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isolation in portugal of west nile virus from anopheles maculipennis mosquitoes. 19724403183
potential transmission of west nile virus in the british isles: an ecological review of candidate mosquito bridge vectors.west nile virus (wnv) transmitted by mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) infects various vertebrates, being pathogenic for birds, horses and humans. after its discovery in tropical africa, sporadic outbreaks of wnv occurred during recent decades in eurasia, but not the british isles. wnv reached new york in 1999 and spread to california by 2003, causing widespread outbreaks of west nile encephalitis across north america, transmitted by many species of mosquitoes, mainly culex spp. the periodic reapp ...200515752172
[the species composition of mosquitoes and ticks in armenia].comprehensive epidemiological, entomological, virological, and parasitological studies were conducted to examine the species composition and size of bloodsucking arthropoda (mosquitoes and ticks). a total of 64,567 mosquitoes and 45,180 ixodes ticks were collected. among the mosquitoes, anopheles maculipennis was a prevalent species (81.6%). in all climatic zones, dermacentor marginatus was the largest in number and most abundant during flag collections from cattle and plants (62.5% and 95.5%, r ...200616562747
horse-, bird-, and human-seeking behavior and seasonal abundance of mosquitoes in a west nile virus focus of southern france.after 35 yr of disease absence, west nile virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv) circulation has been regularly detected in the camargue region (southern france) since 2000. wnv was isolated from culex modestus ficalbi, which was considered the main vector in southern france after horse outbreaks in the 1960s. recent wnv transmissions outside of the cx. modestus distribution suggested the existence of other vectors. to study potential wnv vectors, horse- and bird-baited traps and hum ...200617017231
[mosquito complex (diptera, culicidae) in a west nile fever focus in the volgograd region. ii. host-feeding patterns of mosquitoes in different habitats].host preference of the mosquitoes collected in the urban and rural habitats of volgograd and its suburbs was studied by the precipitation reaction test. human and avian blood was detected in cx. pipiens, cx. modestus, ae. vexans, ae. behningi, ae. caspius, ae. sticticus, and females of the anopheles maculipennis. the proportion of the mosquitoes fed on birds was similar in the urban and rural biotopes whereas that of the mosquitoes feeding on humans was significantly higher in volgograd than in ...200717657957
[a complex of blood-sucking mosquitoes (diptera, culicidae) in the focus of west nile fever in the volgograd region. iii. species feeding on birds and man and the rhythms of their nocturnal activity].the rate and nocturnal rhythm of mosquito attacks of birds and human beings were studied in the open biotopes of volgograd and its vicinity in 2004. thirteen and 11 species of the subfamily culicinae were collected under the berezantsev bell and from the traps containing a chicken (a hen), respectively; of them 9 species were common. the mosquitoes of an anopheles maculipennis complex were caught in a small portion to the traps of both types. most species of aedes were highly anthropophilic, sho ...200718277420
potential mosquito vectors of arboviruses in portugal: species, distribution, abundance and west nile infection.circulation of west nile virus in portugal was demonstrated by serological surveys, and the virus was isolated in 1969 from anopheles maculipennis s.l. a survey of the whole country was carried out (2001-2004) to assess the abundance of mosquito species and to screen them for arbovirus infection. a total of 770 collections yielded 32460 mosquitoes of 15 species. the regions with the highest abundance of mosquitoes were the coastal and estuarine districts of santarém, setúbal and faro. culex pipi ...200818455742
arboviral survey of mosquitoes in two northern italian regions in 2007 and 2008.recently, italy-particularly the emilia-romagna region-was the location of consecutive outbreaks of human diseases caused by the arboviruses chikungunya virus and west nile virus. the two outbreaks, spread by different species of mosquitoes, were not related, but pointed out the lack of an arboviral surveillance program in this region. beginning in 2007 entomological surveillance was initiated in the emilia-romagna region, and in 2008 the program was improved and extended at lombardia region. us ...201020370434
first report on entomological field activities for the surveillance of west nile disease in italy.west nile virus (wnv) is neuropathogenic for birds, horses and humans and is maintained in natural cycles between birds and mosquitoes, particularly the culex genus; horses and humans are considered to be incidental hosts. a surveillance plan was implemented in italy in 1998, following a limited outbreak of wnv equine encephalomyelitis and a wnv outbreak in france very close to the italian border. this plan to assess the risks of the virus being introduced again included entomological surveillan ...200820405446
host-feeding patterns of culex pipiens and other potential mosquito vectors (diptera: culicidae) of west nile virus (flaviviridae) collected in portugal.the host blood-feeding patterns of mosquito vectors affects the likelihood of human exposure to zoonotic pathogens, including west nile virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv). in portugal, data are unavailable regarding the blood-feeding habits of common mosquito species, including culex pipiens l., considered the primary vector of wnv to humans. the sources of bloodmeals in 203 blood-fed mosquitoes of nine species collected from june 2007 to november 2010 in 34 portuguese counties w ...201222679881
usutu virus persistence and west nile virus inactivity in the emilia-romagna region (italy) in 2011.the circulation of west nile virus and usutu virus was detected in the emilia-romagna region in 2008 and 2009. to evaluate the extent of circulation of both viruses, environmental surveillance, based on bird and mosquito testing, was conducted in 2008 and gradually improved over the years.201323667694
arboviral surveillance of field-collected mosquitoes reveals circulation of west nile virus lineage 1 strains in eastern thrace, turkey.arbovirus screening in invertebrate vectors is an important component of the vector-borne disease surveillance programs. turkey has been shown to harbor medically important mosquito-borne arboviruses such as west nile virus (wnv). however, limited information about infections in vectors are currently available. this study was performed to provide preliminary data from eastern thrace region, turkey, where no arbovirus vector surveillance has previously been performed.201323919608
ecological niche modelling of potential west nile virus vector mosquito species and their geographical association with equine epizootics in italy.in italy, west nile virus (wnv) equine outbreaks have occurred annually since 2008. characterizing wnv vector habitat requirements allows for the identification of areas at risk of viral amplification and transmission. maxent-based ecological niche models were developed using literature records of 13 potential wnv italian vector mosquito species to predict their habitat suitability range and to investigate possible geographical associations with wnv equine outbreak occurrence in italy from 2008 ...201424121802
west nile virus surveillance in mosquitoes, april to october 2013, vojvodina province, serbia: implications for the 2014 season.after the west nile virus (wnv) outbreak in 2012, we collected mosquito samples from vojvodina province, serbia, in 2013. we found high wnv infection rate in two species, culex pipiens and anopheles maculipennis. phylogenetic analysis showed that serbian wnv strains from 2013 were most closely related to italian and greek strains isolated in 2012 and 2010, respectively. public health authorities should be aware of a potentially increased risk of wnv activity during the 2014 season.201424786260
ongoing activity of toscana virus genotype a and west nile virus lineage 1 strains in turkey: a clinical and field survey.toscana virus (tosv), west nile virus (wnv) and tickborne encephalitis virus (tbev) are among major viral pathogens causing febrile disease and meningitis/encephalitis. the impact of these viruses was investigated at a referral centre in ankara province, central anatolia in 2012, where previous reports suggested virus circulation but with scarce information on clinical cases and vector activity. serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid samples from 94 individuals were evaluated, in addition to field-col ...201425285941
west nile virus in mosquitoes of iranian wetlands.the west nile virus (wnv) transmission cycle includes a wide range of migratory wetland birds as reservoirs, mosquitoes as biological vectors, and equines and humans as dead-end hosts. despite the presence of potential vector species, there is no information about the existence of wnv in mosquito vectors in iran. the iranian west azerbaijan province is located in the northwestern part of iran and has borders with turkey, iraq, armenia, and the republic of azerbaijan. the current study was conduc ...201526565610
species composition, co-occurrence, association and affinity indices of mosquito larvae (diptera: culicidae) in mazandaran province, northern iran.although considerable progress has been made in the past years in management of mosquito borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, yellow fever and west nile fever through research in biology and ecology of the vectors, these diseases are still major threats to human health. therefore, more research is required for better management of the diseases. this investigation provides information on the composition, co-occurrence, association and affinity indices of mosquito larvae in mazandaran province, ...201626805471
finding of anopheles (anopheles) hyrcanus (pallas, 1771) (diptera, culicidae) during the entomological surveillance for west nile virus in umbria, italy.this study reports the mosquito collections conducted in july-august 2013 in castiglione del lago (umbria region, italy) during the entomological surveillance within the west nile national control program. the mosquito collections showed the noteworthy occurrence of anopheles hyrcanus s.l. (n = 156; 35.8% of the whole sample), a relatively rare mosquito species in italy, with molecular analyses con rming that these mosquitoes belong to an. hyrcanus s.s. the same catching site was characterized b ...201627723051
control of mosquito-borne diseases in northwestern italy: preparedness from one season to the next.mosquito-borne diseases (mbds) are spreading worldwide due to globalization and climate change, representing a threat for both humans and animals. of great concern are the infections caused by viruses belonging to the flavivirus genus as west nile virus (wnv) and usutu virus (usuv) transmitted by culex sp. or dengue virus and zika virus (zikv), transmitted by aedes sp. this work describes the surveillance protocol enforced in piedmont (northwestern italy) to control mbds spread, focusing on the ...201728437184
molecular approaches for blood meal analysis and species identification of mosquitoes (insecta: diptera: culicidae) in rural locations in southern england, united kingdom.thirty-four species of culicidae are present in the uk, of which 15 have been implicated as potential vectors of arthropod-borne viruses such as west nile virus. identification of mosquito feeding preferences is paramount to the understanding of vector-host-pathogen interactions which, in turn, would assist in the control of disease outbreaks. results are presented on the application of dna barcoding for vertebrate species identification in blood-fed female mosquitoes in rural locations. blood-f ...201728610033
mosquito species involved in the circulation of west nile and usutu viruses in italy.usutu (usuv) and west nile (wnv) are mosquito-borne flavivirus emerged in italy in 1996 and 1998, respectively, and reappeared 10 years later. the aim of this work is to review the italian mosquito species found positive for wnv and usuv between 2008 and 2014. moreover, the role of mosquitoes in promoting the overwintering of these viruses is discussed, as a result of the mosquito collections performed in molise region between september 2010 and april 2011. overall 99,000 mosquitoes were collect ...201728675249
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