Publications

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plague in lushoto district, tanzania, 1980-1988.rodents were live-trapped in selected plague-inflicted villages from june 1980 to march 1988. flea infestation rates were determined and the animals were serologically tested for plague. clinically suspected and clinically healthy people in the affected areas were similarly tested for plague antibodies. of 1596 rodent sera tested, 91 (5.7%) were positive for plague. these were mostly from rattus rattus, mastomys natalensis, otomys spp. and pelomys fallax. a total of 1772 fleas, of which dinopsyl ...19921440831
seasonal patterns of rodents, fleas and plague status in the western usambara mountains, tanzania.field and commensal rodents were live-trapped at three villages in an active focus of plague (yersinia pseudotuberculosis pestis) in lushoto district, western usambara mountains, tanga region, tanzania, from december 1983 to november 1984. their flea ectoparasites were collected, identified and counted. the rodent carcasses were serologically examined for specific plague antibodies and antigens, and bacteriologically examined for bipolar staining bacilli. a total of 1758 traps were set during th ...19892519642
plague in africa from 1935 to 1949; a survey of wild rodents in african territories.the history of plague in africa during the period 1935-49 is reviewed. much of the information derives from a questionnaire sent to all african territories in 1950. the annual incidence of plague in africa declined, particularly from 1946 onwards. in 1949, under 400 cases were reported, as compared with over 6,000 in 1935. by the end of 1949, plague was still active in the belgian congo, kenya and tanganyika, madagascar, and southern africa. no cases were reported from egypt, tunisia, algeria, m ...195313115987
laboratory studies on the bionomics of the rat fleas, xenopsylla brasiliensis, baker and x. cheopis, roths; further factors affecting adult longevity. 194718918646
laboratory studies on the bionomics of the rat fleas, xenopsylla brasiliensis, baker, and x. cheopis, roths.; water relations during the cocoon period. 194720256971
seasonal abundance of plague vector xenopsylla brasiliensis from rodents captured in three habitat types of periurban suburbs of harare, zimbabwe.abstract the study was aimed at determining the seasonal abundance of xenopsylla brasiliensis, an important vector of plague in zimbabwe, from rodent hosts captured in selected habitat types of two periurban suburbs of harare, zimbabwe. the removal-trapping method was used to capture the rodents, from which fleas were collected and identified. percentage incidence index (pii) and specific flea index (sfi) were calculated for x. brasiliensis in relation to rodent species host. mastomys natalensis ...201021142965
the namaqua rock mouse (micaelamys namaquensis) as a potential reservoir and host of arthropod vectors of diseases of medical and veterinary importance in south africa.the role of endemic murid rodents as hosts of arthropod vectors of diseases of medical and veterinary significance is well established in the northern hemisphere. in contrast, endemic murids are comparatively understudied as vector hosts in africa, particularly in south africa. considering the great rodent diversity in south africa, many of which may occur as human commensals, this is unwarranted.201425127720
anthropogenic soils and land use patterns in relation to small mammal and flea abundance in plague endemic area of western usambara mountains, tanzania.heterogeneity in the landscapes of west usambara mountains on land use and human activities has been reported. however, the interface of land use patterns and human modified soils with small mammal and flea abundance for possible explanation of plague has not been explored. this study was carried out to determine the link between anthropogenic soils and land use patterns on small mammal and flea abundance and the occurrence of reported plague in the western usambara mountains in tanzania. standa ...201426867282
plague in tanzania: an overview.human plague remains a public health concern in tanzania despite its quiescence in most foci for years, considering the recurrence nature of the disease. despite the long-standing history of this problem, there have not been recent reviews of the current knowledge on plague in tanzania. this work aimed at providing a current overview of plague in tanzania in terms of its introduction, potential reservoirs, possible causes of plague persistence and repeated outbreaks in the country. plague is bel ...201326591701
xenopsylla brasiliensis fleas in plague focus areas, madagascar. 201627513742
detection of rickettsia felis, rickettsia typhi, bartonella species and yersinia pestis in fleas (siphonaptera) from africa.little is known about the presence/absence and prevalence of rickettsia spp, bartonella spp. and yersinia pestis in domestic and urban flea populations in tropical and subtropical african countries.201425299702
entomopathogenic fungi, metarhizium anisopliae and beauveria bassiana reduce the survival of xenopsylla brasiliensis larvae (siphonaptera: pulicidae).entomopathogenic fungi, particularly those belonging to the genera metarhizium and beauveria have shown great promise as arthropod vector control tools. these agents, however, have not been evaluated against flea vectors of plague.201222992264
observations on the endemicity of plague in karatu and ngorongoro, northern tanzania.commensal and field rodents and wild small carnivores were live-trapped in five villages of karatu district and one settlement in the ngorongoro conservation area in ngorongoro district in tanzania. blood samples were taken and serologically tested for plague, using the blocking elisa technique. some domestic dogs and cats in the karatu villages were aseptically bled and similarly tested for plague. fleas were collected from the examined animals and from randomly selected residential houses. a t ...200617058792
the comparative host status of red veld rats (aethomys chrysophilus) and bushveld gerbils (tatera leucogaster) for epifaunal arthropods in the southern kruger national park, south africa.red veld rats (aethomys chrysophilus) and bushveld gerbils (tatera leucogaster) were trapped at monthly intervals, when possible, over a 2-year period, in the southern kruger national park, mpumalanga province. forty-six specimens of each species were caught, euthenased and microscopically examined for fleas, lice, ticks and mites. clear differences existed between the two rodent hosts in infestation intensity and also parasite species. the flea, xenopsylla brasiliensis, commonly and exclusively ...19968856764
the first outbreak of human plague in lushoto district, north-east tanzania.a one-week investigation was performed at mkunki and mavumo (ward of shume, lushoto district, tanzania) at the time of outbreak (june, 1980). rodents, people, domestic dogs and fleas were examined, 36 rats, mostly rattus rattus, were caught and used in serological and bacteriological analysis for plague. 48 fleas, mostly xenopsylla brasiliensis, were collected from the captured rodents. 413 people and 11 dogs were examined. all rodent, carnivorous and human sera were tested for plague antibodies ...19827101402
observations on the current status of plague endemicity in the western usambara mountains, north-east tanzania.epidemiological investigations were executed at 6 locations in the western usambara mountains in north-east tanzania from november 1980 to may 1982. rodent, human and dog sera were checked for agglutinating plague antibodies, using the passive haemagglutination test. fraction i plague antigen was similarly tested for in rodent organ macerates. bubo aspirates and rodent organ-smears were microscopically examined for plague bacilli. a total of 257 rodents and 191 fleas were collected. rattus rattu ...19836142635
a decade of plague epidemiology and control in the western usambara mountains, north-east tanzania.outbreaks of human plague have been occurring in the western usambara mountains since 1980, involving many cases and deaths. epidemiological surveys and control activities were carried out from june 1980 to may 1990. rodents were trapped live, identified and serologically tested for plague, using the passive haemagglutination and passive haemagglutination inhibition tests. rodent fleas were collected, processed, identified and counted. house fleas were caught with light traps and similarly treat ...19921356303
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