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spongiform encephalopathies in cervidae.the known host range of naturally-occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathies has expanded in recent years to include wild ruminants. chronic wasting disease (cwd) occurs in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in colorado and wyoming, united states of america. these species belong to the family cervidae. cases have occurred primarily in captive animals but a few affected free-ranging animals have been identified. clinical disease in bo ...19921617203
immunolocalization of scrapie amyloid (prp27-30) in chronic wasting disease of rocky mountain elk and hybrids of captive mule deer and white-tailed deer.scrapie amyloid-immunoreactive plaques are present in brain tissues of captive mule deer with chronic wasting disease (cwd), a progressive neurological disorder characterized neuropathologically by widespread spongiform change of the neuropil, intracytoplasmic vacuolation in neuronal perikarya and astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia. we report here the immunolocalization of scrapie amyloid (prp27-30) in plaques observed in brain tissues of rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and hybri ...19911681473
neuropathology of chronic wasting disease of mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).the pathology of the central nervous system of nine mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) and six elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease, a spongiform encephalopathy of mule deer and elk, was studied by light microscopy. lesions were similar in both species and were characterized by spongiform transformation of gray matter, intracytoplasmic vacuolation of neurons, neuronal degeneration and loss, astrocytic hypertrophy and hyperplasia, occurrence of amyloid plaques, and absence of si ...19938442326
spongiform encephalopathy in free-ranging mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in northcentral colorado.between march 1981 and june 1995, a neurological disease characterized histologically by spongiform encephalopathy was diagnosed in 49 free-ranging cervids from northcentral colorado (usa). mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) were the primary species affected and accounted for 41 (84%) of the 49 cases, but six rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and two white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) were also affected. clinical signs included emaciation, excessive salivation, behavioral changes, ...19979027685
epidemiology of chronic wasting disease in captive rocky mountain elk.between june 1986 and may 1997, chronic wasting disease (cwd) was the only natural cause of adult mortality among captive rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) held at a wildlife research facility near fort collins, colorado (usa). of 23 elk that remained in this herd > 15 mo, four (17%) developed cwd. all affected elk were unrelated females from the founding cohort, captured as neonates and raised in 1986. the index case was diagnosed in 1989; time intervals between subsequent cases range ...19989706562
prp genotypes of captive and free-ranging rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease.the prp gene encodes the putative causative agent of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses), a heterogeneous group of fatal, neurodegenerative disorders including human creutzfeldt-jakob disease, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, ovine scrapie and chronic wasting disease (cwd) of north american deer and elk. polymorphisms in the prp gene are associated with variations in relative susceptibility, pathological lesion patterns, incubation times and clinical course of tses of humans, m ...199910573173
epizootiology of chronic wasting disease in free-ranging cervids in colorado and wyoming.surveillance and epidemic modeling were used to study chronic wasting disease (cwd), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy that occurs naturally among sympatric, free-ranging deer (odocoileus spp.) and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) populations in contiguous portions of northeastern colorado and southeastern wyoming (usa). we used clinical case submissions to identify endemic areas, then used immunohistochemistry to detect cwd-infected individuals among 5,513 deer and elk sample ...200011085429
chronic wasting disease in deer and elk in north america.chronic wasting disease (cwd) has emerged as an important disease of wildlife in north america. the disease is a unique member of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses) or prion diseases, which naturally affect only a few species. of the tses, cwd is the only one found in free-ranging species. however, interest in cwd has recently grown, by association with the better-known tses such as variant creutzfeldt-jakob disease of humans and bovine spongiform encephalopathy. knowledge of t ...200211974617
a case of chronic wasting disease in an elk imported to korea from canada.a seven-year-old male elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) was euthanized and necropsied after having a 3-week history of body weight loss, emaciation, excessive salivation, teeth grinding, fever, anorexia, and respiratory distress. the elk was imported into korea from canada on march 9, 1997. gross pathologic findings were restricted to a diffuse fibrinous pneumonia. microscopic lesions included mild neuronal vacuolation and spongiform change in the neuropil of selected brain stem nuclei and generalize ...200212399615
preliminary observations on the experimental transmission of scrapie to elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) by intracerebral inoculation.to determine the transmissibility of scrapie to rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), six elk calves were inoculated intracerebrally with brain suspension from sheep naturally affected with scrapie. one elk developed a brain abscess and was euthanatized at 7 weeks postinoculation (pi), and two others died at 6 and 15 months pi because of physical injuries. at 25 and 35 months pi, two other elk died after brief terminal neurologic episodes. necropsy of these revealed moderate weight loss b ...200312627716
prevalence of chronic wasting disease and bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging deer and elk in south dakota.heads of hunter-harvested deer and elk were collected throughout south dakota (usa) and within established chronic wasting disease (cwd) surveillance areas from 1997-2002 to determine infection with cwd and bovine tuberculosis (tb). we used immunohistochemistry to detect cwd-infected individuals among 1,672 deer and elk sampled via geographically targeted surveillance. a total of 537 elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), 813 white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), and 322 mule deer (o. hemionus) was ...200312685066
field validation and assessment of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting chronic wasting disease in mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).tissue samples (n = 25,050 total) from 23,256 mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) collected statewide in colorado were examined for chronic wasting disease (cwd) using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay developed by bio-rad laboratories, inc. (brelisa), in a 2-phase study. in the validation phase of this study, a total of 4,175 retropharyngeal lymph nodes (rln) or obex (ob) tissue samples were examined ind ...200312918810
chronic wasting disease of cervids.chronic wasting disease (cwd) has recently emerged in north america as an important prion disease of captive and free-ranging cervids (species in the deer family). cwd is the only recognized transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) affecting free-ranging species. three cervid species, mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (o. virginianus), and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), are the only known natural hosts of cwd. endemic cwd is well established in southern wyomin ...200415148993
transmission of sheep scrapie to elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) by intracerebral inoculation: final outcome of the experiment.this is a final report of an experimental transmission of sheep scrapie agent by intracerebral inoculation to rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). it documents results obtained in experimental (n = 6) and control (n = 2) elk. during the first 2 years postinoculation (pi), 3 animals died or were euthanized because of infection or injuries other than spongiform encephalopathy (se). in years 3 and 4 pi, 3 other inoculated elk died after brief terminal neurological episodes. necropsy of thes ...200415305743
variable patterns of distribution of prp(cwd) in the obex and cranial lymphoid tissues of rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with subclinical chronic wasting disease.sections of medulla oblongata, taken at the level of the obex, palatine tonsil and medial retropharyngeal lymph node from 10,269 captive rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), were examined by immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal antibody for the prion protein associated with the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, chronic wasting disease (prp(cwd)). the protein was detected in 226 of them. on the basis of the anatomical location of the deposits in the brainstem of ...200415478500
chronic wasting disease.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a unique transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) of mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (o. virginianus), and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). the natural history of cwd is incompletely understood, but it differs from scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (bse) by virtue of its occurrence in nondomestic and free-ranging species. cwd has many features in common with scrapie, including early widespread distribution of disease ...200516145200
locoweed (oxytropis sericea)-induced lesions in mule deer (odocoileius hemionus).locoweed poisoning has been reported in wildlife, but it is unknown whether mule deer (odocoileius hemionus) are susceptible. in areas that are heavily infested with locoweed, deer and elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) have developed a spongiform encephalopathy, chronic wasting disease (cwd). although these are distinct diseases, no good comparisons are available. the purpose of this study was to induce and describe chronic locoweed poisoning in deer and compare it with the lesions of cwd. two groups ...200516145203
preliminary observations of genetic susceptibility of elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) to chronic wasting disease by experimental oral inoculation.to compare the genetic susceptibility of elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with various alleles of the prnp gene, which encodes the normal cellular prion protein, to chronic wasting disease (cwd), eight 8-month-old elk calves of 3 genotypes (2 132mm, 2 132lm, and 4 132ll) were orally dosed with cwd-infected brain material from elk. during postinoculation (pi) month 23, both 132mm elk had lost appetite, developed clinical signs of weight loss and central nervous system (cns) dysfunction, and were euth ...200616566268
the expanding universe of prion diseases.prions cause fatal and transmissible neurodegenerative disease. these etiological infectious agents are formed in greater part from a misfolded cell-surface protein called prp(c). several mammalian species are affected by the diseases, and in the case of "mad cow disease" (bse) the agent has a tropism for humans, with negative consequences for agribusiness and public health. unfortunately, the known universe of prion diseases is expanding. at least four novel prion diseases--including human dise ...200616609731
transmission of elk and deer prions to transgenic mice.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a fatal prion disease in deer and elk. unique among the prion diseases, it is transmitted among captive and free-ranging animals. to facilitate studies of the biology of cwd prions, we generated five lines of transgenic (tg) mice expressing prion protein (prp) from rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), denoted tg(elkprp), and two lines of tg mice expressing prp common to white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), denote ...200616940522
prion protein in cardiac muscle of elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) infected with chronic wasting disease.to investigate the possible presence of disease-associated prion protein (prp(d)) in striated muscle of chronic wasting disease (cwd)-affected cervids, samples of diaphragm, tongue, heart and three appendicular skeletal muscles from mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and moose (alces alces shirasi) were examined by elisa, western immunoblot and immunohistochemistry (ihc). prp(d) was detected in samples of heart muscle from se ...200617030881
passage of chronic wasting disease prion into transgenic mice expressing rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) prpc.chronic wasting disease (cwd) of elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus) is one of three naturally occurring forms of prion disease, the others being creutzfeldt-jakob disease in humans and scrapie in sheep. in the last few decades, cwd has spread among captive and free-ranging cervids in 13 us states, two canadian provinces and recently in korea. the origin of the cwd agent(s) in cervids is not known. this study describes the development of a transgenic mouse line (tgel ...200617098997
detection of prp(cwd) in postmortem rectal lymphoid tissues in rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) infected with chronic wasting disease.preclinical diagnostic tests for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies have been described for mule deer (odocoileus hemionus), using biopsy tissues of palatine tonsil, and for sheep, using lymphoid tissues from palatine tonsil, third eyelid, and rectal mucosa. the utility of examining the rectal mucosal lymphoid tissues to detect chronic wasting disease (cwd) was investigated in rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), a species for which there is not a live-animal diagnostic test. post ...200617121082
molecular characterization of the rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) prnp putative promoter.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) affecting deer (odocoileus spp.), moose (alces alces), and rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). leucine homozygosity at elk prnp codon 132 has been associated with reduced cwd susceptibility. however, naturally acquired cwd has been detected in elk possessing the 132 leu/leu genotype. recent human and bovine studies indicate that prnp regulatory polymorphisms may also influence tse occurrence. therefore, we ...200718032463
prp genotypes of free-ranging wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease.variation in prp prion gene sequence appears to modulate susceptibility to chronic wasting disease (cwd), a naturally occurring prion disease affecting four north american species of the family cervidae. wapiti (cervus elaphus nelsoni) prp is polymorphic at codon 132 [methionine (m) or leucine (l)]. we genotyped 171 samples, collected between 2002 and 2005 from cwd-infected and uninfected wapiti from three free-ranging populations in colorado, usa, to study influences of prp polymorphisms on cwd ...200818420812
experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (cwd) of elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni), white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus), and mule deer (odocoileus hemionus hemionus) to white-tailed deer by intracerebral route.to compare clinical and pathologic findings of chronic wasting disease (cwd) in a natural host, 3 groups (n = 5) of white-tailed deer (wtd) fawns were intracerebrally inoculated with a cwd prion of wtd, mule deer, or elk origin. three other uninoculated fawns served as controls. approximately 10 months postinoculation (mpi), 1 deer from each of the 3 inoculated groups was necropsied and their tissues were examined for lesions of spongiform encephalopathy (se) and for the presence of abnormal pri ...200818487485
antemortem detection of prpcwd in preclinical, ranch-raised rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) by biopsy of the rectal mucosa.antemortem biopsy of the rectal mucosa was evaluated as a method for the preclinical diagnosis of chronic wasting disease (cwd) in a herd of ranch-raised rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) quarantined because of exposure to cwd. biopsy samples were obtained from 41 elk during the winter of 2005-2006 and from 26 elk from that herd still alive and available for testing during the winter of 2006-2007. samples were examined for prp(cwd), the protein marker for cwd infection, by immunohistoc ...200919139496
genetic variability of the prion protein gene (prnp) in wild ruminants from italy and scotland.the genetics of the prion protein gene (prnp) play a crucial role in determining the relative susceptibility to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (tses) in several mammalian species. to determine the prnp gene variability in european red deer (cervus elaphus), roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and chamois (rupicapra rupicapra), the prnp open reading frame from 715 samples was analysed to reveal a total of ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (snps). in red deer, snps were found in codons 15, ...200919461206
impact of age and sex of rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) on follicle counts from rectal mucosal biopsies for preclinical detection of chronic wasting disease.to determine if the number of rectal lymphoid follicles decreases with respect to age and sex relative to diagnosis of chronic wasting disease (cwd), rectal biopsies (n = 1,361) were taken from captive rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) at 4 ranches in the western united states between 2005 and 2008. rectal tissues were stained with a monoclonal antibody (f99/97.6.1), which selectively stains the abnormal isoform of the prion protein associated with cwd of elk. the number of lymphoid fo ...200919901292
surveys for disease agents in introduced elk in arkansas and kentucky.surveys for disease agents were conducted in introduced free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) in arkansas and kentucky. elk had been captured in colorado and nebraska and released in arkansas during 1981-1985. from 1997 through 2002 elk were captured in arizona, kansas, north dakota, new mexico, oregon, and utah and released in southeastern kentucky. specimens were collected from 170 hunter-killed elk in arkansas during 1998-2006, and 44 elk in kentucky during 2001-2004. significant findings ...201020090032
detection of the abnormal isoform of the prion protein associated with chronic wasting disease in the optic pathways of the brain and retina of rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).eyes and nuclei of the visual pathways in the brain were examined in 30 rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) representing 3 genotypes of the prion protein gene prnp (codon 132: mm, ml, or ll). tissues were examined for the presence of the abnormal isoform of the prion protein associated with chronic wasting disease (prp(cwd)). nuclei and axonal tracts from a single section of brain stem at the level of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve were scored for intensity and distribution ...201020382822
association analysis of prnp gene region with chronic wasting disease in rocky mountain elk.abstract:201021087518
experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (cwd) from elk and white-tailed deer to fallow deer by intracerebral route: final report.final observations on experimental transmission of chronic wasting disease (cwd) from elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) to fallow deer (dama dama) are reported herein. during the 5-year study, 13 fawns were inoculated intracerebrally with cwd-infected brain material from white-tailed deer (n = 7; group a) or elk (n = 6; group b), and 3 other fawns were kept as uninoculated controls (group c). as described previously, 3 cwd-inoculated deer were euthanized ...201121731188
rapid detection of cwd prp: comparison of tests designed for the detection of bse or scrapie.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (tse) mainly affecting cervids in north america. the accumulation of an abnormal form of host-encoded prion protein (prp(cwd) ) in the cns and lymphoid tissues is characteristic of the disease and known to be caused by pathogenic prion proteins (prp(res) ), which are thought to be transmitted mainly by contact with body fluids, such like saliva. species known to be naturally infected by cwd include rocky mountain elk (cer ...201122212828
seeded amplification of chronic wasting disease prions in nasal brushings and recto-anal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues from elk by real-time quaking-induced conversion.chronic wasting disease (cwd), a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cervids, was first documented nearly 50 years ago in colorado and wyoming and has since been detected across north america and the republic of korea. the expansion of this disease makes the development of sensitive diagnostic assays and antemortem sampling techniques crucial for the mitigation of its spread; this is especially true in cases of relocation/reintroduction or prevalence studies of large or protected herds, w ...201626888899
progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein and spongiform encephalopathy in the obex of nonsymptomatic and symptomatic rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease.the purpose of our study was to describe the progressive accumulation of the abnormal conformer of the prion protein (prp(cwd)) and spongiform degeneration in a single section of brain stem in rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease (cwd). a section of obex from 85 cwd-positive elk was scored using the presence and abundance of prp(cwd) immunoreactivity and spongiform degeneration in 10 nuclear regions and the presence and abundance of prp(cwd) in 10 axonal tract ...201526185123
prion amplification and hierarchical bayesian modeling refine detection of prion infection.prions are unique infectious agents that replicate without a genome and cause neurodegenerative diseases that include chronic wasting disease (cwd) of cervids. immunohistochemistry (ihc) is currently considered the gold standard for diagnosis of a prion infection but may be insensitive to early or sub-clinical cwd that are important to understanding cwd transmission and ecology. we assessed the potential of serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (spmca) to improve detection of cwd prior ...201525665713
experimental chronic wasting disease in wild type vm mice.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a naturally occurring prion disease in north american deer (odocoileus species), rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and moose (alces alces). the disease was first confirmed in the republic of korea in 2001, and subsequent cases were diagnosed in 2004, 2005 and 2010. the experimental host range of cwd includes ferrets, several species of voles, white-footed mice, deer mice and syrian golden hamsters. in addition, cwd was transmitted to the transgenic mous ...201323708962
efficacy of antemortem rectal biopsies to diagnose and estimate prevalence of chronic wasting disease in free-ranging cow elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni).a reliable antemortem test is needed to understand the ecology of chronic wasting disease (cwd) in elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni). we measured the ability of antemortem biopsy samples from the rectal mucosa to detect the abnormal prion protein associated with cwd (prp(cwd)), the relationship between test results from the obex and rectal biopsies at varying stages of cwd progression, and the prevalence of cwd in free-ranging elk from rocky mountain national park, colorado, usa. we sampled and place ...201323568902
strain characterization of the korean cwd cases in 2001 and 2004.chronic wasting disease (cwd) has been recognized as a naturally occurring prion disease in north american deer (odocoileus species), rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) and moose (alces alces). the disease was confirmed only in elk in the republic of korea in 2001, 2004 and 2005. epidemiological investigations showed that cwd was introduced via importation of infected elk from canada between 1994 and 1997. in spite of the increasing geographic distribution and host range of cwd, little ...201322972463
detection of prion protein in the cerebrospinal fluid of elk (cervus canadensis nelsoni) with chronic wasting disease using protein misfolding cyclic amplification.cerebrospinal fluid (csf) has been examined as a possible source for preclinical diagnosis of prion diseases in hamsters and sheep. the present report describes the detection of chronic wasting disease (cwd) in the csf of elk and evaluates its usefulness as an antemortem test for cwd. the csf from 6 captive and 31 free-ranging adult elk was collected at necropsy and evaluated for the presence of the abnormal isoform of the prion protein that has been associated with cwd (prp(cwd)) via protein mi ...201222621952
detection of prpcwd in feces from naturally exposed rocky mountain elk (cervus elaphus nelsoni) using protein misfolding cyclic amplification.chronic wasting disease (cwd) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting captive and free-ranging cervids. currently, tests for cwd in live animals involve relatively invasive procedures to collect lymphoid tissue biopsies and examine them for cwd-associated, protease-resistant cervid prion protein (prp(cwd)) detected by immunohistochemistry (ihc). we adapted an ultrasensitive prion detection system, protein misfolding cyclic amplification (pmca), to detect prp(cwd) in rocky mountain ...201222493117
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