surveillance of egyptian fleas for agents of public health significance: anaplasma, bartonella, coxiella, ehrlichia, rickettsia, and yersinia pestis.serologic surveys in egypt have documented human and animal exposure to vector-borne bacterial pathogens, but the presence and distribution of these agents in arthropods has not been determined. between july 2002 and july 2003, fleas were collected from 221 mammals trapped in 17 cities throughout egypt. a total of 987 fleas were collected, representing four species (ctenocephalides felis, echidnophaga gallinacea, leptopsylla segnis, and xenopsylla cheopis); 899 of these fleas were x. cheopis fro ...200616837707
evaluation and modification of off-host flea collection techniques used in northwest uganda: laboratory and field studies.quantifying the abundance of host-seeking fleas is critical for assessing risk of human exposure to flea-borne disease agents, including yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague. yet, reliable measures of the efficacy of existing host-seeking flea collection methods are lacking. in this study, we compare the efficacy of passive and active methods for the collection of host-seeking fleas in both the laboratory and human habitations in a plague-endemic region of northwest uganda. in the la ...201222308790
detection of rickettsia felis, rickettsia typhi, bartonella species and yersinia pestis in fleas (siphonaptera) from africa.little is known about the presence/absence and prevalence of rickettsia spp, bartonella spp. and yersinia pestis in domestic and urban flea populations in tropical and subtropical african countries.201425299702
bacterial communities associated with flea vectors of plague.the microbial flora associated with fleas may affect their ability to transmit specific pathogens, including yersinia pestis, and also could be used to develop paratransgenesis-based approaches to interfere with transmission. to begin addressing this hypothesis, the microbial flora associated with the relatively efficient y. pestis vectors xenopsylla cheopis (rothschild) (siphonaptera: pulicidae) and oropsyllamontana (baker) (siphonaptera: ceratophyllidae), and the inefficient vector ctenocephal ...200919960708
yfba, a yersinia pestis regulator required for colonization and biofilm formation in the gut of cat fleas.for transmission to new hosts, yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, replicates as biofilm in the foregut of fleas that feed on plague-infected animals or humans. y. pestis biofilm formation has been studied in the rat flea; however, little is known about the cat flea, a species that may bridge zoonotic and anthroponotic plague cycles. here, we show that y. pestis infects and replicates as a biofilm in the foregut of cat fleas in a manner requiring hmsfr, two determinants for extracell ...201424391055
feeding behavior modulates biofilm-mediated transmission of yersinia pestis by the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis.the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis, is prevalent worldwide, will parasitize animal reservoirs of plague, and is associated with human habitations in known plague foci. despite its pervasiveness, limited information is available about the cat flea's competence as a vector for yersinia pestis. it is generally considered to be a poor vector, based on studies examining early-phase transmission during the first week after infection, but transmission potential by the biofilm-dependent proventricular- ...201626829486
combining real-time polymerase chain reaction using sybr green i detection and sequencing to identify vertebrate bloodmeals in fleas.programs that aim to control vector-borne zoonotic diseases require information on zoonotic hosts and on the feeding behavior of bridging vectors that are capable of transmitting pathogens from those hosts to humans. here we describe an assay developed to identify bloodmeals in field-collected cat fleas (ctenocephalides felis bouché) to assess this species' potential role as a yersinia pestis bridging vector in a plague-endemic region of uganda. our assay uses a single primer set and sybr green ...023270174
blood meal identification in off-host cat fleas (ctenocephalides felis) from a plague-endemic region of uganda.the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis, is an inefficient vector of the plague bacterium (yersinia pestis) and is the predominant off-host flea species in human habitations in the west nile region, an established plague focus in northwest uganda. to determine if c. felis might serve as a y. pestis bridging vector in the west nile region, we collected on- and off-host fleas from human habitations and used a real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assay to estimate the proportion of off-host c. fel ...201223208882
'candidatus rickettsia asemboensis' and wolbachia spp. in ctenocephalides felis and pulex irritans fleas removed from dogs in ecuador.flea-borne infections are distributed worldwide. up to date there are no reports about microorganisms associated to fleas in ecuador.201425266919
early-phase transmission of yersinia pestis by cat fleas (ctenocephalides felis) and their potential role as vectors in a plague-endemic region of recent decades, the majority of human plague cases (caused by yersinia pestis) have been reported from africa. in northwest uganda, which has had recent plague outbreaks, cat fleas (ctenocephalides felis) have been reported as the most common fleas in the home environment, which is suspected to be a major exposure site for human plague in this country. in the past, c. felis has been viewed as only a nuisance-biting insect because limited laboratory studies suggested it is incapable of transmi ...200818541775
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