blood collected on filter paper for wildlife serology: detecting antibodies to neospora caninum, west nile virus, and five bovine viruses in reindeer.we compared nobuto filter paper (fp) whole-blood samples to serum for detecting antibodies to seven pathogens in reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus). serum and fp samples were collected from captive reindeer in 2008-2009. sample pairs (serum and fp eluates) were assayed in duplicate at diagnostic laboratories with the use of competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (celisas) for neospora caninum and west nile virus (wnv); indirect elisa (ielisas) for bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1), pa ...201424484497
blood collected on filter paper for wildlife serology: evaluating storage and temperature challenges of field collections.filter-paper (fp) blood sampling can facilitate wildlife research and expand disease surveillance. previous work indicated that nobuto fp samples from caribou and reindeer (rangifer tarandus subspecies) had comparable sensitivity and specificity to serum samples (≥ 80% for both) in competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (celisas) for brucella spp., neospora caninum, and west nile virus. the same sensitivity and specificity criteria were met in indirect elisas for brucella spp., bovine he ...201424499329
induction of neutralizing antibodies in reindeer (rangifer tarandus) after administration of a killed west nile virus 2002, west nile virus (wnv) infection with clinical neurologic disease and encephalomyelitis was described in reindeer (rangifer tarandus). the susceptibility of reindeer to wnv prompted questions concerning vaccination of reindeer to prevent wnv infection. between january and april 2003, eleven 2-4-yr-old, castrated male reindeer, some of which had antibody titers suggestive of prior exposure to wnv, were vaccinated three times at 4-wk intervals with a commercially available vaccine approved ...200415650096
west nile virus infection in reindeer (rangifer tarandus).west nile virus (wnv) infection in 4 reindeer (rangifer tarandus) resulted in lymphohistiocytic encephalomyelitis within the medulla oblongata and cervical spinal cord. immunohistochemistry revealed wnv antigen within neurons and among mononuclear cell infiltrates. these represent the first known cases of clinical wnv infection in cervidae. clinical signs and lesions were similar to those described in horses. nucleotide sequence of a 768-bp region of the wnv e-glycoprotein gene revealed 1 nucleo ...200415152836
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