[the morphological characteristics of globulin production during the vaccinal process induced by tularemia and brucellosis vaccines].significant data on the dynamics of globulin production in guinea pigs in the process of immunogenesis after the injection of francisella tularensis vaccine strain or conjugated brucellosis vaccine have been obtained by means of immunofluorescence and the enzyme immunoassay. the number of globulin-producing cells in lymphoid organs (the spleen, regional and remote lymph nodes) differs, depending on the injected antigen. the relationship between the character of immunomorphological changes in lym ...19911872101
growth of francisella spp. in rodent macrophages.we examined the nature of the interactions between the facultative intracellular pathogens francisella tularensis and f. novicida and rodent macrophages. growth of f. tularensis lvs was observed in macrophage monolayers from mice, guinea pigs, or rats. in contrast, f. novicida grew in macrophages from mice and guinea pigs but not in macrophages from rats. transmission electron microscopy studies indicated that both francisella species survive within macrophage phagosomes that are unfused with ly ...19911879943
vector roles of fennoscandian mosquitoes attracted to mammals, birds and frogs.1. mosquitoes were sampled with five suction traps, from may to october 1983, at a forest site in south-central sweden. 2. twenty-three species of mosquitoes were identified among the total of 3108 females collected: 4% of them in an unbaited trap, 3% in a trap baited with two frogs, 24% with a guinea-pig, 28% with a hen and 40% in a trap baited with a rabbit. 3. the dominant species of culicidae trapped were 39% aedes communis (de geer), 21% ae. cinereus meigen, 14% coquillettidia richiardii (f ...19901983455
antigens of pasteurella tularensis: preparative procedures.ether-water (ew) extraction of pasteurella tularensis produced better antigens than five other chemical procedures. ew extracts produced from stationary-phase, liquid-grown, saline suspensions of strain schu s4 cells regularly induced agglutinin and precipitin formation in rabbits. mice, guinea pigs, and monkeys also responded to ew extracts but with lower antibody levels. the use of strains of lower virulence, acetone-dried cells, organisms grown on a solid medium, and abbreviated extraction co ...19714999975
differential alterations in host peripheral polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemiluminescence during the course of bacterial and viral infections.previous studies have shown that stimulation of the oxidative metabolism in polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pmn) by in vitro phagocytosis of various microorganisms results in photon emission, termed chemiluminescence (cl). studies were conducted to determine whether bacterial and viral infections induce enhanced basal endogenous host peripheral pmn cl in the absence of in vitro phagocytic stimulation. nonimmune rats and guinea pigs as well as immune rats were inoculated with various doses (10(5) t ...19807228389
[the activity of the phagocytic bactericidal systems in intact guinea pigs and in guinea pigs immunized against tularemia].the activities of nadp-oxidase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in mononuclear phagocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (pml) during the phagocytosis of francisella tularensis and the influence of immunization of on the activity of oxygen-dependent metabolism were studied. the phagocytosis of f.tularensis was found to be accompanied by a rise in the activity of nadp.h-oxidase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. in the process of immunogenesis the rearrangement of the enzymatic system ...19957653143
[the search for and isolation of an antiphagocytic factor in francisella tularensis].in this study a search for f. tularensis antiphagocytic factor and an attempt for its isolation were made. for this purpose a fraction of f.tularensis water-saline extract saturated 55-60% with ammonium sulfate was split into separate components by preparative methods. one of them, consisting of two antigens of glycoprotein nature, had the capacity of decreasing the digestion of f.tularensis by guinea pig peritoneal macrophages about 10 times. the study revealed that the protein of the preparati ...19947941862
[characterization of the recombinant strain francisella tularensis r1a].for the first time f.tularensis recombinant strain r1a, obtained by the transfer of genes responsible for virulence in f.tularensis strain b 399 a-cole into recipient cells of the r-form, was studied. strain r1a was characterized by morphological, tinctorial and biochemical properties, similar to those of f.tularensis virulent strains, and became resistant to the bactericidal action of animal sera, as well as heat resistant (tr42). the results of animal experiments revealed that strain r1a prove ...19989700870
first isolation of francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis in europe.francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis is the common causal agent of tularemia in the usa and canada, while f. tularensis subsp. palaearctica (holarctica) occurs in europe, asia, and to a minor extent in north america. f. tularensis subsp. mediaasiatica was found only in central asia in a part of the former soviet union. of the total of 155 f. tularensis strains isolated over the years 1978-1996 during the surveillance of tularemia in slovakia, 65 were from small mammals, 68 from ticks and 22 ...19989928875
the recovery of pasteurella tularensis from natural waters by guinea pig inoculation. 195212998365
[results of microscopic detection of pasteurella tularensis in organs and tissues in guinea pigs]. 195913636338
[in vitro phagocytosis of past. tularensis by guinea-pig macrophages. relation between phagocytosis and virulence of the bacteria]. 196013717117
[research on the antigenic properties of tularin]. 196314165843
[apropos of the geographic variability of the pathogen of tularemia]. 196414187969
[apropos of the possibility of the penetration of pathogen of tularemia through uninjured skin (preliminary report)]. 196414187972
phagocytosis and intracellular fate of pasteurella tularensis. ii. in vitro studies with rabbit alveolar and guinea pig alveolar and peritoneal mononuclear phagocytes. 196414219070
fluorescent antibody demonstration of pasteurella tularensis. 196514332139
homogeneity of response of mouse and guinea pig strains to virulence tests with bacillus anthracis and pasteurella tularensis. 195914417035
dihydrostreptomycin aerosol therapy for pasteurella tularensis infected guinea pigs. 196014433235
[supplementary studies on bacterium tularense in laboratory animals. vii. immunization experiments with guinea pigs]. 196214497416
[experimental study on the possibility of using live tularemia vaccine to increase resistance to heterologous infection disease].in experiments on guinea pigs immunized with francisella tularensis 15, or live tularemia vaccine (ltv), the level of heterologous protective effect to dangerous infectious diseases caused by yersinia pestis, burkholderia pseudomallei, b. mallei, mycobacterium tuberculosis was studied. the study revealed that during the first 4 weeks after the subcutaneous immunization with ltv the level of resistance of the immunized animals to heterologous infective agent reliably increased as indicated by the ...200415188557
phagocytosis and intracellular fate of pasteurella tularensis. 3. in vivo studies with passively transferred cells and sera. 196514299033
phagocytosis and intracellular fate of pasteurella tularensis. i. in vitro studies with rabbit peritoneal mononuclear phagocytes. 196414140999
virulence of bacterium tularense. i. a study of the virulence of bacterium tularense in mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits. 195513263645
outer membranes of a lipopolysaccharide-protein complex (lps-17 kda protein) as chemical tularemia vaccines.immunisation with outer membranes of francisella tularensis induced an efficient protection in guinea pigs against challenge with the virulent strains 503 or 144/713 (type b biovar holarctica), both clinical isolates, and prevented the development of typical signs of infection in hamadryads (baboons), challenged with the virulent strain schu (type a, biovar tularensis) of f. tularensis. immunisation with a lipopolysaccharide protein complex isolated from the outer membranes afforded protection i ...19968861034
the new vaccine strains (or variants) of francisella tularensis.a colony (n83) of the vaccine strain of francisella tularensis (15/10) and a strain (n268) isolated from a water sample in nature were revealed for susceptibility to cultivation at 42 degrees c. both strains had low virulence for white mice and were avirulent for guinea pigs but possessed high immunogenicity in these animals. the spontaneous mutant of vaccine strain 15/10 showed resistance to doxicycline and rifampicine (15/10 dox (r)40 rif (r)40). the obtained mutant had biological characterist ...19968861032
[the characteristics of a natural attenuated isolate of francisella tularensis].the natural isolate of f. tularensis subsp. holarctica 268 was detected and studied. the isolate possessed the properties of the vaccine strain: residual virulence for white mice, avirulence for guinea pigs and high immunogenicity for experimental animals. a significant decrease in its virulence for animals, highly sensitive to tularemia, was noted. in contrast to most virulent strains circulating in natural foci, f. tularensis strain 268 was characterized by the absence of growth at a cultivati ...19968701651
x-ray microanalysis of guinea pigs peripheral blood t and b lymphocytes: before and after antigen stimulation.t and b lymphocytes from with francisella tularensis (lvs) immunized guinea pigs were separated and stimulated in vitro with the specific antigen. their chemical composition was studied in comparison by x-ray microanalysis before and after stimulation. different elemental spectra of normal t, b and t-suppressor cells were obtained. the common elements were p, s, k, cl and as; i was present only in b cells; cr and na were detected only in t suppressor cells. after stimulation the spectra of these ...19938298431
[the protective properties of the outer membranes of francisella tularensis in an experimental infection in guinea pigs].subcutaneous immunization, made in a single injection, with outer membrane preparations obtained from f.tularensis vaccine strain 15 and virulent strain a'cole results in intensive immunity to tularemia in guinea pigs, ensuring the protection of 60-100% of the animals within a month after challenge with f.tularensis virulent strain 503 in a dose of 1,000 dcl. the development of protective effect induced by f.tularensis outer membranes can be observed during the first 24 hours and reaches its max ...19948184621
mechanisms of protective immunogenicity of microbial vaccines: effects of cyclophosphamide pretreatment in venezuelan encephalitis, q fever and tularaemia.administration of high-dose (250 mg/kg) cyclophosphamide (cy) to guinea-pigs and mice 3 days prior to immunization with inactivated vaccine derived from venezuelan encephalitis virus (ve), coxiella burnetii and francisella tularensis resulted in accentuated and prolonged delayed-type hypersensitivity (dth) and in vitro cellular immunity (cmi) to specific antigen. humoral antibody were either absent or significantly lower in cy-pretreated animals compared to immunized non-pretreated controls. cy ...19807438552
modulation of the immune response by aerodin. ii. influence on the antiinfectious resistance in rabbits and guinea pigs experimentally infected by francisella tularensis and pseudomonas aeruginosa. 19817332454
persistence of francisella tularensis mccoy et chapin tularemia agent in the organism of highly sensitive rodents after oral the literature there are no data on the possibility of obtaining in experiment non-fatal tularemia infection (persistence) in rodents highly sensitive to it (group i) when using highly virulent strains circulating in nature for infection by natural routes. our detailed experiments on 1483 adult voles microtus rossiaemeridionalis ogn. (syn. m. subarvalis meyer et al.) of laboratory origin using virulent strains of francisella tularensis holarctica ols. et meshch. and natural alimentary infecti ...19846396330
interacting factors that influence long-term storage of live pasteurella tularensis vaccine and rift valley fever virus.studies were conducted on the interaction of various parameters which affect the storage stability and growth potential of liquid cultures of pasteurella tularensis live vaccine strain (lvs) and rift valley fever virus van wyk strain (rvfv). storage variables studied with lvs included four storage temperatures (4, -20, -65, -175 c), single and multiple freeze-thaw cycles, two freezing and two thawing rates (slow and fast), various inoculum levels (1, 3, 5, and 10%) for the determination of growt ...19695780399
toxicity of pasteurella tularensis killed by ionizing radiation.approximately 2 x 10(11) viable pasteurella tularensis cells per ml, contained in suspensions, were killed by exposure to 10(6) r of gamma-radiation. when injected intraperitoneally into mice, the irradiated suspensions initially contained about 10 ld(50) per ml, and immunized mice against challenge with fully virulent strains of p. tularensis. toxicity and immunizing activity of the suspensions decreased significantly within a few days at 5 c. mice were protected against the toxin by immune ser ...19685732510
some diagnostic, biologic and morphologic characteristics of francisella tularensis strains isolated from the ticks ixodes ricinus (l.) in the prague agglomeration.four infectious agents were isolated from the ticks ixodes ricinus (l.) collected in the recreational area and park-forest of prague. on the basis of cultivation, staining, biochemical, serologic properties, pathogenicity for animals and histological tests they were identified as francisella tularensis with the following features: they are short, gram-negative rods of approximate dimensions of 0.3 x 0.8 micron, growing in enriched media after 3-4 day incubation at 37 degrees c. they form small c ...19863699624
[the preventive activity of monoclonal antibodies specific to the lipopolysaccharide of francisella tularensis].the preventive activity of five monoclonal antibodies (mcab) in experimental tularemia was evaluated. mcab produced by hybridoma fb11-k (igg2a), specific to f. tularensis lipopolysaccharide, prevented the death of mice and guinea pigs infected with f. tularensis virulent strain 503 of the holarctic subspecies.19921481610
virulence factors of francisella tularensis.the mechanism causing viable francisella tularensis to lose virulence in aerosols has been investigated. fully virulent organisms were found to be encapsulated and avirulent organisms from aged aerosols, decapsulated. capsules were also removed by suspension of f. tularensis in hypertonic sodium chloride. the resulting naked, but viable, organisms were predominantly avirulent for guinea-pigs challenged intraperitoneally. capsular material and cell walls were found to contain large amounts of lip ...1977267668
protection afforded by fluoroquinolones in animal models of respiratory infections with bacillus anthracis, yersinia pestis, and francisella tularensis.successful treatment of inhalation anthrax, pneumonic plague and tularemia can be achieved with fluoroquinolone antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, and initiation of treatment is most effective when administered as soon as possible following exposure. bacillus anthracis ames, yersinia pestis co92, and francisella tularensis schu s4 have equivalent susceptibility in vitro to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin (minimal inhibitory concentration is 0.03 μg/ml); however, limited informat ...201021127743
the effect of open-air factors on the virulence and viability of airborne francisella tularensis.unidentified open-air factors (oafs) found to be adverse to the survival of microorganisms suspended on microthreads were investigated for their effect on realistic aerosols of francisella tularensis in an open-air environment. this organism was chosen because it is probably the most infectious organism known to be capable of infecting both animals and man via the respiratory route, hence its potential use as a bioterrorist agent. a direct correlation was found between an open-air adverse effect ...200919203408
[evaluation of immunobiological activity of francisella tularensis c-complex preparations as promising component of subunit vaccines].data on influence of francisella tularensis c-complex preparations on formation of immunity against tularemia are presented. study of cellular immunity characteristics as well as dynamics of antibody response was carried out on white mice and guinea pigs models. absence of toxicity, pyrogenicity, and negative effects on immunocompetent cells in combination with protective activity points to possibility of use the c-complex as a component of a subunit vaccine.200717672125
aerosol-, but not intradermal-immunization with the live vaccine strain of francisella tularensis protects mice against subsequent aerosol challenge with a highly virulent type a strain of the pathogen by an alphabeta t cell- and interferon gamma- dependent mechanism.francisella tularensis is an extremely virulent facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen of many mammalian species including mice and humans in which it causes a spectrum of disease collectively called tularemia. in humans, intradermal or inhaled inocula of 10cfu or less of the most virulent strains of the pathogen are sufficient to cause severe infection and possible death; in mice similar inocula are routinely lethal. an attenuated live vaccine strain, f. tularensis lvs, was developed almo ...200515752834
[in vitro phagocytosis of pasteurella tularensis by guinea pig macrophages. variations in phagocytic responses of macrophages dependent upon the nature of the irritants used]. 196214450298
[in vitro phagocytosis of pasteurella tularensis by guinea pig macrophages. effects of immunity on the phagocytic activity of the macrophages]. 196214450297
evaluation of live tularemia vaccine prepared in a chemically defined medium.a chemically defined medium was prepared which adequately supported growth of a vaccine strain of pasteurella tularensis. this medium differed from those previously described in: (i) concentration of components, (ii) a requirement for calcium pantothenate to obtain increased growth, and (iii) a low initial ph. varying the concentration of individual components up to 10 times the standard amount did not increase the viable population or affect dissociation. the vaccine strain grown in this chemic ...196514325885
[role of various antigenic preparations of francisella tularensis in formation of allergy reaction in humans and animals].study the role of lps in induction of anti-tularemia immunity in humans and animals.201627029112
risk prioritization tool to identify the public health risks of wildlife trade: the case of rodents from latin america.wildlife trade (both formal and informal) is a potential driver of disease introduction and emergence. legislative proposals aim to prevent these risks by banning wildlife imports, and creating 'white lists' of species that are cleared for importation. these approaches pose economic harm to the pet industry, and place substantial burden on importers and/or federal agencies to provide proof of low risk for importation of individual species. as a feasibility study, a risk prioritization tool was d ...201626414429
a mobile laboratory unit for exposure of animals and human volunteers to bacterial and viral aerosols. 196414117686
dose-response models incorporating aerosol size dependency for francisella tularensis.the effect of bioaerosol size was incorporated into predictive dose-response models for the effects of inhaled aerosols of francisella tularensis (the causative agent of tularemia) on rhesus monkeys and guinea pigs with bioaerosol diameters ranging between 1.0 and 24 μm. aerosol-size-dependent models were formulated as modification of the exponential and β-poisson dose-response models and model parameters were estimated using maximum likelihood methods and multiple data sets of quantal dose-resp ...201424382336
effect of aerosol age on the infectivity of airborne pasteurella tularensis for macaca mulatta and man.sawyer, william d. (u.s. army medical unit, fort detrick, frederick, md.), joseph v. jemski, arthur l. hogge, jr., henry t. eigelsbach, elwood k. wolfe, harry g. dangerfield, william s. gochenour, jr., and dan crozier. effect of aerosol age on the infectivity of airborne pasteurella tularensis for macaca mulatta and man. j. bacteriol. 91:2180-2184. 1966.-in aging aerosols of pasteurella tularensis schu-s4, the respiratory infectivity for man and macaca mulatta decreased more rapidly than the via ...19664957611
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