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vector competence of north american mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) for west nile virus.we evaluated the potential for several north american mosquito species to transmit the newly introduced west nile (wn) virus. mosquitoes collected in the new york city metropolitan area during the recent wn virus outbreak, at the assateague island wildlife refuge, va, or from established colonies were allowed to feed on chickens infected with wn virus isolated from a crow that died during the 1999 outbreak. these mosquitoes were tested approximately 2 wk later to determine infection, disseminati ...200111296813
ochlerotatus j. japonicus in frederick county, maryland: discovery, distribution, and vector competence for west nile virus.ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus is reported for the 1st time south of the mason-dixon line, in frederick county, maryland. fifty-seven oviposition trap samples were collected throughout the county between june 30 and august 24, 2000. from 971 larvae reared from the oviposition traps, 5 species were identified: ochlerotatus triseriatus (45%), oc. j. japonicus (43%), aedes albopictus (7%), culex pipiens (4%), and toxorynchites ritulus septentrionalis (<1%). ochlerotatus j. japonicus was found wid ...200111480822
discovery, distribution, and abundance of the newly introduced mosquito ochlerotatus japonicus (diptera: culicidae) in connecticut, usa.the earliest documented specimen of an exotic east asian mosquito ochlerotatus (finlaya) japonicis japonicus (theobald) in the western hemisphere is reported along with the results of a state wide survey to determine the distribution and abundance of this mosquito in connecticut. ochlerotatus japonicus was collected from 87 locations in eight counties. it is established throughout the state and occurs in a variety of natural and artificial container habitats including discarded tire casings, bir ...200111761373
potential north american vectors of west nile virus.the outbreak of disease in the new york area in 1999 due to west nile (wn) virus was the first evidence of the occurrence of this virus in the americas. to determine potential vectors, more than 15 mosquito species (including culex pipiens, cx. nigripalpus, cx. quinquefasciatus, cx. salinarius, aedes albopictus, ae. vexans, ochlerotatus japonicus, oc. sollicitans, oc. taeniorhynchus, and oc. triseriatus) from the eastern united states were evaluated for their ability to serve as vectors for the ...200111797788
experimental transmission of st. louis encephalitis virus by ochlerotatus j. japonicus.ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus a newly discovered nonindigenous mosquito species in north america, and a colonized strain of culex pipiens were compared for their vector competence for st. louis encephalitis virus (sle). infection rates in oc. j. japonicus were 0-33% after feeding on chickens with viremias between 10(4.1) and 10(4.7) plaque-forming units (pfu)/ml of blood. in comparison, infection rates were 12-94% for cx. pipiens that fed on the same chickens. when fed on chickens with viremi ...200312825669
a geospatial study of the potential of two exotic species of mosquitoes to impact the epidemiology of west nile virus in maryland.we used geospatial techniques to study the potential impact of 2 exotic mosquitoes, aedes albopictus and ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus, on the epidemiology of west nile virus in maryland. these 2 species have established populations in maryland over the past 15 years. larvae of both mosquito species are found in natural and artificial water-holding cavities and containers, particularly water in tires. therefore, we used locations of licensed tire dealers and of tire dumps scheduled for clean ...200314524539
field evaluation of cdc gravid trap attractants to primary west nile virus vectors, culex mosquitoes in new york state.a field study was conducted to evaluate two cdc gravid trap attractants available for the west nile virus surveillance program in new york state (nys). according to potential attractiveness, a common lawn sod in nys, kentucky bluegrass (poa pratensis) infusion and a rabbit chow infusion were compared for attractiveness to primary west nile virus vectors, culex mosquitoes. attractiveness of each infusion was measured by the number of adult mosquitoes caught in cdc gravid traps and the number of e ...200415532922
establishment of ochlerotatus japonicus (diptera: culicidae) in ontario, canada.ochlerotatus (finlaya) japonicus (theobold) is newly established in ontario, canada. it was first discovered in 2001 during the province-wide west nile virus mosquito surveillance program implemented by the ontario ministry of health and long term care. although the numbers of adults trapped in cdc light traps were low in 2001 and 2002, they increased during the 2003 and 2004 surveillance seasons. oc. japonicus larvae also have been collected in large numbers in the niagara peninsula in a variet ...200616619591
stormwater ponds, constructed wetlands, and other best management practices as potential breeding sites for west nile virus vectors in delaware during 2004.we performed longitudinal surveys of mosquito larval abundance (mean mosquito larvae per dip) in 87 stormwater ponds and constructed wetland in delaware from june to september 2004. we analyzed selected water quality factors, water depth, types of vegetation, degree of shade, and level of insect predation in relation to mosquito abundance. the 2004 season was atypical, with most ponds remaining wet for the entire summer. in terms of west nile virus (wnv) vectors, wetlands predominantly produce a ...200617019774
first record of aedes japonicus japonicus in illinois: defining its spatial distribution and associated mosquito species.since the initial discovery of aedes japonicus japonicus in 1998 from sites in the northeastern united states (new york, connecticut, and new jersey), this invasive mosquito species now permeates local faunas throughout eastern north america and continues to expand its distribution westward. in july and august of 2006, the 1st reported specimens of ae. japonicus were detected in east central illinois at 2 woodlots in southern urbana. sampling efforts were concentrated around the site of the orig ...200717939502
mosquitoes inoculate high doses of west nile virus as they probe and feed on live hosts.west nile virus (wnv) is transmitted to vertebrate hosts by mosquitoes as they take a blood meal. the amount of wnv inoculated by mosquitoes as they feed on a live host is not known. previous estimates of the amount of wnv inoculated by mosquitoes (10(1.2)-10(4.3) pfu) were based on in vitro assays that do not allow mosquitoes to probe or feed naturally. here, we developed an in vivo assay to determine the amount of wnv inoculated by mosquitoes as they probe and feed on peripheral tissues of a m ...200717941708
the effect of west nile virus perceptions and knowledge on protective behavior and mosquito breeding in residential yards in upstate new york.a knowledge, attitudes, and practices (kap) questionnaire combined with entomological surveys of residential mosquito-breeding sites were conducted in two upstate new york neighborhoods. we tested the hypothesis that "correct" west nile virus (wnv) knowledge and perceptions correspond with the use of practices that prevent mosquitoes from breeding and biting. our results demonstrate that perceptions of wnv relate to the number of positive containers in yards and the use of mosquito preventive me ...200919452223
human bloodfeeding by the recently introduced mosquito, aedes japonicus japonicus, and public health implications.knowledge of the host-feeding behavior and extent of interactions with human hosts are important in evaluating the role and vector potential of invasive mosquitoes in transmission of native arboviruses. we collected blood-engorged females of the recently established exotic species aedes japonicus japonicus from sites in new jersey during 2000 to 2007 and identified the sources of vertebrate blood meals by sequencing portions of the cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial dna. over 1/3 (36%, n = 36) o ...200919653507
microsatellite markers characterized in the mosquito aedes taeniorhynchus (diptera, culicidae), a disease vector and major pest on the american coast and the galápagos islands.the black salt-marsh mosquito, aedes taeniorhynchus, plays an important role in the transmission of arboviruses such as west nile virus and other pathogens of concern for human and animal health in north and latin america. this mosquito is notably the only widely distributed mosquito species found in the galápagos islands, where its impact as disease vector has not yet been studied. the use of microsatellite markers can significantly improve our understanding of the population structure and dyna ...200919655436
arrival and establishment of aedes japonicus japonicus (diptera: culicidae) in iowa.the arrival and establishment of aedes (finlaya) japonicus japonicus (theobald) (diptera: culicidae) in iowa are reported. in total, 518 wild adult specimens were collected through the statewide mosquito and mosquito-borne virus surveillance program in 2007 and 2008. specimens were collected with new jersey light traps, co2-baited cdc light traps, grass infusion-baited gravid traps, and mosquito magnet traps located in 12 counties in central and eastern iowa specimens were identified morphologic ...200919960671
nationwide surveillance of west nile virus targeting mosquitoes and dead birds from april 2004 through march 2007 in japan.we conducted nationwide west nile virus (wnv) surveillance targeting mosquitoes and dead birds to reveal whether the virus and its potential vectors are present in japan. a total of 12 766 mosquitoes and 230 dead birds were collected in april 2004-march 2005 (the 2004-2005 period), 10 755 mosquitoes and 267 dead birds in april 2005-march 2006 (the 2005-2006 period), and 8624 mosquitoes and 245 dead birds in april 2006-march 2007 (the 2006-2007 period). the species of most of the mosquitoes colle ...201120163573
laboratory colonization of aedes japonicus japonicus (diptera: culicidae) collected in narita, japan and the biological properties of the established colony.a laboratory colony of the mosquito aedes japonicus japonicus, which has recently invaded the united states and is recognized as a highly competent vector of west nile virus, was established from larvae collected in narita, japan. the mosquitoes were maintained with induced insemination, blood-feeding on humans, and oviposition in water provided from the original collection site during the first few generations, then the colony was transferred to a large cage (40×40×100 cm in height) and adapted ...201021099089
control of mosquitoes in catch basins in connecticut with bacillus thuringiensis israelensis, bacillus sphearicus, and spinosad.catch basins are a major source of culex pipiens pipiens, cx. restuans, and aedes japonicus in northeastern usa. vectobac cg (bacillus thuringiensis israelensis [bti]), vectolex cg (bacillus sphaericus [bs]), and vectobac 12as (bti), each applied at maximum label rate of 1.8 g, 1.8 g, and 0.193 ml per catch basin, respectively, significantly reduced the numbers of larvae for 1 wk. the dosages on the labels for treatment of mosquito larvae in catch basins, where mosquito breeding is continuous, a ...201121476447
[mosquitoes as vectors for exotic pathogens in germany].as a result of intensified globalization of international trade and of substantial travel activities, mosquito-borne exotic pathogens are becoming an increasing threat for europe. in germany some 50 different mosquito species are known, several of which have vector competence for pathogens. during the last few years a number of zoonotic arboviruses that are pathogenic for humans have been isolated from mosquitoes in germany including usutu, sindbis and batai viruses. in addition, filarial worms, ...201424781910
aedes japonicus japonicus (diptera: culicidae) from germany have vector competence for japan encephalitis virus but are refractory to infection with west nile virus.the interplay between arthropod-borne (arbo) viruses and their vectors is usually complex and often exert unique relationships. aedes japonicus japonicus (hulecoeteomyia japonica or ochlerotatus japonicus japonicus), an invasive mosquito species with laboratory proven vector competence for a number of emerging viruses has been newly introduced to germany and is currently expanding its range throughout the country. on the other hand, west nile virus (wnv), an emerging arbovirus originating from a ...201424948103
new distribution records of mosquitoes in washington state.routine west nile virus (wnv) surveillance in 2016 by the washington state department of health resulted in 1 new state distribution record for aedes hendersoni, bringing the total number of mosquito species reported from washington to 52. we also report new county records for aedes japonicus japonicus, aedes togoi, and culex salinarius .201728388317
host preferences in host-seeking and blood-fed mosquitoes in switzerland.the avian zoonotic agent for west nile virus (wnv) can cause neuroinvasive disease in horses and humans and is expanding its range in europe. analyses of the risk for transmission to these hosts in non-endemic areas are necessary. host preferences of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae), the main vectors of wnv, were determined in switzerland using animal-baited trap (horse, chickens) experiments at a natural and a periurban site. this was undertaken on four occasions during may-september 2014. in ad ...201626685926
comparison of mosquito magnet and biogents sentinel traps for operational surveillance of container-inhabiting aedes (diptera: culicidae) species.container-inhabiting aedes are among the most medically important mosquito vectors of diseases. they also impact health and quality of life by their persistent and severe biting. monitoring of container-inhabiting aedes species is challenging due to the need for specialized traps and lures. biogents sentinel (bgs) trap has become a standard for aedes albopictus (skuse) surveillance; however, it has substantial problems with durability, quality of construction, and sample exposure to the elements ...201626520482
potential transmission of west nile virus in the british isles: an ecological review of candidate mosquito bridge vectors.west nile virus (wnv) transmitted by mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) infects various vertebrates, being pathogenic for birds, horses and humans. after its discovery in tropical africa, sporadic outbreaks of wnv occurred during recent decades in eurasia, but not the british isles. wnv reached new york in 1999 and spread to california by 2003, causing widespread outbreaks of west nile encephalitis across north america, transmitted by many species of mosquitoes, mainly culex spp. the periodic reapp ...200515752172
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