new records of sylvatic plague in kansas.sylvatic plague, or plague of wild rodents is caused by yersinia pestis and entered california (usa) from asia about 1899. extensive sampling during the 1930's and 1940's documented the spread of plague to approximately its current distribution in north america. records from the centers for disease control and prevention document plague in kansas (usa) between 1945 and 1950, but since then there has been no documentation of plague in the state. following a die-off of a black-tailed prairie dog ( ...200010813625
protection of black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus) against plague after voluntary consumption of baits containing recombinant raccoon poxvirus vaccine.prairie dogs (cynomys spp.) are highly susceptible to yersinia pestis and significant reservoirs of plague for humans in the western united states. a recombinant raccoon poxvirus, expressing the f1 antigen of y. pestis, was incorporated into a palatable bait and offered to 18 black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus) for voluntary consumption; 18 negative control animals received placebo baits. antibody titers against y. pestis f1 antigen increased significantly (p < 0.01) in vaccinees, a ...200415322054
possible vector dissemination by swift foxes following a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs in northwestern determine whether swift foxes (vulpes velox) could facilitate transmission of yersinia pestis to uninfected black-tailed prairie dog (cynomys ludovicianus) colonies by acquiring infected fleas, ectoparasite and serologic samples were collected from swift foxes living adjacent to prairie dog towns during a 2004 plague epizootic in northwestern texas, usa. a previous study (1999-2001) indicated that these swift foxes were infested almost exclusively with the flea pulex irritans. black-tailed pr ...200616870868
flea abundance on black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus) increases during plague prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus) on the great plains of the united states are highly susceptible to plague, caused by the bacterium yersinia pestis, with mortality on towns during plague epizootics often approaching 100%. the ability of flea-borne transmission to sustain disease spread has been questioned because of inefficiency of flea vectors. however, even with low individual efficiency, overall transmission can be increased if flea abundance (the number of fleas on hosts) inc ...200919492944
vector control improves survival of three species of prairie dogs (cynomys) in areas considered enzootic for plague.plague causes periodic epizootics that decimate populations of prairie dogs (pds) (cynomys), but the means by which the causative bacterium (yersinia pestis) persists between epizootics are poorly understood. plague epizootics in pds might arise as the result of introductions of y. pestis from sources outside pd colonies. however, it remains possible that plague persists in pds during interepizootic periods and is transmitted at low rates among highly susceptible individuals within and between t ...201020158328
disease limits populations: plague and black-tailed prairie dogs.plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus). we mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never been a ...201020158327
inferring host-parasite relationships using stable isotopes: implications for disease transmission and host specificity.identifying the roles of different hosts and vectors is a major challenge in the study of the ecology of diseases caused by multi-host pathogens. intensive field studies suggested that grasshopper mice (onychomys leucogaster) help spread the bacterium that causes plague (yersinia pestis) in prairie dog colonies by sharing fleas with prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus); yet conclusive evidence that prairie dog fleas (oropsylla hirsuta) feed on grasshopper mice is lacking. using stable nitrogen is ...200919967881
effects of weather and plague-induced die-offs of prairie dogs on the fleas of northern grasshopper mice.plague, the disease caused by the bacterium yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus ord). other mammal hosts living on prairie dog colonies may be important in the transmission and maintenance of plague. we examined the flea populations of northern grasshopper mice (onychomys leucogaster wied) before, during, and after plague epizootics in northern colorado and studied the influence of host and environmental factors on flea abundance patte ...200919496431
evidence for the involvement of an alternate rodent host in the dynamics of introduced plague in prairie dogs.1. the introduction of plague to north america is a significant threat to colonies of prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus), a species of conservation concern in the great plains. other small rodents are exposed to the causative agent, yersinia pestis, during or after epizootics; yet, its effect on these rodents is not known, and their role in transmitting and maintaining plague in the absence of prairie dogs remains unclear. 2. we live-trapped small rodents and collected their fleas on 11 colonie ...200919302321
are carnivores universally good sentinels of plague?sylvatic plague, caused by the bacterium yersinia pestis, is a flea-borne disease that primarily affects rodents but has been detected in over 200 mammal species worldwide. mammalian carnivores are routinely surveyed as sentinels of local plague activity, since they can present antibodies to y. pestis infection but show few clinical signs. in boulder county, colorado, usa, plague epizootic events are episodic and occur in black-tailed prairie dogs. enzootic hosts are unidentified as are plague f ...200918973449
immunization of black-tailed prairie dog against plague through consumption of vaccine-laden baits.prairie dogs (cynomys spp.) are highly susceptible to yersinia pestis and, along with other wild rodents, are significant reservoirs of plague for other wildlife and humans in the western united states. a recombinant raccoon poxvirus, expressing the f1 antigen of y. pestis, was incorporated into a palatable bait and offered to three groups (n = 18, 19, and 20) of black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus) for voluntary consumption, either one, two, or three times, at roughly 3-wk intervals ...200818957649
scavenging by mammalian carnivores on prairie dog colonies: implications for the spread of plague.plague causes mass mortality of prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus) in shortgrass steppe. although the pathogen, the bacterium yersinia pestis, is spread within colonies by flea bites or contact between infected hosts, it is unclear how y. pestis is transported over long distances between isolated colonies. one possibility is that wideranging, plague-resistant mammalian carnivores pick up fleas when scavenging prairie dog carcasses. using guinea pigs as surrogates for prairie dogs, we compared h ...200918945188
transmission efficiency of two flea species (oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris and oropsylla hirsuta) involved in plague epizootics among prairie dogs.plague, caused by yersinia pestis, is an exotic disease in north america circulating predominantly in wild populations of rodents and their fleas. black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus) are highly susceptible to infection, often experiencing mortality of nearly all individuals in a town as a result of plague. the fleas of black-tailed prairie dogs are oropsylla tuberculata cynomuris and oropsylla hirsuta. we tested the efficiency of o. tuberculata cynomuris to transmit y. pestis daily ...200818787922
prevalence of yersinia pestis in rodents and fleas associated with black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus) at thunder basin national grassland, wyoming.rodents (and their fleas) that are associated with prairie dogs are considered important for the maintenance and transmission of the bacterium (yersinia pestis) that causes plague. our goal was to identify rodent and flea species that were potentially involved in a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs at thunder basin national grassland. we collected blood samples and ectoparasites from rodents trapped at off- and on-colony grids at thunder basin national grassland between 2002 and 2004 ...200818689663
exposure of small rodents to plague during epizootics in black-tailed prairie dogs.plague, caused by the bacterium yersinia pestis, causes die-offs of colonies of prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus). it has been argued that other small rodents are reservoirs for plague, spreading disease during epizootics and maintaining the pathogen in the absence of prairie dogs; yet there is little empirical support for distinct enzootic and epizootic cycles. between 2004 and 2006, we collected blood from small rodents captured in colonies in northern colorado before, during, and for up to ...200818689662
prevalence and abundance of fleas in black-tailed prairie dog burrows: implications for the transmission of plague (yersinia pestis).plague, the disease caused by the bacterium yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on north american wildlife. epizootics, or die-offs, in prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus) occur sporadically and fleas (siphonaptera) are probably important in the disease's transmission and possibly as maintenance hosts of y. pestis between epizootics. we monitored changes in flea abundance in prairie dog burrows in response to precipitation, temperature, and plague activity in shortgrass steppe in north ...200818605787
oropsylla hirsuta (siphonaptera: ceratophyllidae) can support plague epizootics in black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus) by early-phase transmission of yersinia pestis.plague, caused by the bacterium yersinia pestis, often leads to rapid decimation of black-tailed prairie dog colonies. flea-borne transmission of y. pestis has been thought to occur primarily via blocked fleas, and therefore studies of vector efficiency have focused on the period when blockage is expected to occur (> or =5 days post-infection [p.i.]). oropsylla hirsuta, a prairie dog flea, rarely blocks and transmission is inefficient > or =5 days p.i.; thus, this flea has been considered incapa ...200818454591
no evidence of deer mouse involvement in plague (yersinia pestis) epizootics in prairie dogs.plague, the disease caused by the bacterium yersinia pestis, can have devastating impacts on black-tailed prairie dog (cynomys ludovicianus) colonies. one suggested mechanism behind sporadic prairie dog die-offs involves an alternative mammal host, such as the deer mouse (peromyscus maniculatus), which often inhabits prairie dog colonies. we examined the flea populations of deer mice to investigate the potential of flea-borne transmission of plague between deer mice and prairie dogs in northern ...200818447619
the potential role of swift foxes (vulpes velox) and their fleas in plague outbreaks in prairie dogs.swift foxes (vulpes velox) have been proposed as potential carriers of fleas infected with the bacterium yersinia pestis between areas of epizootics in black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus). we examined antibody prevalence rates of a population of swift foxes in colorado, usa, and used polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays to examine their flea biota for evidence of y. pestis. fifteen of 61 (24%) captured foxes were seropositive, and antibody prevalence was spatially correlated with ...200717699080
a plague epizootic in the black-tailed prairie dog (cynomys ludovicianus).plague is the primary cause for the rangewide decline in prairie dog (cynomys spp.) distribution and abundance, yet our knowledge of plague dynamics in prairie dog populations is limited. our understanding of the effects of plague on the most widespread species, the black-tailed prairie dog (c. ludovicianus), is particularly weak. during a study on the population biology of black-tailed prairie dogs in wyoming, usa, plague was detected in a colony under intensive monitoring, providing a unique o ...200616699150
classic flea-borne transmission does not drive plague epizootics in prairie dogs.we lack a clear understanding of the enzootic maintenance of the bacterium (yersinia pestis) that causes plague and the sporadic epizootics that occur in its natural rodent hosts. a key to elucidating these epidemiological dynamics is determining the dominant transmission routes of plague. plague can be acquired from the bites of infectious fleas (which is generally considered to occur via a blocked flea vector), inhalation of infectious respiratory droplets, or contact with a short-term infecti ...200616603630
sylvatic plague reduces genetic variability in black-tailed prairie dogs.small, isolated populations are vulnerable to loss of genetic diversity through in-breeding and genetic drift. sylvatic plague due to infection by the bacterium yersinia pestis caused an epizootic in the early 1990s resullting in declines and extirpations of many black-tailed prairie dog (cynomys ludovicianus) colonies in north-central montana, usa. plague-induced population bottlenecks may contribute to significant reductions in genetic variability. in contrast, gene flow maintains genetic vari ...200415362819
detection of novel bartonella strains and yersinia pestis in prairie dogs and their fleas (siphonaptera: ceratophyllidae and pulicidae) using multiplex polymerase chain reaction.we developed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assay that simultaneously detects three types of flea-associated microorganisms. targets for the assay were sequences encoding portions of the glta, a 17-kda antigen, and pla genes of bartonella spp. strong et al., rickettsia spp. da rocha-lima, and yersinia pestis yersin, respectively. a total of 260 flea samples containing bloodmeal remnants were analyzed from fleas collected from abandoned prairie dog (cynomys ludovicianus) burrows at t ...200312943112
detection of yersinia pestis dna in prairie dog-associated fleas by polymerase chain reaction assay of purified dna.we evaluated, refined, and applied well-established polymerase chain reaction (pcr) techniques for detecting yersinia pestis dna in fleas (mainly oropsylla spp.) collected from prairie dog (cynomys spp.) burrows. based on results from pcr of avirulent y. pestis strain a1122 dna, we used dna purification and primers for the plasminogen activator gene to screen field-collected fleas. we detected y. pestis dna in flea pools from two black-tailed prairie dog (cynomys ludovicianus) colonies with evid ...201020688665
plague outbreaks in prairie dog populations explained by percolation thresholds of alternate host abundance.highly lethal pathogens (e.g., hantaviruses, hendra virus, anthrax, or plague) pose unique public-health problems, because they seem to periodically flare into outbreaks before disappearing into long quiescent phases. a key element to their possible control and eradication is being able to understand where they persist in the latent phase and how to identify the conditions that result in sporadic epidemics or epizootics. in american grasslands, plague, caused by yersinia pestis, exemplifies this ...201020660742
physiologic reference ranges for captive black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus).the black-tailed prairie dog (cynomys ludovicianus) is a member of the order rodentia and the family sciuridae. ecologically, prairie dogs are a keystone species in prairie ecology. this species is used as an animal model for human gallbladder disease and diseases caused by infection with clostridium difficile, yersinia pestis, francisella tularensis, and most recently, orthopoxvirus. despite increasing numbers of prairie dogs used in research and kept as pets, few data are available on their ba ...201020587156
the absence of concordant population genetic structure in the black-tailed prairie dog and the flea, oropsylla hirsuta, with implications for the spread of yersinia pestis.the black-tailed prairie dog (cynomys ludovicianus) is a keystone species on the mid- and short-grass prairies of north america. the species has suffered extensive colony extirpations and isolation as a result of human activity including the introduction of an exotic pathogen, yersinia pestis, the causative agent of sylvatic plague. the prairie dog flea, oropsylla hirsuta, is the most common flea on our study colonies in north-central montana and it has been shown to carry y. pestis. we used mic ...201020550633
consumption of baits containing raccoon pox-based plague vaccines protects black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus).baits containing recombinant raccoon poxvirus (rcn) expressing plague antigens (fraction 1 [f1] and a truncated form of the v protein-v307) were offered for voluntary consumption several times over the course of several months to a group of 16 black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus). for comparison, another group of prairie dogs (n = 12) was injected subcutaneously (sc) (prime and boost) with 40 microg of f1-v fusion protein absorbed to alum, a vaccine-adjuvant combination demonstrated ...201020158332
rodent and flea abundance fail to predict a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs.small rodents are purported to be enzootic hosts of yersinia pestis and may serve as sources of infection to prairie dogs or other epizootic hosts by direct or flea-mediated transmission. recent research has shown that small rodent species composition and small rodent flea assemblages are influenced by the presence of prairie dogs, with higher relative abundance of both small rodents and fleas at prairie dog colony sites compared to grasslands without prairie dogs. however, it is unclear if incr ...201020158331
mountain plover responses to plague in montana.plague is a bacterial (yersinia pestis) disease that causes epizootic die-offs in black-tailed prairie dog (cynomys ludovicianus) populations in the north american great plains. through their grazing and burrowing, prairie dogs modify vegetation and landscape structure on their colonies in ways that affect other grassland species. plague epizootics on prairie dog colonies can have indirect effects on species associated with colonies. the mountain plover (charadrius montanus) preferentially nests ...201020158330
population genetic structure of the prairie dog flea and plague vector, oropsylla hirsuta.oropsylla hirsuta is the primary flea of the black-tailed prairie dog and is a vector of the plague bacterium, yersinia pestis. we examined the population genetic structure of o. hirsuta fleas collected from 11 prairie dog colonies, 7 of which had experienced a plague-associated die-off in 1994. in a sample of 332 o. hirsuta collected from 226 host individuals, we detected 24 unique haplotype sequences in a 480 nucleotide segment of the cytochrome oxidase ii gene. we found significant overall po ...201120696095
colorado animal-based plague surveillance systems: relationships between targeted animal species and prediction efficacy of areas at risk for humans.human plague risks (yersinia pestis infection) are greatest when epizootics cause high mortality among this bacterium's natural rodent hosts. therefore, health departments in plague-endemic areas commonly establish animal-based surveillance programs to monitor y. pestis infection among plague hosts and vectors. the primary objectives of our study were to determine whether passive animal-based plague surveillance samples collected in colorado from 1991 to 2005 were sampled from high human plague ...200920836802
polymerase chain reaction (pcr) identification of rodent blood meals confirms host sharing by flea vectors of plague.elucidating feeding relationships between hosts and parasites remains a significant challenge in studies of the ecology of infectious diseases, especially those involving small or cryptic vectors. black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus) are a species of conservation importance in the north american great plains whose populations are extirpated by plague, a flea-vectored, bacterial disease. using polymerase chain reaction (pcr) assays, we determined that fleas (oropsylla hirsuta) associa ...201021175944
isolation and characterization of 11 microsatellite loci from oropsylla hirsuta, a vector of sylvatic plague.the flea (oropsylla hirsuta) is an important vector of the plague bacterium, yersinia pestis, in black-tailed prairie dog (cynomys ludovicianus) colonies. we developed 11 anonymous microsatellite primers for o. hirsuta using a subtractive hybridization procedure. all primers were polymorphic exhibiting 4-12 alleles.200921564833
Use of rhodamine B as a biomarker for oral plague vaccination of prairie dogs.Oral vaccination against Yersinia pestis could provide a feasible approach for controlling plague in prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.) for conservation and public health purposes. Biomarkers are useful in wildlife vaccination programs to demonstrate exposure to vaccine baits. Rhodamine B (RB) was tested as a potential biomarker for oral plague vaccination because it allows nonlethal sampling of animals through hair, blood, and feces. We found that RB is an appropriate marker for bait uptake studies of ...201121719849
Gene flow in a Yersinia pestis vector, Oropsylla hirsuta, during a plague epizootic.Appreciating how Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague, spreads among black - tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colonies (BTPD), is vital to wildlife conservation programs in North American grasslands. A little - studied aspect of the system is the role of Y. pestis vectors, i.e. fleas, play in the spreading of plague in natural settings. We investigated the genetic structure and variability of a common prairie dog flea (Oropsylla hirsuta) in BTPD colonies in order to examine ...201121946710
resistance to plague among black-tailed prairie dog populations.abstract in some rodent species frequently exposed to plague outbreaks caused by yersinia pestis, resistance to the disease has evolved as a population trait. as a first step in determining if plague resistance has developed in black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus), animals captured from colonies in a plague-free region (south dakota) and two plague-endemic regions (colorado and texas) were challenged with y. pestis at one of three doses (2.5, 250, or 2500 mouse ld50s). south dakota p ...201121923261
genetic variation at the mhc drb1 locus is similar across gunnison's prairie dog (cynomys gunnisoni) colonies regardless of plague history.yersinia pestis was introduced to north america around 1900 and leads to nearly 100% mortality in prairie dog (cynomys spp.) colonies during epizootic events, which suggests this pathogen may exert a strong selective force. we characterized genetic diversity at an mhc class ii locus (drb1) in gunnison's prairie dog (c. gunnisoni) and quantified population genetic structure at the drb1 versus 12 microsatellite loci in three large arizona colonies. two colonies, seligman (se) and espee ranch (es), ...201627066243
detections of yersinia pestis east of the known distribution of active plague in the united states.we examined fleas collected from black-tailed prairie dog (cynomys ludovicianus) burrows from 2009 through 2011 in five national park units east of the known distribution of active plague across the northern great plains for the presence of yersinia pestis. across all national park units, oropsylla tuberculata and oropsylla hirsuta were the most common fleas collected from prairie dog burrows, 42.4% and 56.9%, respectively, of the 3964 fleas collected from burrow swabbing. using a nested pcr ass ...201626771845
prevalence of the generalist flea pulex simulans on black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus) in new mexico, usa: the importance of considering imperfect detection.if a parasite is not detected during a survey, one of two explanations is possible: the parasite was truly absent or it was present but not detected. we fit occupancy models to account for imperfect detection when combing fleas (siphonaptera) from black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus) during june-august 2012 in the vermejo park ranch, new mexico, usa. with the use of detection histories from combing events during monthly trapping sessions, we fit occupancy models for two flea species: ...201525588009
sylvatic plague in a canadian black-tailed prairie dog (cynomys ludovicianus).in 2010, a black-tailed prairie dog (cynomys ludovicianus) was found dead in grasslands national park, saskatchewan, canada. postmortem gross and histologic findings indicated bacterial septicemia, likely due to yersinia pestis, which was confirmed by molecular analysis. this is the first report of y. pestis in the prairie dog population within canada.201424807359
the innate immune response may be important for surviving plague in wild gunnison's prairie dogs.prairie dogs (cynomys spp.) are highly susceptible to yersinia pestis, with ≥99% mortality reported from multiple studies of plague epizootics. a colony of gunnison's prairie dogs (cynomys gunnisoni) in the aubrey valley (av) of northern arizona appears to have survived several regional epizootics of plague, whereas nearby colonies have been severely affected by y. pestis. to examine potential mechanisms accounting for survival in the av colony, we conducted a laboratory y. pestis challenge expe ...201324502719
a rapid field test for sylvatic plague exposure in wild animals.plague surveillance is routinely conducted to predict future epizootics in wildlife and exposure risk for humans. the most common surveillance method for sylvatic plague is detection of antibodies to yersinia pestis f1 capsular antigen in sentinel animals, such as coyotes (canis latrans). current serologic tests for y. pestis, hemagglutination (ha) test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), are expensive and labor intensive. to address this need, we developed a complete lateral flow dev ...201424484483
duration of plague (yersinia pestis) outbreaks in black-tailed prairie dog (cynomys ludovicianus) colonies of northern colorado.plague, caused by the bacterium yersinia pestis, triggers die-offs in colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus), but the time-frame of plague activity is not well understood. we document plague activity in fleas from prairie dogs and their burrows on three prairie dog colonies that suffered die-offs. we demonstrate that y. pestis transmission occurs over periods from several months to over a year in prairie dog populations before observed die-offs.201324057801
persistence of black-tailed prairie-dog populations affected by plague in northern colorado, usa.the spatial distribution of prairie dog (cynomys ludovicianus) colonies in north america has changed from large, contiguous populations to small, isolated colonies in metapopulations. one factor responsible for this drastic change in prairie-dog population structure is plague (caused by the bacterium yersinia pestis). we fit stochastic patch occupancy models to 20 years of prairie-dog colony occupancy data from two discrete metapopulations (west and east) in the pawnee national grassland in colo ...201323951717
evaluation of yersinia pestis transmission pathways for sylvatic plague in prairie dog populations in the western u.s.sylvatic plague, caused by the bacterium yersinia pestis, is periodically responsible for large die-offs in rodent populations that can spillover and cause human mortalities. in the western us, prairie dog populations experience nearly 100% mortality during plague outbreaks, suggesting that multiple transmission pathways combine to amplify plague dynamics. several alternate pathways in addition to flea vectors have been proposed, such as transmission via direct contact with bodily fluids or inha ...201627234457
responses of juvenile black-tailed prairie dogs ( cynomys ludovicianus ) to a commercially produced oral plague vaccine delivered at two doses.we confirmed safety and immunogenicity of mass-produced vaccine baits carrying an experimental, commercial-source plague vaccine (rcn-f1/v307) expressing yersinia pestis v and f1 antigens. forty-five juvenile black-tailed prairie dogs ( cynomys ludovicianus ) were randomly divided into three treatment groups (n=15 animals/group). animals in the first group received one standard-dose vaccine bait (5×10(7) plaque-forming units [pfu]; std). the second group received a lower-dose bait (1×10(7) pfu; ...201728463626
swabbing prairie dog burrows for fleas that transmit yersinia pestis: influences on efficiency.scientists and health-care professionals sometimes use a swabbing technique to collect fleas from rodent burrows, and later test the fleas for yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague. detection of y. pestis is enhanced when large pools of fleas are available. the following study investigated factors that might affect the rate at which fleas are collected from burrows in colonies of black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus). data were collected from 13 colonies in new mexico during ...201728486652
efficacy of a fipronil bait in reducing the number of fleas (oropsylla spp.) infesting wild black-tailed prairie dogs.bubonic plague (yersinia pestis) is a deadly zoonosis with black-tailed prairie dogs (cynomys ludovicianus) as a reservoir host in the united states. systemic insecticides are a promising means of controlling the vectors, oropsylla spp. fleas, infesting these prairie dogs, subsequently disrupting the y. pestis cycle. the objective of this study was to conduct a field trial evaluating the efficacy of a grain rodent bait containing fipronil (0.005%) against fleas infesting prairie dogs. the study ...201728504448
flea and small mammal species composition in mixed-grass prairies: implications for the maintenance of yersinia pestis.maintenance of sylvatic plague in prairie dogs (cynomis spp.) was once thought unlikely due to high mortality rates; yet more recent findings indicate that low-level enzootic plague may be maintained in susceptible prairie dog populations. another hypothesis for the maintenance of sylvatic plague involves small mammals, other than prairie dogs, as an alternative reservoir in the sylvatic plague system. these hypotheses, however, are not mutually exclusive, as both prairie dogs and small mammals ...201728520514
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