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the malaria situation and antimalaria program in laos.malaria is endemic in all 17 provinces of laos. transmission is perennial with a "seasonal peak" coinciding with the rainy season. the vectors anopheles minimus and an. balabacensis (=dirus) remain susceptible to ddt. chloroquine-resistance of plasmodium falciparum is at the ri-rii level. multidrug resistance is not yet a problem. major constraints of the antimalaria program involve logistics and operational problems solutions to which are specifically addressed in the recommendations.19921364866
malaria eradication in taiwan, 1952-1964--some memorable facts.island-wide indoor spraying, at 2 g technical ddt per m2, applied once a year from 1953 through 1957 interrupted the chain of transmission and reduced malaria morbidity to a very low level. the goal of the program was shifted from control to eradication in 1955. the primary vector, anopheles minimus, greatly reduced in number, was still widely distributed in the post-spraying years. an elaborate surveillance operation from 1958 through 1964 eliminated residual foci of transmission and reservoirs ...19912056560
some entomological observations on malaria transmission in a remote village in northwestern thailand.anopheline mosquitoes and their relation to malaria transmission were studied during the months of march, may and july in the karen village of mae tha waw located in the northwestern mountains of tak province. thirteen species were captured on human bait during 80 man-nights of collecting. four additional species were collected during routine larval surveys. anopheles minimus and an. maculatus comprised 92.5% of the specimens captured biting man. anopheles minimus and an. nivipes were implicated ...19873333058
[experimental study on susceptibility of anopheles minimus and anopheles dirus to plasmodium vivax and plasmodium falciparum]. 19836380800
entomological and epidemiological investigations of malaria transmission in relation to population movements in forest areas of north-west thailand.transmission of forest-related malaria was observed entomologically and epidemiologically for 2 transmission seasons in 1990 and 1991 in 5 villages of mae sariang district, mae hong son province, north-west thailand. the entomological study included collections of mosquitos and determination of infection rate by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in the residential villages and the farm huts. the epidemiological study included fortnightly visits to 30% of the households to interview and rec ...19989740259
glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in northern vietnam.glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pd) deficiency was evaluated in 1676 schoolboys in northern vietnam. the trait was nearly absent in boys of the kinh (0.5%) and the mong (0.7%) ethnic groups that traditionally have lived outside malaria transmission areas. prevalences among ethnic groups living in the foothills, the breeding area of the main malaria vector anopheles minimus, ranged from 9.7% to 31%. these findings support the hypothesis of a selective advantage of the trait in plasmodium fal ...200010747283
epidemiology of malaria outbreak (april/may, 1999) in titabor primary health centre, district jorhat (assam).an investigation was undertaken of a malaria outbreak in the primary health centre titabor, district jorhat, assam during may/june 1999. the fever rate in the community since march 1999, was 44.4 per cent with an average case load of 2.5 per family. the fever cases peaked in the third week of may. slide positive and slide falciparum rates in mass blood survey, in the study village were 16.1 and 14.5 per cent respectively with 90 per cent infection of plasmodium falciparum. males (spr 17.5%) suff ...200010935318
status of malaria in thailand.despite decades of control success and a competent network of country-wide health infrastructure, malaria remains an important health threat in rural thailand. all 4 known human malaria parasites have been reported present, with plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax predominant. the expansion and intensity of multi-drug resistant plasmodium falciparum is the most serious development to occur the last several decades. members of 3 anopheline species complexes, anopheles dirus, anopheles mini ...200011127318
premunition against plasmodium falciparum in a malaria hyperendemic village in myanmar.premunition, naturally acquired protective immunity against plasmodium falciparum, has been described in hyperendemic areas of africa and papua new guinea. however, its occurrence in asia is debatable. in order to elucidate this question, a longitudinal study was undertaken in oo-do, a malaria endemic village in myanmar [burma] in 1995-97. only 2 species, plasmodium falciparum and p. vivax, were detected, with the former predominating. data from 116 subjects showed that all were infected at one ...200111280074
confirmation of anopheles varuna in vietnam, previously misidentified and mistargeted as the malaria vector anopheles minimus.malaria control programs in southeast asia are faced with several questions concerning vector behavior and species identification, which need to be answered to consolidate and further improve the results of control practices. the vector system in southeast asia is complex because of the number of species potentially involved in malaria transmission. additionally, the follow-up and evaluation of preventive control measures are hampered by the misidentification of vectors due to overlapping morpho ...200111791965
an outbreak of plasmodium falciparum malaria due to anopheles minimus in central assam, india.epidemiological investigations were conducted in nellie subcentre, phc jhargaon, under morigaon district (assam). the results of fever cases revealed 68 per cent slide positivity rate (spr) and 40 per cent slide falciparum rate (sfr). the pf proportion was > 87 per cent and remaining cases were p. vivax infections. an. minimus was incriminated as a malaria vector during the study period. the sporozoite rate was 3.08 per cent. the indoor man mosquito contact was 35 per bait/night as against 23 in ...200111963818
some entomological observations on temporal and spatial distribution of malaria vectors in three villages in northwestern thailand using a geographic information system.this spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the distribution of anopheles mosquitos were studied during august 2001 to december 2002 in three villages ban khun huay, ban pa dae, and ban tham seau, in northwestern thailand in mae sot district, tak province. the three karen villages are located about 20 km east of the city of mae sot near the myanmar border. twenty-one species were collected on human collections during 68 nights of 17 months. anopheles minimus comprised of 86% of the specimens biti ...200315115120
transmission of malaria and its control in the northeastern region of india.let alone the eradication, malaria control itself has amounted to be a challenge, and is detrimental to the all round development of the northeastern region of india. focal outbreaks are frequent taking heavy tool on human lives. plasmodium falciparum is the predominant parasite species and is solely responsible for increased morbidity and mortality. the region contributes bulk of p. falciparum cases for the rest of india, and its proportions are increasing. efficient vectors like anopheles mini ...200315260392
role of the prevalent anopheles species in the transmission of plasmodium falciparum and p. vivax in assam state, north-eastern india.in north-eastern india, anopheles minimus, an. dirus and an. fluviatilis are considered the three major vectors of the parasites causing human malaria. the role in transmission of the other anopheles species present in this region is not, however, very clear. to examine the vectorial role of the more common anopheline mosquitoes, the heads and thoraces of 4126 female anopheles belonging to 16 species (collected using miniature light traps set in human dwellings in a foothill village in the jorha ...200415324463
infectious reservoir of plasmodium infection in mae hong son province, north-west thailand.it was unknown whether the main reservoir of plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax, which infects mosquitoes in thailand, was (a) in people feeling sufficiently ill with malaria to come to a clinic or (b) in people who had remained in their home villages with some fever symptoms or with none.200415385050
physiographic and entomologic risk factors of malaria in assam, india.fever surveys were conducted in several districts of the indian state of assam to ascertain the prevalence of malaria in relation to vector abundance, entomologic inoculation rates (eirs), and geographic location of human settlements. anopheles minimus were incriminated, but their relative abundance and biting rates varied among districts, and no significant correlation was observed between these two indicators (r = 0.43, p = 0.34). plasmodium falciparum was the predominant parasite species exce ...200415516642
malaria situation in forest-fringed villages of sonitpur district (assam), india bordering arunachal pradesh during an outbreak.epidemiological and entomological studies were undertaken in forest-fringed villages in sonitpur district (assam) bordering arunachal pradesh, india to assess the malaria situation. blood smears (thick and thin) were collected from the fever cases through door-to-door survey. both the blood smears stained with giemsa were used for malaria parasite detection. slide positivity rate (spr) was recorded as 39.1% with predominance of plasmodium falciparum (97.1%) infections. children between 5 and 14 ...200717896624
detection of malaria parasites in mosquitoes from the malaria-endemic area of chakaria, bangladesh.malaria is one of the major public health problems of bangladesh. we investigated the mosquito populations infected with malaria parasites in a malaria-endemic area chakaria, bangladesh, where anopheles dirus and anopheles minimus are the principal vectors. anopheles mosquitoes were collected with a cdc miniature light trap from inside households in june 2007. a total of 868 mosquitoes were collected, among which females numbered 669 (77.1%). the species of female anopheles mosquitoes were ident ...200818379066
wash resistance and residual efficacy of long-lasting polyester netting coated with alpha-cypermethrin (interceptor) against malaria-transmitting mosquitoes in assam, northeast india.malaria is endemic in assam, northeast india, with low-to-moderate transmission of the causative parasites, mostly by anopheles minimus. plasmodium falciparum is the predominant parasite (>60%), with remaining cases being due to p. vivax. as an alternative intervention for malaria control, long-lasting insecticidal nets [interceptor coated with alpha-cypermethrin 10% suspension concentrate (sc), 0.667% w/w, 0.2g/m(2)] underwent field evaluation for laboratory wash resistance and residual efficac ...201019762058
wash-resistance and field efficacy of olyset net, a permethrin-incorporated long-lasting insecticidal netting, against anopheles minimus-transmitted malaria in assam, northeastern india.the long-lasting insecticidal nets are ready-to-use, pretreated nets, which do not require retreatment for 4-5 years. olyset nets that are made of high-density polyethylene monofilament yarn with 2% w/w permethrin incorporated (corresponding to 1 g/m(2)) are type-2 in which insecticide is incorporated into the polymers and are wash resistant. in these, insecticide migrates to the surface of the netting fiber to be bioavailable against mosquitoes and other insect pests. study site and objectives: ...201019874188
persistent transmission of malaria in garo hills of meghalaya bordering bangladesh, north-east india.malaria is endemic in garo hills of meghalaya, and death cases are reported annually. plasmodium falciparum is the major parasite, and is solely responsible for each malaria-attributable death case. garo hills are categorized high-risk for drug-resistant malaria; however, there exists no data on malaria transmitting mosquitoes prevalent in the region. included in this report are entomological observations with particular reference to vector biology characteristics for devising situation specific ...201020858290
malaria transmission and vector behaviour in a forested malaria focus in central vietnam and the implications for vector control.in vietnam, malaria is becoming progressively restricted to specific foci where human and vector characteristics alter the known malaria epidemiology, urging for alternative or adapted control strategies. long-lasting insecticidal hammocks (llih) were designed and introduced in ninh thuan province, south-central vietnam, to control malaria in the specific context of forest malaria. an entomological study in this specific forested environment was conducted to assess the behavioural patterns of fo ...201021182774
laboratory wash-resistance and field evaluation of deltamethrin incorporated long-lasting polyethylene netting (netprotect(-«)) against malaria transmission in assam, north-east india.north-east india is co-endemic for plasmodium falciparum and p. vivax malaria, and disease transmission is perennial and persistent. this study reports the results of a field-based village scale trial of deltamethrin incorporated long-lasting polyethylene netting (netprotect(-«)) conducted in p. falciparum predominant pocket of assam, north-east india to assess operational feasibility, acceptability and sustainability against disease vectors and malaria transmission. the study monitored the resi ...201121679681
progress towards malaria elimination in sabang municipality, aceh, indonesia.indonesia has set 2030 as its deadline for elimination of malaria transmission in the archipelago, with regional deadlines established according to present levels of malaria endemicity and strength of health infrastructure. the municipality of sabang which historically had one of the highest levels of malaria in aceh province aims to achieve elimination by the end of 2013.201323363768
biology, distribution and control of anopheles (cellia) minimus in the context of malaria transmission in northeastern india.among six dominant mosquito vector species involved in malaria transmission in india, anopheles minimus is a major species in northeast india and held responsible for focal disease outbreaks characterized by high-rise of plasmodium falciparum infections and attributable death cases. it has been now genetically characterized that among the three-member species of the minimus complex spread in asia, an. minimus (former species a) is prevalent in india including northeastern states and east-central ...201627846911
malaria transmission in tripura: disease distribution & determinants.malaria is a major public health problem in tripura and focal disease outbreaks are of frequent occurrence. the state is co-endemic for both plasmodium falciparum and p. vivax and transmission is perennial and persistent. the present study was aimed to review data on disease distribution to prioritize high-risk districts, and to study seasonal prevalence of disease vectors and their bionomical characteristics to help formulate vector species-specific interventions for malaria control.026905237
artemisinin-resistant plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates can infect diverse mosquito vectors of southeast asia and africa.artemisinin-resistant plasmodium falciparum parasites are rapidly spreading in southeast asia, yet nothing is known about their transmission. this knowledge gap and the possibility that these parasites will spread to africa endanger global efforts to eliminate malaria. here we produce gametocytes from parasite clinical isolates that displayed artemisinin resistance in patients and in vitro, and use them to infect native and non-native mosquito vectors. we show that contemporary artemisinin-resis ...201526485448
estimation of vectorial capacity of anopheles minimus theobald & an. fluviatilis james (diptera: culicidae) in a malaria endemic area of odisha state, india.anopheles minimus and an. fluviatilis were incriminated as the major malaria vectors in keonjhar district of odisha state recently. this study was carried out to elucidate the potential role of these two vector species in transmission of malaria during different seasons, and vectorial capacity of these species was also estimated.025579148
malaria transmission and disease burden in assam: challenges and opportunities.malaria is major public health illness in assam and 30-40% of the population is estimated to be at high-risk. despite decades of attempted control interventions, malaria transmission is perennial and persistent in most parts of the state mostly transmitted by anopheles minimus. malaria outbreaks are returning associated with high rise in plasmodium falciparum and attributable death cases. therapeutic efficacy investigations for treatment of malaria revealed that chloroquine resistance was widesp ...201023129883
role of an. culicifacies as a vector of malaria in changing ecological scenario of northeastern states of india.malaria has become endemic and subject of concern in most part of the india especially northeastern states of india. surveys before 2000 revealed that anopheles minimus was major vector responsible for transmission of malaria in this region followed by an. dirus and an. fluviatilis. however, recent studies indicate replacement of an. minimus vector by an. culicifacies due to different ecological changes and change in landuse pattern etc. the objective of present study was to explore the vectoria ...201727681550
genotyping of chloroquine resistant plasmodium falciparum in wild caught anopheles minimus mosquitoes in a malaria endemic area of assam, india.we validated the feasibility of using plasmodium falciparum, the human malaria parasite, dna present in wild caught vector mosquitoes for the characterization of chloroquine resistance status. house frequenting mosquitoes belonging to anopheles minimus complex were collected from human dwellings in a malaria endemic area of assam, northeast india and dna was extracted from the head-thorax region of individual mosquitoes. anopheles minimus complex mosquitoes were identified to species level and s ...201425382483
a single-round multiplex pcr assay for the identification of anopheles minimus related species infected with plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax.this study aimed to develop a single-round multiplex pcr method for the identification of anopheles minimus complex (an. minimus and anopheles harrisoni) and anopheles aconitus subgroup (an. aconitus and anopheles varuna), and for the simultaneous detection of plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax in these vectors. five primers were created for a single-round multiplex pcr assay to identify four anopheline mosquitoes combined with three plasmodium primers for the detection of p. falciparum ...201424239524
false positivity of circumsporozoite protein (csp)-elisa in zoophilic anophelines in bangladesh.circumsporozoite protein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (csp-elisas) are widely used for malaria vector identification throughout the world. however, several studies have reported false-positive results when using this method. the present study was conducted to estimate the frequency of false positives among anopheline species in malaria endemic areas of bangladesh. in total, 4724 anopheles females belonging to 25 species were collected and tested for plasmodium falciparum, plasmodium vivax- ...201323085098
imported plasmodium falciparum and locally transmitted plasmodium vivax: cross-border malaria transmission scenario in northwestern thailand.cross-border malaria transmission is an important problem for national malaria control programmes. the epidemiology of cross-border malaria is further complicated in areas where plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax are both endemic. by combining passive case detection data with entomological data, a transmission scenario on the northwestern thai-myanmar border where p. falciparum is likely driven by importation was described, whereas p. vivax is also locally transmitted. this study highlig ...201728637467
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