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schmallenberg virus detection in culicoides biting midges in spain: first laboratory evidence for highly efficient infection of culicoides of the obsoletus complex and culicoides imicola.since schmallenberg disease was discovered in 2011, the disease rapidly spread across europe. culicoides biting midges have been implicated as putative schmallenberg vectors in europe. the detection of schmallenberg virus (sbv) in field collected culicoides was evaluated through retrospective (2011-2012) collections and captures performed in 2013. this study represents the first detection of sbv in field collected culicoides in spain. infectious midges were detected at the foothills of pyrenees, ...201728474491
schmallenberg virus in culicoides latreille (diptera: ceratopogonidae) populations in france during 2011-2012 outbreak.following the emergence of the schmallenberg virus (sbv) in 2011 in germany and its rapid spread in europe, culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) collected through the french surveillance network were analysed in order to record the presence of virus genome into species diversity collected, to assess the minimum infectious rates (mir) and the virus circulation dynamics in culicoides populations. two vector activity periods were selected (2011, august to october, 53 sites and 2012, june to octobe ...201728815930
first detection of leishmania infantum (kinetoplastida: trypanosomatidae) in culicoides spp. (diptera: ceratopogonidae).culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) species are known to be the vectors of bluetongue virus and african horses sickness virus (ahsv) in different areas of the world. nevertheless, other researchers have hypothesized that these arthropods could be involved in the transmission of other pathogens such as schmallenberg virus, plasmodium and leishmania parasites. identification of the culicoides' potential vector competence is crucial in understanding the worldwide culicoides/leishmania life cycle.201424460752
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