the ecology of tularaemia.tularaemia, a zoonotic disease caused by the bacterium francisella tularensis mccoy, 1912, is reported from north america, europe and northern parts of asia, but not from the southern hemisphere. two subspecies of f. tularensis are recognised: the highly virulent type a and the milder type b, with additional subdivisions reported. tularaemia has been reported in more than 250 animal species including man, other mammals, birds, fish, amphibians, arthropods and protozoa. type a is reported to have ...19921305858
tularemia.tularemia is a rare zoonotic infection caused by the bacterium francisella tularensis. the disease is endemic in north america and parts of europe and asia. arthropods (ticks and deer flies) are the main transmission vector, and small animals (rabbits, hares, and muskrats) serve as reservoir hosts. the clinical presentation depends on the bacterial subspecies and the route of infection. recent world events have led to a new recognition of f tularensis as a viable agent of bioterrorism, which has ...200818755386
tularemia, plague, yersiniosis, and tyzzer's disease in wild rodents and lagomorphs in canada: a review.information related to infection of wild rodents or lagomorphs in canada by francisella tularensis, yersinia pestis, other yersinia spp., and clostridium piliforme was searched for this study. reports on tularemia in humans linked to these species came from diagnostic databases, literature, wildlife health specialists, and public health agencies. tularemia has been diagnosed in 8 species of wild rodent and 2 species in the genus lepus in canada. tularemia occurred in wild animals, or in humans a ...200920190973
multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis of francisella tularensis from quebec, canada.francisella tularensis is ubiquitous in the northern hemisphere. yet, little is known about the disease and its ecology within canada as few serological studies have shown exposure to the disease and fewer case studies have been reported. this report is the first to describe the molecular subtyping of f. tularensis isolates within eastern canada using multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis. from 1998 to 2011, a total of 73 specimens were isolated from unique human and animal sourc ...201525442329
contamination of natural waters and mud with pasteurella tularensis and tularemia in beavers and muskrats in the northwestern united states. 195114869929
seroepidemiologic study of three zoonoses (leptospirosis, q fever, and tularemia) among trappers in québec, canada.this study was undertaken to evaluate the prevalence of antibodies against francisella tularensis, coxiella burnetii, and certain serovars of leptospira interrogans among trappers in québec, canada. muskrat trapping was identified as a risk factor for f. tularensis infection, whereas having a cat at home apparently protected trappers against infection by l. interrogans. high percentages of control sera were positive for antibodies against c. burnetii (15%) and l. interrogans (5%), most frequentl ...19957583933
tularemia in canada with a focus on saskatchewan.although rare among humans in canada, tularemia is often endemic in wildlife. the inhabitants of rural areas are especially likely to be exposed to the causative bacterium, francisella tularensis, through trapping or through the bites of arthropods. muskrats have replaced rabbits as the principal source of infection, as illustrated by a familial outbreak of oropharyngeal tularemia in saskatchewan. in humans the disease has six distinct forms and can be asymptomatic, but it generally comes to med ...19827046896
eco-epizootiologic study of francisella tularensis, the agent of tularemia, in québec canada, francisella tularensis , the zoonotic bacterial agent of tularemia, affects mostly snowshoe hares ( lepus americanus ), muskrats ( ondatra zibethicus ), and beavers ( castor canadensis ). despite numerous studies, the ecologic cycle and natural reservoirs of f. tularensis are not clearly defined. we conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate the prevalence of f. tularensis in snowshoe hares, muskrats, and coyotes ( canis latrans ) in four regions of québec, canada, and to describe ...201626967133
quantum differences in oral susceptibility of voles, microtus pennsylvanicus, to virulent francisella tularensis type b, in drinking water: implications to epidemiology.shedding nephritis in voles with chronic tularemia is the probable source of frequent contamination of streams over wide areas of the northern hemisphere. however, voles inoculated parenterally with as few as one dex viable cells of francisella tularensis palaearctica succumb uniformly to acute tularemia, whereas voles, beavers, and muskrats often thrive in waters contaminated with the organism. nevertheless, water-borne epizootics do occur in these animals, and at these times streams are heavil ...19836381031
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