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in ixodes ricinus and dermacentor reticulatus ticks from different geographical locations in belarus.worldwide, ticks are important vectors of human and animal pathogens. besides lyme borreliosis, a variety of other bacterial and protozoal tick-borne infections are of medical interest in europe. in this study, 553 questing and feeding ixodes ricinus (n = 327) and dermacentor reticulatus ticks (n = 226) were analysed by pcr for borrelia, rickettsia, anaplasma, coxiella, francisella and babesia species. overall, the pathogen prevalence in ticks was 30.6% for i. ricinus and 45.6% for d. reticulatu ...201323349900
francisella tularensis: no evidence for transovarial transmission in the tularemia tick vectors dermacentor reticulatus and ixodes ricinus.tularemia is a zoonosis caused by the francisella tularensis, a highly infectious gram-negative coccobacillus. due to easy dissemination, multiple routes of infection, high environmental contamination and morbidity and mortality rates, francisella is considered a potential bioterrorism threat and classified as a category a select agent by the cdc. tick bites are among the most prevalent modes of transmission, and ticks have been indicated as a possible reservoir, although their reservoir compete ...201526244842
first molecular evidence of zoonotic bacteria in ticks in bosnia and herzegovina.in bosnia and herzegovina, the tick fauna is very diverse, but data on the occurrence of zoonotic tick-borne bacteria are lacking. thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, anaplasma phagocytophilum, 'candidatus neoehrlichia mikurensis', spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae and francisella tularensis in questing ticks. in 19 (21.8%) of 87 ticks (ixodes ricinus, n = 30; dermacentor reticulatus, n = 54; d. marginatus, n = 3) collected by flagg ...201626799474
francisella tularensis prevalence and load in dermacentor reticulatus ticks in an endemic area in central europe.a total of 7778 host-seeking adult dermacentor reticulatus (ixodida: ixodidae) ticks were examined for the prevalence of francisella tularensis holarctica (thiotrichales: francisellaceae) in a natural focus of tularaemia in the floodplain forest-meadow ecosystem along the lower reaches of the dyje (thaya) river in south moravia (czech republic) between 1995 and 2013. ticks were pooled (10 specimens per pool) and their homogenates inoculated subcutaneously in 4-week-old specific pathogen-free mic ...201728256734
occurrence of francisella spp. in dermacentor reticulatus and ixodes ricinus ticks collected in eastern poland.a total of 530 questing dermacentor reticulatus ticks and 861 questing ixodes ricinus ticks were collected from lublin province (eastern poland) and examined for the presence of francisella by pcr for 16s rrna (rrs) and tul4 genes. only one female d. reticulatus tick out of 530 examined (0.2%) was infected with francisella tularensis subspecies holarctica, as determined by pcr of the rrs gene. none of 861 i. ricinus ticks were infected with f. tularensis. in contrast, the presence of francisella ...201525666656
discriminating francisella tularensis and francisella-like endosymbionts in dermacentor reticulatus ticks: evaluation of current molecular techniques.francisella tularensis, the causative agent of tularemia, is commonly transmitted by ticks. to ensure accurate f. tularensis reporting rates in epidemiological surveys, specific discrimination between f. tularensis and francisella-like tick endosymbionts (fles) is absolutely critical. four molecular available techniques capable of distinguishing francisella spp. were compared here for the first time in french dermacentor reticulatus ticks in order to estimate their specificity as well as their e ...201323415475
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