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does covering of farm-associated culicoides larval habitat reduce adult populations in the united kingdom?culicoides biting midges (diptera: ceratopogonidae) are the biological vectors of a range of internationally important arboviruses of livestock, including bluetongue virus (btv) and the recently emerging schmallenberg virus (sbv). culicoides species in the subgenus avaritia (in the uk: culicoides obsoletus meigen, culicoides scoticus downes & kettle, culicoides dewulfi goetghebuer and culicoides chiopterus meigen) have been implicated in btv transmission in northern europe and to a varying degre ...201324472769
impact of flooding on the immature stages of dung-breeding culicoides in northern europe.in northern europe, dung-breeding culicoides (e.g., culicoides chiopterus (meigen 1830) and culicoides dewulfi (goetghebuer 1936)) are considered to be important vectors of the bluetongue virus and schmallenberg virus. the interpretation of their distribution is difficult due to the lack of knowledge about their ecology. previously, soil moisture and especially flooding were identified as important factors that influence the development of several biting-midge species. therefore, this experiment ...201424986464
impact of mechanical disturbance on the emergence of culicoides from cowpats.the outbreaks of bluetongue virus and schmallenberg virus between 2006 and 2012 highlighted the need for control methods for north-western palaearctic biting midge species. there is especially a demand for alternative control methods without application of insecticides. therefore, the objective of this paper was to evaluate the impact of mechanical disturbance as a control method for culicoides biting midges in cowpats. we used a trash rake to destroy the compact structure of cowpats and spread ...201424452917
schmallenberg virus in culicoides latreille (diptera: ceratopogonidae) populations in france during 2011-2012 outbreak.following the emergence of the schmallenberg virus (sbv) in 2011 in germany and its rapid spread in europe, culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) collected through the french surveillance network were analysed in order to record the presence of virus genome into species diversity collected, to assess the minimum infectious rates (mir) and the virus circulation dynamics in culicoides populations. two vector activity periods were selected (2011, august to october, 53 sites and 2012, june to octobe ...201728815930
molecular phylogeny of 42 species of culicoides (diptera, ceratopogonidae) from three continents.the genus culicoides includes vectors of important animal diseases such as bluetongue and schmallenberg virus (btv and sbv). this genus includes 1300 species classified in 32 subgenera and 38 unclassified species. however, the phylogenetic relationships between different subgenera of culicoides have never been studied. phylogenetic analyses of 42 species belonging to 12 subgenera and 8 ungrouped species of genus culicoides from ecuador, france, gabon, madagascar and tunisia were carried out usin ...201728643630
culicoides monitoring in belgium in 2011: analysis of spatiotemporal abundance, species diversity and schmallenberg virus detection.in 2011, culicoides (diptera: ceratopogonidae) were collected at 16 locations covering four regions of belgium with onderstepoort veterinary institute (ovi) traps and at two locations with rothamsted suction traps (rsts). quantification of the collections and morphological identification showed important variations in abundance and species diversity between individual collection sites, even for sites located in the same region. however, consistently higher numbers of culicoides midges were colle ...201525761054
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