epidemiology of emergent madariaga encephalitis in a region with endemic venezuelan equine encephalitis: initial host studies and human cross-sectional study in darien, panama.neurotropic arboviral infections are an important cause of encephalitis. a zoonotic, vector-borne alphavirus, madariaga virus (madv; formerly known as south american eastern equine encephalitis virus), caused its first documented human outbreak in 2010 in darien, panama, where the genetically similar venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (veev) is endemic. we report the results of a seroprevalence survey of animals and humans, illustrating contrasting features of madv and veev ecology and epidemi ...201627101567
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