infection of the mosquito aedes aegypti with infectious west nile virus-antibody complexes.aedes aegypti fed through chick skin membranes on west nile virus-homologous antiserum mixtures shown by an anti-globulin neutralization test to be highly infectious complexes (in terms of plaque formation in tissue culture) failed to become infected. control mosquitoes fed on west nile virus--normal rabbit serum mixtures containing similar or smaller amounts of infectious virus were shown to become infected. mosquitoes ingesting suspensions of west nile virus previously incubated with murray va ...19751080913
microcarriers as a culturing system of insect cells and insect viruses.there is an increasing interest in culturing of insect cells, which are host for arthropod-born (arbo) viruses. the potential applications of arbo viruses are in the following two main fields: 1. medical applications (e.g. preparation of viral vaccines and viral antigens for diagnostic purposes). 2. as bioinsecticides in pest control in horticulture, agriculture and forestry. one of the potential cell substrates for these applications is an anchorage-dependent-mosquito cell line established from ...19872438174
dual infections of aedes aegypti l. with plasmodium gallinaceum brumpt and west nile virus. 19665944664
vector competence of north american mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) for west nile virus.we evaluated the potential for several north american mosquito species to transmit the newly introduced west nile (wn) virus. mosquitoes collected in the new york city metropolitan area during the recent wn virus outbreak, at the assateague island wildlife refuge, va, or from established colonies were allowed to feed on chickens infected with wn virus isolated from a crow that died during the 1999 outbreak. these mosquitoes were tested approximately 2 wk later to determine infection, disseminati ...200111296813
observation on the biology of west nile virus, with special reference to its behaviour in the mosquito aëdes aegypti. 195413149118
failure to obtain experimental transovarian transmission of west nile virus by aedes aegypti. 196314101931
critical review of the vector status of aedes albopictus.the mosquito aedes (stegomyia) albopictus (skuse) (diptera: culicidae), originally indigenous to south-east asia, islands of the western pacific and indian ocean, has spread during recent decades to africa, the mid-east, europe and the americas (north and south) after extending its range eastwards across pacific islands during the early 20th century. the majority of introductions are apparently due to transportation of dormant eggs in tyres. among public health authorities in the newly infested ...200415347388
host range, amplification and arboviral disease emergence.etiologic agents of arboviral diseases are primarily zoonotic pathogens that are maintained in nature in cycles involving arthropod transmission among a variety of susceptible reservoir hosts. in the simplest form of human exposure, spillover occurs from the enzootic cycle when humans enter zoonotic foci and/or enzootic amplification increases circulation near humans. examples include eastern (eeev) and western equine encephalitis viruses (weev), as well as west nile (wnv), st. louis encephaliti ...200516358422
eastern cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) develop west nile virus viremias sufficient for infecting select mosquito species.the potential of the eastern cottontail rabbit (ctr; sylvilagus floridanus) to contribute to an enzootic west nile virus (wnv) cycle was demonstrated by characterizing the wnv viremia profile of 15 ctrs and demonstrating that mosquitoes could become infected by feeding on these ctrs. eight ctrs were infected with a titer of 10(5.0) cell-infectious dose 50% endpoints (cid50s) of wnv (ny99-crow) by needle and seven ctrs by bite of one or more wnv-infected mosquitoes. there were no marked differenc ...200516417430
identification and characterization of an odorant receptor from the west nile virus mosquito, culex quinquefasciatus.members of the culex pipens mosquito group including c. quinquefasciatus are responsible for the transmission of bancroftian filarisis as well as west nile virus (wnv) in the united states. as is the case for other mosquitoes, the host preference of this disease vector relies on olfaction and accordingly mediated via g-protein coupled signal transduction pathways. here, we identify and characterize cqor7, the first candidate member of the odorant receptor gene family from c. quinquefasciatus. cq ...200616503478
does japanese encephalitis virus share the same cellular receptor with other mosquito-borne flaviviruses on the c6/36 mosquito cells?japanese encephalitis virus (jev) is a member of mosquito-borne flaviviridae. to date, the mechanisms of the early events of jev infection remain poorly understood, and the cellular receptors are unidentified. there are evidences that the structure of the virus attachment proteins (vap), envelope glycoprotein of mosquito-borne flaviviruses is very similar, and the vector-virus interaction of mosquito-borne flaviviruses is also very similar. based on the studies previously demonstrated that the s ...200717803826
relative susceptibilties of south texas mosquitoes to infection with west nile virus.three species of mosquitoes (culex pipiens quinquefasciatus, aedes aegypti, and ae. albopictus) collected in texas were compared with respect to their relative susceptibility to infection with west nile virus (wnv) strain 114. oral infection and dissemination rates were 73% infected with 86% dissemination for ae. aegypti, 13% infected with 100% dissemination for ae. albopictus, and 100% infected and disseminated for cx. p. quinquefasciatus. the oral infectious dose required to establish a 50% in ...200717984355
genomic resources for invertebrate vectors of human pathogens, and the role of vectorbase.high-throughput genome sequencing techniques have now reached vector biology with an emphasis on those species that are vectors of human pathogens. the first mosquito to be sequenced was anopheles gambiae, the vector for plasmodium parasites that cause malaria. further mosquitoes have followed: aedes aegypti (yellow fever and dengue fever vector) and culex pipiens (lymphatic filariasis and west nile fever). species that are currently in sequencing include the body louse pediculus humanus (typhus ...200918262474
vector competence of selected african mosquito (diptera: culicidae) species for rift valley fever virus.outbreaks of rift valley fever (rvf) in egypt, yemen, and saudi arabia have indicated the potential for this disease to spread from its enzootic areas in sub-saharan africa. because little is known about the potential for most african mosquito species to transmit rvf virus (family bunyaviridae, genus phlebovirus, rvfv), we conducted studies to determine the vector competence of selected african species of mosquitoes for this virus. all eight species tested [aedes palpalis (newstead), aedes mcint ...200818283949
cnact-1 gene is differentially expressed in the subtropical mosquito culex nigripalpus (diptera: culicidae), the primary west nile virus vector in florida.analysis of differentially expressed genes is a common molecular biological tool to investigate changes in mosquito genes after a bloodmeal or parasite exposure. we report here the characterization of a differentially expressed actin gene, cnact-1, from the subtropical mosquito, culex nigripalpus theobald (diptera: culicidae). the cnact-1 genomic clone is 1.525 kb, includes one 66-bp intron, and a 328-bp 3'-untranslated region. the 376-amino acid putative translation product shares high similari ...200818826030
mosquito vector control and biology in latin america--an 18th symposium.the 18th annual latin american symposium presented by the american mosquito control association (amca) was held as part of the 74th annual meeting in sparks, nv, in march 2008. the principal objective, as for the previous 17 symposia, was to promote participation in the amca by vector control specialists, public health workers, and academicians from latin america. this publication includes summaries of 35 presentations that were given orally in spanish or presented as posters by participants fro ...200819181067
mosquito-borne diseases.despite centuries of control efforts, mosquito-borne diseases are flourishing worldwide. with a disproportionate effect on children and adolescents, these conditions are responsible for substantial global morbidity and mortality. malaria kills more than 1 million children annually, chiefly in sub-saharan africa. dengue virus has expanded its range over the past several decades, following its principal vector, aedes aegypti, back into regions from which it was eliminated in the mid-20th century a ...200919327647
seasonal and habitat effects on dengue and west nile virus vectors in san juan, puerto rico.the presence of west nile (wnv) and dengue viruses and the lack of recent mosquito surveys in puerto rico prompted an investigation on the distribution and abundance of potential arbovirus vectors in the san juan metropolitan area, and their variation with seasons and habitats. we sampled mosquitoes in early and late 2005 in 58 sites from forests, nonforest vegetation, wetlands, and high- and low-density housing areas using ovijars, centers for disease control and prevention miniature light/co2 ...200919432067
west nile virus infection alters midgut gene expression in culex pipiens quinquefasciatus say (diptera: culicidae).alterations in gene expression in the midgut of female culex pipiens quinquefasciatus exposed to blood meals containing 6.8 logs plaque-forming units/ml of west nile virus (wnv) were studied by fluorescent differential display. twenty-six different cdnas exhibited reproducible differences after feeding on infected blood. of these, 21 cdnas showed an increase in expression, and 5 showed a decrease in expression as a result of wnv presence in the blood meal. genbank database searches showed that o ...200919635880
microsatellite markers characterized in the mosquito aedes taeniorhynchus (diptera, culicidae), a disease vector and major pest on the american coast and the galápagos islands.the black salt-marsh mosquito, aedes taeniorhynchus, plays an important role in the transmission of arboviruses such as west nile virus and other pathogens of concern for human and animal health in north and latin america. this mosquito is notably the only widely distributed mosquito species found in the galápagos islands, where its impact as disease vector has not yet been studied. the use of microsatellite markers can significantly improve our understanding of the population structure and dyna ...200919655436
the adipokinetic hormone system in culicinae (diptera: culicidae): molecular identification and characterization of two adipokinetic hormone (akh) precursors from aedes aegypti and culex pipiens and two putative akh receptor variants from a. aegypti.insect neuropeptides of the adipokinetic hormone (akh) family induce the mobilization of energy stores to fuel flight, but also affect the nutritional balance during diapause and oogenesis. they are therefore important regulators for flight, hibernation, and reproduction in mosquitoes including those that transmit human pathogens. in this study, we identified and analyzed the genes encoding two akh preprohormones in the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti: aedae-akh-i encodes the octapeptide pe ...200919748585
present and future arboviral threats.arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are important causes of human disease nearly worldwide. all arboviruses circulate among wild animals, and many cause disease after spillover transmission to humans and agriculturally important domestic animals that are incidental or dead-end hosts. viruses such as dengue (denv) and chikungunya (chikv) that have lost the requirement for enzootic amplification now produce extensive epidemics in tropical urban centers. many arboviruses recently have increased i ...201019857523
potential vectors of west nile virus in a semiarid environment: doña ana county, new mexico.the potential vectors of west nile virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv) in doña ana county, nm, were determined during 2004 and 2005. trapping was conducted using centers for disease control and prevention miniature light-traps baited with dry ice, and gravid traps baited with a hay infusion. in addition, sentinel chickens were housed at four of the trapping locations to monitor wnv epizootic transmission. in total, 5,576 pools consisting of 115,797 female mosquitoes were tested fo ...200919960700
infection and vertical transmission of kamiti river virus in laboratory bred aedes aegypti mosquitoes.kamiti river virus (krv) is an insect-only flavivirus that was isolated from field-collected ae. macintoshi mosquitoes in 1999, and is closely related to cell fusing agent virus. both of these viruses belong to the family flaviviridae, which also contains other viruses of medical importance, such as yellow fever virus, west nile virus and dengue. because ae. macintoshi is the only known natural host to krv, the main objective of this study was to establish the possibility that other mosquito hos ...200720337552
an odorant receptor from the southern house mosquito culex pipiens quinquefasciatus sensitive to oviposition attractants.insect odorant receptors (ors) are heteromers comprised of highly variable odorant-binding subunits associated with one conserved co-receptor. they are potential molecular targets for the development of novel mosquito attractants and repellents. ors have been identified in the malaria mosquito, anopheles gambiae, and in the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti. however, they are still unknown in the southern house mosquito, culex quinquefasciatus, which transmits pathogens that cause human disea ...201020386699
rapid identification of vector-borne flaviviruses by mass spectrometry.flaviviruses are a highly diverse group of rna viruses classified within the genus flavivirus, family flaviviridae. most flaviviruses are arthropod-borne, requiring a mosquito or tick vector. several flaviviruses are highly pathogenic to humans; however, their high genetic diversity and immunological relatedness makes them extremely challenging to diagnose. in this study, we developed and evaluated a broad-range flavivirus assay designed to detect both tick- and mosquito-borne flaviviruses by us ...201020412852
vitellogenin gene expression in autogenous culex tarsalis.autogeny, the ability of a mosquito to mature an initial batch of eggs without blood feeding, is an alternative reproductive strategy with important implications for vector-borne disease transmission. regulation of the major yolk protein (vitellogenin; vg) genes during bloodmeal-induced oogenesis is well studied, but little is known about regulation of vitellogenesis in autogenous mosquitoes. we characterized the expression of four vitellogenin genes (vg1a, vg1b, vg2a and vg2b) in an autogenous ...201020456510
aedes aegypti saliva alters leukocyte recruitment and cytokine signaling by antigen-presenting cells during west nile virus infection.west nile virus (wnv) is transmitted during mosquito bloodfeeding. consequently, the first vertebrate cells to contact wnv are cells in the skin, followed by those in the draining lymph node. macrophages and dendritic cells are critical early responders in host defense against wnv infection, not just because of their role in orchestrating the immune response, but also because of their importance as sites of early peripheral viral replication. antigen-presenting cell (apc) signals have a profound ...201020661470
the native wolbachia endosymbionts of drosophila melanogaster and culex quinquefasciatus increase host resistance to west nile virus infection.the bacterial endosymbiont wolbachia pipientis has been shown to increase host resistance to viral infection in native drosophila hosts and in the normally wolbachia-free heterologous host aedes aegypti when infected by wolbachia from drosophila melanogaster or aedes albopictus. wolbachia infection has not yet been demonstrated to increase viral resistance in a native wolbachia-mosquito host system.201020700535
a c-type lectin collaborates with a cd45 phosphatase homolog to facilitate west nile virus infection of mosquitoes.west nile virus (wnv) is the most common arthropod-borne flavivirus in the united states; however, the vector ligand(s) that participate in infection are not known. we now show that an aedes aegypti c-type lectin, mosgctl-1, is induced by wnv, interacts with wnv in a calcium-dependent manner, and facilitates infection in vivo and in vitro. a mosquito homolog of human cd45 in a. aegypti, designated mosptp-1, recruits mosgctl-1 to enable viral attachment to cells and to enhance viral entry. in viv ...201020797779
genome-based microsatellite development in the culex pipiens complex and comparative microsatellite frequency with aedes aegypti and anopheles gambiae.mosquitoes in the culex pipiens complex are among the most medically important vectors for human disease worldwide and include major vectors for lymphatic filariasis and west nile virus transmission. however, detailed genetic studies in the complex are limited by the number of genetic markers available. here, we describe methods for the rapid and efficient identification and development of single locus, highly polymorphic microsatellite markers for cx. pipiens complex mosquitoes via in silico sc ...201020927334
sequencing of culex quinquefasciatus establishes a platform for mosquito comparative genomics.culex quinquefasciatus (the southern house mosquito) is an important mosquito vector of viruses such as west nile virus and st. louis encephalitis virus, as well as of nematodes that cause lymphatic filariasis. c. quinquefasciatus is one species within the culex pipiens species complex and can be found throughout tropical and temperate climates of the world. the ability of c. quinquefasciatus to take blood meals from birds, livestock, and humans contributes to its ability to vector pathogens bet ...201020929810
pathogenomics of culex quinquefasciatus and meta-analysis of infection responses to diverse pathogens.the mosquito culex quinquefasciatus poses a substantial threat to human and veterinary health as a primary vector of west nile virus (wnv), the filarial worm wuchereria bancrofti, and an avian malaria parasite. comparative phylogenomics revealed an expanded canonical c. quinquefasciatus immune gene repertoire compared with those of aedes aegypti and anopheles gambiae. transcriptomic analysis of c. quinquefasciatus genes responsive to wnv, w. bancrofti, and non-native bacteria facilitated an unpr ...201020929811
mosquito vector biology and control in latin america--a 20th symposium.the 20th annual latin american symposium presented by the american mosquito control association (amca) was held as part of the 76th annual meeting in lexington, ky, in march 2010. the principal objective, as for the previous 19 symposia, was to promote participation in the amca by vector control specialists, public health workers, and academicians from latin america. this publication includes summaries of 40 presentations that were given orally in spanish or presented as posters by participants ...201021033058
haematophageous vector monitoring in djibouti city from 2008 to 2009: first records of culex pipiens ssp. torridus (iglisch), and anopheles sergentii (theobald).the horn of africa represents a region formerly known to be highly susceptible to mosquito-borne infectious diseases. in order to monitor and analyze the current presence and threat of vector mosquitoes, continuous and standardized trapping using cdc light traps without an additional co2-generator has been carried out at six selected monitoring sites located in djibouti city, from august 2008 until december 2009. an overall of 620 haematophageous diptera were trapped, 603 (97.3%) were mosquitoes ...201021246936
mosquito species abundance and diversity in malindi, kenya and their potential implication in pathogen transmission.mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) are important vectors of human disease-causing pathogens. mosquitoes are found both in rural and urban areas. deteriorating infrastructure, poor access to health, water and sanitation services, increasing population density, and widespread poverty contribute to conditions that modify the environment, which directly influences the risk of disease within the urban and peri-urban ecosystem. the objective of this study was to evaluate the mosquito vector abundance and ...201121626425
Adulticidal and repellent properties of indigenous plant extracts against Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikunguniya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. The adulticidal and repellent activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform, and methanol extracts of leaf of Eclipta alba and Andrographis pa ...201122009267
Alterations in the Aedes aegypti transcriptome during infection with West Nile, dengue and yellow fever viruses.West Nile (WNV), dengue (DENV) and yellow fever (YFV) viruses are (re)emerging, mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause human disease and mortality worldwide. Alterations in mosquito gene expression common and unique to individual flaviviral infections are poorly understood. Here, we present a microarray analysis of the Aedes aegypti transcriptome over time during infection with DENV, WNV or YFV. We identified 203 mosquito genes that were = 5-fold differentially up-regulated (DUR) and 202 genes t ...201121909258
Functional validation of the carbon dioxide receptor genes in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes using RNA interference.Carbon dioxide (CO(2) ) is an important long-range chemosensory cue used by blood-feeding female mosquitoes to find their hosts. The CO(2) receptor in Drosophila melanogaster was previously determined to be a heterodimer comprised of two gustatory receptor (Gr) proteins, DmGr21a and DmGr63a. In the mosquito Aedes aegypti, two putative orthologous genes, AaGr1 and AaGr3, were identified in the genome database, along with an apparent paralogue of AaGr1, AaGr2. In this study, RNA interference (RNA ...201122122783
transmission-blocking antibodies against mosquito c-type lectins for dengue prevention.c-type lectins are a family of proteins with carbohydrate-binding activity. several c-type lectins in mammals or arthropods are employed as receptors or attachment factors to facilitate flavivirus invasion. we previously identified a c-type lectin in aedes aegypti, designated as mosquito galactose specific c-type lectin-1 (mosgctl-1), facilitating the attachment of west nile virus (wnv) on the cell membrane. here, we first identified that 9 a. aegypti mosgctl genes were key susceptibility factor ...201424550728
detection of dengue, west nile virus, rickettsiosis and leptospirosis by a new real-time pcr strategy.dengue virus (denv) infection causes sudden fever along with several nonspecific signs and symptoms and in severe cases, death. denv is transmitted to people by aedes aegypti and ae. albopictus mosquitoes, whose populations increase during rainy season. west nile virus (wnv), rickettsia spp. and leptospira spp. are fever-causing pathogens that share many of the initial symptoms of denv infection and also thrive in the rainy season. outbreaks in some regions may be due to any of these pathogens t ...201627350908
the insect-specific palm creek virus modulates west nile virus infection in and transmission by australian mosquitoes.insect-specific viruses do not replicate in vertebrate cells, but persist in mosquito populations and are highly prevalent in nature. these viruses may naturally regulate the transmission of pathogenic vertebrate-infecting arboviruses in co-infected mosquitoes. following the isolation of the first australian insect-specific flavivirus (isf), palm creek virus (pcv), we investigated routes of infection and transmission of this virus in key australian arbovirus vectors and its impact on replication ...201627457250
yellow fever virus capsid protein is a potent suppressor of rna silencing that binds double-stranded rna.mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including yellow fever virus (yfv), zika virus (zikv), and west nile virus (wnv), profoundly affect human health. the successful transmission of these viruses to a human host depends on the pathogen's ability to overcome a potentially sterilizing immune response in the vector mosquito. similar to other invertebrate animals and plants, the mosquito's rna silencing pathway comprises its primary antiviral defense. although a diverse range of plant and insect viruses has ...201627849599
effect of wolbachia on replication of west nile virus in a mosquito cell line and adult mosquitoes.wolbachia as an endosymbiont is widespread in insects and other arthropods and is best known for reproductive manipulations of the host. recently, it has been shown that wmelpop and wmel strains of wolbachia inhibit the replication of several rna viruses, including dengue virus, and other vector-borne pathogens (e.g., plasmodium and filarial nematodes) in mosquitoes, providing an alternative approach to limit the transmission of vector-borne pathogens. in this study, we tested the effect of wolb ...201223115298
the effect of west nile virus infection on the midgut gene expression of culex pipiens quinquefasciatus say (diptera: culicidae).the interaction of the mosquito and the invading virus is complex and can result in physiological and gene expression alterations in the insect. the association of west nile virus (wnv) and culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquitoes results in measurable changes in gene expression; 22 gene products were shown previously to have altered expression. sequence analysis of one product, cq g1a1, revealed 100% amino acid identity to gram negative bacteria binding proteins (cpqgbp) in cx. p. quinquefasci ...201627999244
larvicidal activity and possible mode of action of four flavonoids and two fatty acids identified in millettia pinnata seed toward three mosquito species.aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus and culex pipiens pallens mosquitoes transmit dengue fever and west nile virus diseases, respectively. this study was conducted to determine the toxicity and mechanism of action of four flavonoids and two fatty acids from millettia pinnata (fabaceae) seed as well as six pure fatty acids and four fatty acid esters toward third instar larvae from insecticide-susceptible c. pipiens pallens and a. aegypti as well as wild a. albopictus. efficacy of 12 experimental l ...201525928224
dopamine receptor antagonists as new mode-of-action insecticide leads for control of aedes and culex mosquito mode-of-action insecticides are sought to provide continued control of pesticide resistant arthropod vectors of neglected tropical diseases (ntds). we previously identified antagonists of the aadop2 d1-like dopamine receptor (dar) from the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti, with toxicity to ae. aegypti larvae as leads for novel insecticides. to extend dar-based insecticide discovery, we evaluated the molecular and pharmacological characteristics of an orthologous dar target, cqdop2, from ...201525793586
novel dicarboxylate selectivity in an insect glutamate transporter homolog.mammals express seven transporters from the slc1 (solute carrier 1) gene family, including five acidic amino acid transporters (eaat1-5) and two neutral amino acid transporters (asct1-2). in contrast, insects of the order diptera possess only two slc1 genes. in this work we show that in the mosquito culex quinquefasciatus, a carrier of west nile virus, one of its two slc1 eaat-like genes encodes a transporter that displays an unusual selectivity for dicarboxylic acids over acidic amino acids. in ...201323951049
inhibition and larvicidal activity of phenylpropanoids from piper sarmentosum on acetylcholinesterase against mosquito vectors and their binding mode of interaction.aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus and culex quinquefasciatus are vectors of dengue fever and west nile virus diseases. this study was conducted to determine the toxicity, mechanism of action and the binding interaction of three active phenylpropanoids from piper sarmentosum (piperaceae) toward late 3rd or early 4th larvae of above vectors. a bioassay guided-fractionation on the hexane extract from the roots of piper sarmentosum led to the isolation and identification of three active phenylpropanoi ...201627152416
bicluster pattern of codon context usages between flavivirus and vector mosquito aedes aegypti: relevance to infection and transcriptional response of mosquito genes.the mosquito aedes aegypti is the primary vector of dengue virus (denv) infection in most of the subtropical and tropical countries. besides denv, yellow fever virus (yfv) is also transmitted by a. aegypti. susceptibility of a. aegypti to west nile virus (wnv) has also been confirmed. although studies have indicated correlation of codon bias between flaviviridae and their animal/insect hosts, it is not clear if codon sequences have any relation to susceptibility of a. aegypti to denv, yfv and wn ...201424838953
translational selection of genes coding for perfectly conserved proteins among three mosquito vectors.the biased usage of synonymous codons affects translational efficiency of genes. we studied codon usage patterns of genes that are perfectly conserved at the amino acid level among three important mosquito vector species: aedes aegypti (vector of dengue virus), anopheles gambiae (vector of malaria) and culex quinquefasciatus (vector of lymphatic filariasis and west nile virus). although these proteins have the same amino acid sequences, non-random usage of synonymous codons is evident among the ...201222705463
[epidemiologic situation on dangerous infectious diseases on the territory of republic of abkhazia].data from literature and results of epizootological examination of the territory of republic of abkhazia in 2011 and 2012 that confirm the presence in the republic of natural foci of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, west nile fever, crimean hemorrhagic fever, tick-borne encephalitis, q fever, tahyna, inkoo, bhanja, sindbis fever, anaplasmosis, tick-borne borreliosis, tularemia and leptospirosis are presented. rabies and anthrax are actual for abkhazia. spread of aedes aegypti mosquitos in ...201424605653
a mosquito survey of the twin-island caribbean nation of saint kitts and nevis, mosquito surveys of saint kitts and nevis (skn) were performed in the dry season (march 16-23, 2010) in saint kitts, and the rainy season (october 18-25, 2010) in skn. biogents (bg) sentinel traps were set with co₂and bg lure in urban, rural, mangrove, and dry forest habitats. mosquitoes were identified to species, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed on potential vector species for dengue virus (denv), chikungunya virus (chikv), and west nile virus (wnv). the ...201526675458
comparison of stable and transient wolbachia infection models in aedes aegypti to block dengue and west nile viruses.pathogen replication and transmission in wolbachia infected insects are currently studied using three wolbachia infection systems: naturally infected wolbachia hosts, hosts transinfected with wolbachia (stably maintained and inherited infections) and hosts transiently infected with wolbachia. all three systems have been used to test the effect of wolbachia on mosquito transmitted pathogens such as dengue virus (denv), west nile virus (wnv) and plasmodium. from these studies it is becoming increa ...201728052065
zika virus: a new arboviral public health problem.zika virus (zikv) is a single-stranded rna virus in the flaviviridae family and transmitted to human through infected mosquitos (aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus). virus is closely related with other flaviviruses; dengue virus, yellow fever virus, west nile virus, and japanese encephalitis virus phylogenetically. due to the possible relationship between virus and clinical features including microcephaly, ventricule, and eye deformities, guillain-barre syndrome increases the interest on this vi ...201627469112
zika virus infections: an overview of current scenario.zika virus (zikv) was discovered more than half a century ago, recently it has gained unprecedented attention by the global health community. until 2007, only 14 cases of human zikv infections were reported around the globe, while during the current outbreak, estimated cases mounted to approximately 1.5 million in brazil alone, the virus was disseminated to wider south-american territories and travel-associated zikv infections were reported in usa, europe and recently in china. zikv infections r ...201627393087
natural transovarial transmission of dengue virus 4 in aedes aegypti from cuiabá, state of mato grosso, brazil.dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease in tropical areas. in mato grosso, outbreaks are reported every year, but studies on dengue in this state are scarce.201525860459
larvicidal and adulticidal activity of chroman and chromene analogues against susceptible and permethrin-resistant mosquito strains.mosquitoes play a major role as vectors that transmit parasitic and viral diseases worldwide, especially in tropical and subtropical countries. mosquito borne diseases not only affect humans but they also affect livestock in many parts of the world. they carry diseases that are lethal to dogs and horses. dog heartworm disease (dirofilaria immitis) is a parasitic disease spread through mosquitoes. this disease is not limited to dogs, but it can affect other animals and humans as well. eastern equ ...201627249182
molecular expression of aquaporin mrnas in the northern house mosquito, culex pipiens.aquaporins (aqps) are a family of membrane-bound proteins, originally described as water-channels, that broadly exist in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. however, some aqps can transport small molecules (e.g. urea, glycerol) along with or preferentially to water. previous work in the mosquitoes aedes aegypti and anopheles gambiae have characterized the molecular expression of one or more aqp genes and shown that they are involved in water homeostasis after blood feeding, tolerance to dehydratio ...201727773635
declining malaria, rising of dengue and zika virus: insights for mosquito vector control.the fight against mosquito-borne diseases is a challenge of huge public health importance. to our mind, 2015 was an extraordinary year for malaria control, due to three hot news: the nobel prize to youyou tu for the discovery of artemisinin, the development of the first vaccine against plasmodium falciparum malaria [i.e. rts,s/as01 (rts,s)], and the fall of malaria infection rates worldwide, with special reference to sub-saharan africa. however, there are major challenges that still deserve atte ...201626932263
modelling wolbachia infection in a sex-structured mosquito population carrying west nile virus.wolbachia is possibly the most studied reproductive parasite of arthropod species. it appears to be a promising candidate for biocontrol of some mosquito borne diseases. we begin by developing a sex-structured model for a wolbachia infected mosquito population. our model incorporates the key effects of wolbachia infection including cytoplasmic incompatibility and male killing. we also allow the possibility of reduced reproductive output, incomplete maternal transmission, and different mortality ...201728097419
epa-registered repellents for mosquitoes transmitting emerging viral many parts of the united states, mosquitoes were previously nuisance pests. however, they now represent a potential threat in the spread of viral diseases. the aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus, and culex species mosquitoes are endemic to the united states and together may transmit a variety of viral diseases of growing concern, including west nile virus, chikungunya, dengue fever, and zika virus. the centers for disease control and prevention and the environmental protection agency (epa) recom ...201627779781
genetic drift during systemic arbovirus infection of mosquito vectors leads to decreased relative fitness during host switching.the emergence of mosquito-borne rna viruses, such as west nile virus (wnv), is facilitated by genetically complex virus populations within hosts. here, we determine whether wnv enzootic (culex tarsalis, cx. quinquefasciatus, and cx. pipiens) and bridge vectors (aedes aegypti) have differential impacts on viral mutational diversity and fitness. during systemic mosquito infection, wnv faced stochastic reductions in genetic diversity that rapidly was recovered during intra-tissue population expansi ...201627049584
larvicidal activity of magnolia denudata seed hydrodistillate constituents and related compounds and liquid formulations towards two susceptible and two wild mosquito species.anopheles sinensis, aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus and culex pipiens pallens mosquitoes transmit malaria, dengue fever and west nile virus diseases respectively. this study was conducted to determine the toxicity of 17 constituents from magnolia denudata seed hydrodistillate (md-shd) and four experimental md-shd liquid formulations (10-50 mg l(-1) liquid) to third-instar larvae from insecticide-susceptible cx. p. pallens and ae. aegypti as well as wild ae. albopictus and an. sinensis.201626085316
[detection of flavivirus in mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) from easter island-chile].flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, mainly by mosquitoes of the genera aedes and culex (culicidae) that are detected in tropical and subtropical areas. main flaviviruses of public health importance are: dengue, west nile virus, yellow fever, among others. in continental chile, flaviviruses has not been detected. however, there are indigenous cases of dengue detected in easter island since 2002, as the presence of its vector aedes aegypti. the aim of this study was: to determine diversity o ...201525860055
ovicidal and adulticidal potential of leaf and seed extract of albizia lebbeck (l.) benth. (family: fabaceae) against culex quinquefasciatus, aedes aegypti, and anopheles stephensi (diptera: culicidae).several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, west nile virus, and yellow fever. these diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. in the present study, hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of leaf and seed of albizia lebbeck were assayed for their toxicity agai ...201525681143
laboratory evaluation of indian medicinal plants as repellents against malaria, dengue, and filariasis vector mosquitoes.mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, west nile virus, and yellow fever. these diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world ...201525399815
ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal properties of asparagus racemosus (willd.) (family: asparagaceae) root extracts against filariasis (culex quinquefasciatus), dengue (aedes aegypti) and malaria (anopheles stephensi) vector mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae).several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, west nile virus and yellow fever. these diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. the present investigation was undertaken to study the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal activities of crude hexane, ethyl acetate, benzene, chloroform and met ...201424488078
green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using sida acuta (malvaceae) leaf extract against culex quinquefasciatus, anopheles stephensi, and aedes aegypti (diptera: culicidae).mosquitoes act as a vector for most of the life-threatening diseases like malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, filariasis, encephalitis, west nile virus infection, etc. under the integrated mosquito management, emphasis was given on the application of alternative strategies in mosquito control. the continuous application of synthetic insecticides causes development of resistance in vector species, biological magnification of toxic substances through the food chain, and adverse ...201324005479
fine scale spatial urban land cover factors associated with adult mosquito abundance and risk in tucson, is currently unclear what role microhabitat land cover plays in determining the seasonal spatial distribution of aedes aegypti and culex quinquefasciatus, disease vectors of dengue and west nile virus, respectively, in tucson, az. we compared mosquito abundance to sixteen land cover variables derived from 2010 naip multispectral data and 2008 lidar height data. mosquitoes were trapped with 30-9 traps from may to october of 2010 and 2011. variables were extracted for five buffer zones (10-50 m ...201223181866
larvicidal, pupicidal, repellent and adulticidal activity of citrus sinensis orange peel extract against anopheles stephensi, aedes aegypti and culex quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae).mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikunguniya fever, west nile virus and yellow fever. these diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. the present study explored the effects of orange peel ethanol extract of citrus sinensis on larvicidal, pupicidal, repellent and adulticidal activity against anopheles stephensi, aedes aegypti and culex quinquefasciatus. the or ...201222797605
host-feeding patterns of culex pipiens and other potential mosquito vectors (diptera: culicidae) of west nile virus (flaviviridae) collected in portugal.the host blood-feeding patterns of mosquito vectors affects the likelihood of human exposure to zoonotic pathogens, including west nile virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus, wnv). in portugal, data are unavailable regarding the blood-feeding habits of common mosquito species, including culex pipiens l., considered the primary vector of wnv to humans. the sources of bloodmeals in 203 blood-fed mosquitoes of nine species collected from june 2007 to november 2010 in 34 portuguese counties w ...201222679881
rapid identification of virus-carrying mosquitoes using reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification.mosquitoes are critical vectors in many arboviral transmission cycles. considering the increasing incidence of arboviral infections throughout the world, monitoring of vector populations for the presence of an arbovirus could be considered an important initial step of risk assessment to humans and animals. in response to this need, increased efforts to develop rapid and reliable diagnostic techniques have been undertaken; a single-step reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification ...200919027038
cell fusing agent virus and dengue virus mutually interact in aedes aegypti cell lines.the genus flavivirus contains more than 70 single-stranded, positive-sense arthropod-borne rna viruses. some flaviviruses are particularly medically important to humans and other vertebrates including dengue virus (denv), west nile virus, and yellow fever virus. these viruses are transmitted to vertebrates by mosquitoes and other arthropod species. mosquitoes are also infected by insect-specific flaviviruses (isfs) that do not appear to be infective to vertebrates. cell fusing agent virus (cfav) ...201728761113
[arboviruses also have an american dream].some arboviruses that originated in the old world have been introduced by humans into the american continent. the first of them was the yellow fever virus, coming from the west african coast with slaves in the 17th-19th centuries, followed by dengue viruses, which were always prevalent within the americas. next was thewest nile virus, introduced in new york in 1999, that spread in only a few years over the whole continent. then, chikungunya virus arrived on saint martin island in 2013 after its ...201728509947
zika, chikungunya, and other emerging vector-borne viral diseases.arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have a long history of emerging to infect humans, but during recent decades, they have been spreading more widely and affecting larger populations. this is due to several factors, including increased air travel and uncontrolled mosquito vector populations. emergence can involve simple spillover from enzootic (wildlife) cycles, as in the case of west nile virus accompanying geographic expansion into the americas; secondary amplification in domesticated animal ...201728846489
interaction of flavivirus with their mosquito vectors and their impact on the human health in the americas.some of the major arboviruses with public health importance, such as dengue, yellow fever, zika and west nile virus are mosquito-borne or mosquito-transmitted flavivirus. their principal vectors are from the family culicidae, aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus being responsible of the urban cycles of dengue, zika and yellow fever virus. these vectors are highly competent for transmission of many arboviruses. the genetic variability of the vectors, the environment and the viral diversity modulate ...201728499872
larvicidal activity of lignans and alkaloid identified in zanthoxylum piperitum bark toward insecticide-susceptible and wild culex pipiens pallens and aedes aegypti.the yellow fever mosquito, aedes aegypti, and the common house mosquito, culex pipiens pallens, transmit dengue fever and west nile virus diseases, respectively. this study was conducted to determine the toxicity of the three lignans (-)-asarinin, sesamin and (+)-xanthoxylol-γ,γ-dimethylallylether (xda), and the alkaloid pellitorine from zanthoxylum piperitum (rutaceae) bark to third-instar larvae from insecticide-susceptible c. pipiens pallens and ae. aegypti as well as wild c. pipiens pallens ...201728472971
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