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a source of glycosylated human t-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 envelope protein: expression of gp46 by the vaccinia virus/t7 polymerase system.heterologous expression of the human t-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (htlv-1) envelope surface glycoprotein (gp46) in a vaccinia virus/t7 polymerase system resulted in the production of authentic recombinant gp46. five differentially glycosylated forms of the surface envelope protein were produced by this mammalian system, as demonstrated by tunicamycin inhibition of n-glycosylation and n-glycan removal with endoglycosidase h and glycopeptidase f. these studies revealed that all four potential ...19968892853
frequent simian foamy virus infection in persons occupationally exposed to nonhuman primates.the recognition that aids originated as a zoonosis heightens public health concerns associated with human infection by simian retroviruses endemic in nonhuman primates (nhps). these retroviruses include simian immunodeficiency virus (siv), simian t-cell lymphotropic virus (stlv), simian type d retrovirus (srv), and simian foamy virus (sfv). although occasional infection with siv, srv, or sfv in persons occupationally exposed to nhps has been reported, the characteristics and significance of thes ...200414990698
failure to detect simian immunodeficiency virus infection in a large cameroonian cohort with high non-human primate exposure.hunting and butchering of wildlife in central africa are known risk factors for a variety of human diseases, including hiv/aids. due to the high incidence of human exposure to body fluids of non-human primates, the significant prevalence of simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) in non-human primates, and hunting/butchering associated cross-species transmission of other retroviruses in central africa, it is possible that siv is actively transmitted to humans from primate species other than mangabey ...201222395958
high prevalence, coinfection rate, and genetic diversity of retroviruses in wild red colobus monkeys (piliocolobus badius badius) in tai national park, cote d'ivoire.simian retroviruses are precursors of all human retroviral pathogens. however, little is known about the prevalence and coinfection rates or the genetic diversity of major retroviruses-simian immunodeficiency virus (siv), simian t-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (stlv-1), and simian foamy virus (sfv)-in wild populations of nonhuman primates. such information would contribute to the understanding of the natural history of retroviruses in various host species. here, we estimate these parameters for ...201020484508
diversity of stlv-1 strains in wild chimpanzees (pan troglodytes verus) from côte d'ivoire.simian t-lymphotropic viruses type 1 (stlv-1) are regarded as a highly conserved group of viruses with genotypes clustering according to geographic regions rather than to infected species. in free living west african chimpanzees we have described a variety of stlv-1 strains and suggested that this diversity results from interspecies transmissions. here we present new data on stlv-1 infections in these chimpanzees with the presence of two new distinct clades, proposing the establishing of two new ...201020214935
phylogeny of primate t lymphotropic virus type 1 (ptlv-1) including various new asian and african non-human primate strains.to further unravel intra- and interspecies ptlv-1 evolution in asia and africa, we phylogenetically analysed 15 new stlv-1 ltr and env sequences discovered in eight different asian and african non-human primate species. we show that orang-utan stlv-1s form a tight, deeply branching monophyletic cluster between asian stlv-1 macaque species clades, suggesting natural cross-species transmission. novel viruses of macaca maura, macaca nigra and siamang cluster with other sulawesian stlv-1s, demonstra ...200716931175
non-invasive testing reveals a high prevalence of simian t-lymphotropic virus type 1 antibodies in wild adult chimpanzees of the taï national park, côte d'ivoire.little information is available on the prevalence of retrovirus infections in populations of non-human primates living in their natural habitats. to gain such information, methods were developed to detect antibodies to simian t-lymphotropic virus type 1 (stlv-1) in urine from wild chimpanzees. samples from more than 74 chimpanzees living in three communities in the taï national park, côte d'ivoire, were analysed. the prevalence of stlv-1 antibodies in adults and adolescents was significantly hig ...200415483244
high variety of different simian t-cell leukemia virus type 1 strains in chimpanzees (pan troglodytes verus) of the taï national park, côte d'ivoire.we found human t-cell leukemia virus type 1- and simian t-cell leukemia virus type 1 (stlv-1)-related infections in 5 of 10 chimpanzees originating from three groups of wild chimpanzees. the new virus isolates showed a surprising heterogeneity not only in comparison to stlv-1 described previously in other primate species but also between the different chimpanzee groups, within a group, or even between strains isolated from an individual animal. the interdisciplinary combination of virology, mole ...200415047848
characterization of a new simian t-lymphocyte virus type 1 (stlv-1) in a wild living chimpanzee (pan troglodytes verus) from ivory coast: evidence of a new stlv-1 group?a new strain of simian t-lymphotropic virus type 1 in blood samples from a chimpanzee that lived in the tropical rainforest of ivory coast is described. the sequence obtained from the long terminal repeat region of the genome is significantly divergent from all known human and nonhuman primate t-lymphotropic virus type 1 strains (963% homology to the closest related strains from central african subtype b) and clusters with none of the established clades. the tax sequences reveal two sequence dif ...200312698951
reduced transmission and prevalence of simian t-cell lymphotropic virus in a closed breeding colony of chimpanzees (pan troglodytes verus).a retrospective study spanning 20 years was undertaken to investigate the prevalence and modes of transmission of a simian t-cell lymphotropic virus (stlv) in a closed breeding colony of chimpanzees. of the 197 animals tested, 22 had antibodies that were cross-reactive with human t-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (htlv-i) antigens. the specificity of the antibody response was confirmed by western blot analysis and the presence of a persistent virus infection was established by pcr analysis of dna ...200312604813
molecular epidemiology of simian t-lymphotropic virus (stlv) in wild-caught monkeys and apes from cameroon: a new stlv-1, related to human t-lymphotropic virus subtype f, in a cercocebus agilis.a serological survey for human t-lymphotropic virus (htlv)/simian t-lymphotropic virus (stlv) antibodies was performed in 102 wild-caught monkeys and apes from 15 (sub)species originating from cameroon. two animals (a mandrillus sphinx and a cercocebus agilis) exhibited a complete htlv-1 seroreactivity pattern while two others lacked either the p24 (a mandrillus sphinx) or the mta-1/gp46 bands (a pan troglodytes). sequence comparison and phylogenetic analyses, using a 522 bp env gene fragment an ...200111714973
phylogenetic analysis of simian t-lymphotropic virus type i (stlv-i) in common chimpanzees (pan troglodytes): evidence for interspecies transmission of the virus between chimpanzees and humans in central africa.serum and peripheral blood leukocytes from the chimpanzees (pan troglodytes) of the colony of the laboratory of central nervous system studies, national institute of neurological disorders and stroke, nih, were tested for the presence of stlv-i-specific antibodies and proviral dna. antibodies were determined by gelatin particle agglutination and western blot (wb) assays utilizing htlv-i antigens. proviral dna was detected by four pcr assays targeting three different regions of stlv-i genome: the ...19979400594
what is the situation of human t cell lymphotropic virus type ii (htlv-ii) in africa? origin and dissemination of genomic subtypes.human t cell lymphotropic virus type ii (htlv-ii) and its two genomic subtypes, a and b, which differ by 3 to 6% at the nucleotide level (depending on the gene studied), were until recently considered to be endemic only in certain indian tribes in the americas and were therefore considered mainly as a "new world virus." first, the evidence of htlv-ii antibodies and later characterization of isolates from sex workers or individuals living in large west and central african cities suggested that ht ...19968797728
sequence variation and subtyping of human and simian t-cell lymphotropic virus type i strains from south africa.we report on the subtyping of south african primate t-cell lymphotropic virus type i (ptlv-i) strains by investigating the ltr region using sequence analysis and restriction fragment length polymorphism (rflp) techniques. dna from either uncultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmcs); cultured pbmc or cell lines of eight human t-cell lymphotropic virus type i (htlv-i); and two simian t-cell lymphotropic virus type i (stlv-i) strains (cercopithecus aethiops pygerythrus) were amplified by p ...19968673535
the three human t-lymphotropic virus type i subtypes arose from three geographically distinct simian reservoirs.to investigate the origin of human t-lymphotropic virus i (htlv-i), strains of diverse geographical origin were analysed. we sequenced the ltr and env genes of htlv-i strains from brazil, central african republic, taiwan and zaire, and the simian t-lymphotropic virus type i (stlv-i) strain phsu1 from a baboon from the sukhumi primate centre. we performed phylogenetic analyses using neighbour-joining, parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. three separate htlv-i clusters were identified intersp ...19968627240
the presence of a divergent t-lymphotropic virus in a wild-caught pygmy chimpanzee (pan paniscus) supports an african origin for the human t-lymphotropic/simian t-lymphotropic group of viruses.we isolated a divergent simian t-lymphotropic virus (stlv) (strain pp1664) from a wild-caught african bonobo (pygmy chimpanzee, pan paniscus). molecular and phylogenetic characterization of this virus show that it reliably separates from the two well-established primate t-lymphotropic virus types, htlv-i/stlv-i (ptlv-i) and ptlv-ii, and from a third type isolated from an african-born papio hamadryas and designated by us as ptlv-l. four of eight bonobos kept at the antwerp zoo, belgium, showed an ...19968609475
primate t-lymphotropic virus type i ltr sequence variation and its phylogenetic analysis: compatibility with an african origin of ptlv-i.due to the low evolutionary rate and the limited horizontal transmission of human t-lymphotrophic virus type i (htlv-i), its phylogenetic analysis reveals the movements and contacts of ancient populations. since simian strains cannot be distinguished from human strains by phylogenetic criteria, this virus has appropriately been called primate t-lymphotropic virus type i (ptlv-i). we sequenced the ltr of six ptlv-i strains: three htlv-i strains from african patients with tropical spastic parapare ...19948009833
isolation of a novel simian t-cell lymphotropic virus from pan paniscus that is distantly related to the human t-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus types i and ii.an unusual serological profile against human t-cell leukemia/lymphotropic virus type i and ii (htlv-i and -ii) proteins was reported in several human pygmy tribes in zaire and cameroon with serum antibodies reactive with gp21 and p24. here we describe a similar pattern of serum antibodies in a colony of captive pygmy chimpanzees and the isolation of a novel retrovirus, simian t-cell lymphotropic virus from pan paniscus (stlvpan-p), from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of several seroposit ...19947966632
sequence of simian immunodeficiency virus from macaque and its relationship to other human and simian retroviruses.because of the growing incidence of aids (acquired immune deficiency syndrome), the need for studies on animal models is urgent. infection of chimpanzees with the retroviral agent of human aids, the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), will have only limited usefulness because chimpanzees are in short supply and do not develop the disease. among non-human primates, both type d retroviruses and lentiviruses can be responsible for immune deficiencies. the d-type retroviruses, although important pat ...19873649576
in vitro growth characteristics of simian t-lymphotropic virus type iii.the type c retrovirus simian t-lymphotropic virus type iii (stlv-iii) has been isolated recently from immunodeficient macaque monkeys at the new england regional primate research center. the present studies were done to define the in vitro growth characteristics of this agent. stlv-iii replicates efficiently in interleukin 2-dependent t-cell cultures of macaque peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbl), less efficiently in such cultures of human and gibbon pbl, and inefficiently in baboon pbl. no repli ...19852996002
human t-cell leukemia virus type i isolates from gabon and ghana: comparative analysis of proviral genomes.two isolates of human t-cell leukemia virus type i (htlv-i) were obtained from lymphocyte cultures of a healthy carrier in gabon and another in ghana. their proviruses were analyzed by southern blot hybridization and compared with prototypical htlv-i isolated in japan and the united states. the provirus genomes of both strains were highly homologous to the prototype htlv-i along the whole viral genome. the restriction endonuclease sites of the ghanian isolate were almost identical with those of ...19872825405
phylogenetic subtypes of human t-lymphotropic virus type i and their relations to the anthropological background.isolates of human t-lymphotropic virus type i (htlv-i) were phylogenetically analyzed from native inhabitants in india and south america (colombia and chile) and from ainu (regarded as pure japanese descendants from the preagricultural "jomon" period). their genomes were partially sequenced together with isolates from gabon in central africa and from ghana in west africa. the phylogenetic tree was constructed from the sequence data obtained and those of previously reported htlv-i isolates and si ...19948302841
molecular epidemiology of 58 new african human t-cell leukemia virus type 1 (htlv-1) strains: identification of a new and distinct htlv-1 molecular subtype in central africa and in pygmies.to gain new insights on the origin, evolution, and modes of dissemination of human t-cell leukemia virus type i (htlv-1), we performed a molecular analysis of 58 new african htlv-1 strains (18 from west africa, 36 from central africa, and 4 from south africa) originating from 13 countries. of particular interest were eight strains from pygmies of remote areas of cameroon and the central african republic (car), considered to be the oldest inhabitants of these regions. eight long-term activated t- ...19978995656
genetic analysis and molecular phylogeny of simian t-cell lymphotropic virus type i: evidence for independent virus evolution in asia and africa.type c retroviruses, designated simian t-cell lymphotropic virus type i (stlv-i), have been isolated from several genera of old world monkeys and apes, but not from new world monkeys and prosimians. to determine the genomic diversity and molecular evolution of stlv-i and to clarify their genetic relationship to human t-cell lymphotropic virus type i (htlv-i), we enzymatically amplified, then directly sequenced selected regions of the gag, pol, env, and px genes of stlv-i strains from asia and af ...19948116255
[growing divergence inside primate t cell lymphotropic viruses].during our studies on the evolution of the ptlvs, we have isolated and genomically characterized two divergent simian t-lymphotropic viruses, not belonging to the previously well-established ptlv lineages. stlv-ph969 has been isolated from an eritrean sacred baboon (papio hamadryas), with an htlv-like indeterminate serological profile. the entire 8916 nt long genomic sequence, was obtained from a cdna library of ph969 mrna, in combination with a pcr based strategy. all open reading frames (orf) ...199910379197
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