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isolation and partial characterisation of a new strain of ebola virus.we have isolated a new strain of ebola virus from a non-fatal human case infected during the autopsy of a wild chimpanzee in the côte-d'ivoire. the wild troop to which this animal belonged has been decimated by outbreaks of haemorrhagic syndromes. this is the first time that a human infection has been connected to naturally-infected monkeys in africa. data from the long-term survey of this troop of chimpanzees could answer questions about the natural reservoir of the ebola virus.19957746057
chimpanzee outbreak heats up search for ebola origin. 19957754392
human infection due to ebola virus, subtype côte d'ivoire: clinical and biologic presentation.in november 1994 after 15 years of epidemiologic silence, ebola virus reemerged in africa and, for the first time, in west africa. in côte d'ivoire, a 34-year-old female ethologist was infected while conducting a necropsy on a wild chimpanzee. eight days later, the patient developed a syndrome that did not respond to antimalarial drugs and was characterized by high fever, headache, chills, myalgia, and cough. the patient had abdominal pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and a macular rash, and was repatri ...19999988164
histopathological and immunohistochemical studies of lesions associated with ebola virus in a naturally infected chimpanzee.lesions caused by the côte d'ivoire subtype of ebola virus in a naturally infected young chimpanzee were characterized by histopathological and immunohistochemical methods. the predominant lesions consisted of multifocal necrosis in the liver and diffuse fibrinoid necrosis in the red pulp of the spleen. in these sites, macrophages contained large eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. immunohistochemical staining indicated that macrophages were a major site of viral replication. the abs ...19999988165
catastrophic ape decline in western equatorial africa.because rapidly expanding human populations have devastated gorilla (gorilla gorilla) and common chimpanzee (pan troglodytes) habitats in east and west africa, the relatively intact forests of western equatorial africa have been viewed as the last stronghold of african apes. gabon and the republic of congo alone are thought to hold roughly 80% of the world's gorillas and most of the common chimpanzees. here we present survey results conservatively indicating that ape populations in gabon decline ...200312679788
multiple ebola virus transmission events and rapid decline of central african wildlife.several human and animal ebola outbreaks have occurred over the past 4 years in gabon and the republic of congo. the human outbreaks consisted of multiple simultaneous epidemics caused by different viral strains, and each epidemic resulted from the handling of a distinct gorilla, chimpanzee, or duiker carcass. these animal populations declined markedly during human ebola outbreaks, apparently as a result of ebola infection. recovered carcasses were infected by a variety of ebola strains, suggest ...200414726594
[bacterial and viral epidemics of zoonotic origin; the role of hunting and cutting up wild animals].since the prehistoric times hunting has been a vital activity for man. however, this may account for the contamination of the hunter, his family and relatives. infections may occur by direct contact with blood or tissues of infected animal during handling and cutting up preys and when preparing or eating meat, or also when bitten by injured animal. apes and antelopes hunting in sub-saharan africa proves to be particularly important since it has been well established that the recent or previous e ...200415462204
a serological survey of ebola virus infection in central african nonhuman primates.we used an elisa to determine the prevalence of igg antibodies specific for the zaire subtype of ebola virus in 790 nonhuman primates, belonging to 20 species, studied between 1985 and 2000 in cameroon, gabon, and the republic of congo. the seroprevalence rate of ebola antibody in wild-born chimpanzees was 12.9%, indicating that (1) ebola virus circulates in the forests of a large region of central africa, including countries such as cameroon, where no human cases of ebola infections have been r ...200415529251
wild animal mortality monitoring and human ebola outbreaks, gabon and republic of congo, 2001-2003.all human ebola virus outbreaks during 2001-2003 in the forest zone between gabon and republic of congo resulted from handling infected wild animal carcasses. after the first outbreak, we created an animal mortality monitoring network in collaboration with the gabonese and congolese ministries of forestry and environment and wildlife organizations (wildlife conservation society and programme de conservation et utilisation rationnelle des ecosystemes forestiers en afrique centrale) to predict and ...200515752448
wave-like spread of ebola zaire.in the past decade the zaire strain of ebola virus (zebov) has emerged repeatedly into human populations in central africa and caused massive die-offs of gorillas and chimpanzees. we tested the view that emergence events are independent and caused by zebov variants that have been long resident at each locality. phylogenetic analyses place the earliest known outbreak at yambuku, democratic republic of congo, very near to the root of the zebov tree, suggesting that viruses causing all other known ...200516231972
chimpanzee adenovirus vaccine protects against zaire ebola virus.this study evaluated the use of a chimpanzee-based adenovirus vaccine in mouse and guinea pigs models of zaire ebola virus (zebov) infection. vaccine vector expressing the envelope glycoprotein of zebov was created from the molecular clone of chimpanzee adenovirus pan7 (adc7). adc7 vaccine stimulated robust t and b cell responses to zebov in naïve mice inducing complete protection to an otherwise lethal challenge of zebov. complete protection to zaire ebola virus was also observed in guinea pigs ...200616356525
anthrax in western and central african great apes.during the period of december 2004 to january 2005, bacillus anthracis killed three wild chimpanzees (pan troglodytes troglodytes) and one gorilla (gorilla gorilla gorilla) in a tropical forest in cameroon. while this is the second anthrax outbreak in wild chimpanzees, this is the first case of anthrax in gorillas ever reported. the number of great apes in central africa is dramatically declining and the populations are seriously threatened by diseases, mainly ebola. nevertheless, a considerable ...200616900500
morbidity and mortality of wild animals in relation to outbreaks of ebola haemorrhagic fever in gabon, 1994-2003.antibody to ebola virus was found in 14 (1.2%) of 1147 human sera collected in gabon in 1981-1997. six seropositive subjects were bled in the northeast in 1991, more than 3 years prior to recognition of the first known outbreak of ebola haemorrhagic fever (ehf), whilst eight came from the southwest where the disease has not been recognised. it has been reported elsewhere that 98 carcasses of wild animals were found in systematic studies in northeastern gabon and adjoining northwestern republic o ...200717010400
ebola outbreak killed 5000 gorillas.over the past decade, the zaire strain of ebola virus (zebov) has repeatedly emerged in gabon and congo. each human outbreak has been accompanied by reports of gorilla and chimpanzee carcasses in neighboring forests, but both the extent of ape mortality and the causal role of zebov have been hotly debated. here, we present data suggesting that in 2002 and 2003 zebov killed about 5000 gorillas in our study area. the lag between neighboring gorilla groups in mortality onset was close to the zebov ...200617158318
potential for ebola transmission between gorilla and chimpanzee social groups.over the past decade ebola hemorrhagic fever has emerged repeatedly in gabon and congo, causing numerous human outbreaks and massive die-offs of gorillas and chimpanzees. why ebola has emerged so explosively remains poorly understood. previous studies have tended to focus on exogenous factors such as habitat disturbance and climate change as drivers of ebola emergence while downplaying the contribution of transmission between gorilla or chimpanzee social groups. here we report recent observation ...200717427138
comparing ape densities and habitats in northern congo: surveys of sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees in the odzala and ndoki regions.the conservation status of western lowland gorillas and central chimpanzees in western equatorial africa remains largely speculative because many remote areas have never been surveyed and the impact of emergent diseases in the region has not been well documented. in this study, we compared ape densities and habitats in the lokoué study area in odzala national park and the goualougo triangle in nouabalé-ndoki national park in northern republic of congo. both of these sites have long been consider ...200818176937
molecular ecology and natural history of simian foamy virus infection in wild-living chimpanzees.identifying microbial pathogens with zoonotic potential in wild-living primates can be important to human health, as evidenced by human immunodeficiency viruses types 1 and 2 (hiv-1 and hiv-2) and ebola virus. simian foamy viruses (sfvs) are ancient retroviruses that infect old and new world monkeys and apes. although not known to cause disease, these viruses are of public health interest because they have the potential to infect humans and thus provide a more general indication of zoonotic expo ...200818604273
cross-species pathogen transmission and disease emergence in primates.many of the most virulent emerging infectious diseases in humans, e.g., aids and ebola, are zoonotic, having shifted from wildlife populations. critical questions for predicting disease emergence are: (1) what determines when and where a disease will first cross from one species to another, and (2) which factors facilitate emergence after a successful host shift. in wild primates, infectious diseases most often are shared between species that are closely related and inhabit the same geographic r ...201020232229
campylobacter troglodytis sp. nov., isolated from feces of human-habituated wild chimpanzees (pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in tanzania.the transmission of simian immunodeficiency and ebola viruses to humans in recent years has heightened awareness of the public health significance of zoonotic diseases of primate origin, particularly from chimpanzees. in this study, we analyzed 71 fecal samples collected from 2 different wild chimpanzee (pan troglodytes) populations with different histories in relation to their proximity to humans. campylobacter spp. were detected by culture in 19/56 (34%) group 1 (human habituated for research ...201121278267
A replicating cytomegalovirus-based vaccine encoding a single Ebola virus nucleoprotein CTL epitope confers protection against Ebola virus.Human outbreaks of Ebola virus (EBOV) are a serious human health concern in Central Africa. Great apes (gorillas/chimpanzees) are an important source of EBOV transmission to humans due to increased hunting of wildlife including the 'bush-meat' trade. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an highly immunogenic virus that has shown recent utility as a vaccine platform. CMV-based vaccines also have the unique potential to re-infect and disseminate through target populations regardless of prior CMV immunity, whi ...201121858240
consequences of non-intervention for infectious disease in african great apes.infectious disease has recently joined poaching and habitat loss as a major threat to african apes. both "naturally" occurring pathogens, such as ebola and simian immunodeficiency virus (siv), and respiratory pathogens transmitted from humans, have been confirmed as important sources of mortality in wild gorillas and chimpanzees. while awareness of the threat has increased, interventions such as vaccination and treatment remain controversial. here we explore both the risk of disease to african a ...201122216162
ebola virus outbreaks in africa: past and present.ebola haemorrhagic fever (ehf) is a zoonosis affecting both human and non-human primates (nhp). outbreaks in africa occur mainly in the congo and nile basins. the first outbreaks of ehf occurred nearly simultaneously in 1976 in the democratic republic of the congo (drc, former zaire) and sudan with very high case fatality rates of 88% and 53%, respectively. the two outbreaks were caused by two distinct species of ebola virus named zaire ebolavirus (zebov) and sudan ebolavirus (sebov). the source ...201223327370
ebola hemorrhagic fever and the current state of vaccine development.current ebola virus outbreak in west africa already reached the total number of 1,323 including 729 deaths by july 31st. the fatality is around 55% in the southeastern area of guinea, sierra leone, liberia, and nigeria. the number of patients with ebola hemorrhagic fever (ehf) was continuously increasing even though the any effective therapeutics or vaccines has not been developed yet. the ebola virus in guinea showed 98% homology with zaire ebola virus. study of the pathogenesis of ebola virus ...201425562048
antimicrobial potential of 27 plants consumed by chimpanzees (pan troglodytes verus blumenbach) in ivory coast.due to their genetic proximity, chimpanzees share with human several diseases including bacterial, fungal and viral infections, such as candidiasis, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (aids), ebola virus disease. however, in its natural environment, chimpanzees are tolerant to several pathogens including simian immunodeficiency virus (siv), virus related to human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) that contribute to the emergence of opportunistic diseases such as microbial infections.201526498034
the final (oral ebola) vaccine trial on captive chimpanzees?could new oral vaccine technologies protect endangered wildlife against a rising tide of infectious disease? we used captive chimpanzees to test oral delivery of a rabies virus (rabv) vectored vaccine against ebola virus (ebov), a major threat to wild chimpanzees and gorillas. ebov gp and rabv gp-specific antibody titers increased exponentially during the trial, with rates of increase for six orally vaccinated chimpanzees very similar to four intramuscularly vaccinated controls. chimpanzee sera ...201728277549
ebola virus vaccines: where do we stand?the recent outbreak of ebola virus disease in west africa has led to more than 11,000 deaths, with a peak in mortality from august through december of 2014. a meeting convened by the world health organization (who) in september 2014, concluded that an urgent unmet need exists for efficacy and safety testing of the ebola virus vaccine candidates and that clinical trials should be expedited. these vaccines could be used both in an outbreak setting and to provide long-term protection in populations ...201627910805
clinical development of ebola vaccines.the ongoing outbreak of ebola virus disease in west africa highlighted the lack of a licensed drug or vaccine to combat the disease and has renewed the urgency to develop a pipeline of ebola vaccines. a number of different vaccine platforms are being developed by assessing preclinical efficacy in animal models and expediting clinical development. over 15 different vaccines are in preclinical development and 8 vaccines are now in different stages of clinical evaluation. these vaccines include dna ...201526668751
transmission of ebola virus disease: an overview.ebola is a viral illness of which the initial symptoms can include a sudden fever, intense weakness, muscle pain and a sore throat, according to the world health organization (who). airborne transmission of ebola virus has been hypothesized but not demonstrated in humans. ebola is not spread through the air or by water, or in general, by food. however, in africa, ebola may be spread as a result of handling bushmeat (wild animals hunted for food) and contact with infected bats. the disease infect ...201625960093
a monovalent chimpanzee adenovirus ebola vaccine boosted with mva.the west african outbreak of ebola virus disease that peaked in 2014 has caused more than 11,000 deaths. the development of an effective ebola vaccine is a priority for control of a future outbreak.201625629663
chimpanzee adenovirus vector ebola vaccine.background the unprecedented 2014 epidemic of ebola virus disease (evd) prompted an international response to accelerate the availability of a preventive vaccine. a replication-defective recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus type 3-vectored ebolavirus vaccine (cad3-ebo), encoding the glycoprotein from zaire and sudan species, that offers protection in the nonhuman primate model, was rapidly advanced into phase 1 clinical evaluation. methods we conducted a phase 1, dose-escalation, open-label trial o ...201725426834
vaccinating captive chimpanzees to save wild chimpanzees.infectious disease has only recently been recognized as a major threat to the survival of endangered chimpanzees and critically endangered gorillas in the wild. one potentially powerful tool, vaccination, has not been deployed in fighting this disease threat, in good part because of fears about vaccine safety. here we report on what is, to our knowledge, the first trial in which captive chimpanzees were used to test a vaccine intended for use on wild apes rather than humans. we tested a virus-li ...201424912183
men, primates, and germs: an ongoing affair.humans and nonhuman primates are phylogenetically (i.e., genetically) related and share pathogens that can jump from one species to another. the specific strategies of three groups of pathogens for crossing the species barrier among primates will be discussed. in africa, gorillas and chimpanzees have succumbed for years to simultaneous epizootics (i.e.. "multi-emergence") of ebola virus in places where they are in contact with chiropters, which could be animal reservoirs of these viruses. human ...201323239237
ebola virus outbreak among wild chimpanzees living in a rain forest of côte d'ivoire.an outbreak of ebola in nature is described for the first time. during a few weeks in november 1994, approximately 25% of 43 members of a wild chimpanzee community disappeared or were found dead in the taï national park, côte d'ivoire. a retrospective cohort study was done on the chimpanzee community. laboratory procedures included histology, immunohistochemistry, bacteriology, and serology. ebola-specific immunohistochemical staining was positive for autopsy tissue sections from 1 chimpanzee. d ...19999988175
development of replication-deficient adenovirus malaria vaccines.malaria remains a major threat to endemic populations and travelers, including military personnel to these areas. a malaria vaccine is feasible, as radiation attenuated sporozoites induce nearly 100% efficacy. areas covered: this review covers current malaria clinical trials using adenoviruses and pre-clinical research. heterologous prime-boost regimens, including replication-deficient human adenovirus 5 (huad5) carrying malaria antigens, are efficacious. however, efficacy appears to be adversel ...201727606709
evolutionary origins of human herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2.herpesviruses have been infecting and codiverging with their vertebrate hosts for hundreds of millions of years. the primate simplex viruses exemplify this pattern of virus-host codivergence, at a minimum, as far back as the most recent common ancestor of new world monkeys, old world monkeys, and apes. humans are the only primate species known to be infected with two distinct herpes simplex viruses: hsv-1 and hsv-2. human herpes simplex viruses are ubiquitous, with over two-thirds of the human p ...201424916030
[mechanisms of viral emergence and interspecies transmission: the exemple of simian foamy viruses in central africa].a large proportion of viral pathogens that have emerged during the last decades in humans are considered to have originated from various animal species. this is well exemplified by several recent epidemics such as those of nipah, severe acute respiratory syndrome, avian flu, ebola, monkeypox, and hantaviruses. after the initial interspecies transmission per se, the viruses can disseminate into the human population through various and distinct mechanisms. some of them are well characterized and u ...201326137812
use of chad3-ebo-z ebola virus vaccine in malian and us adults, and boosting of malian adults with mva-bn-filo: a phase 1, single-blind, randomised trial, a phase 1b, open-label and double-blind, dose-escalation trial, and a nested, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.the 2014 west african zaire ebola virus epidemic prompted worldwide partners to accelerate clinical development of replication-defective chimpanzee adenovirus 3 vector vaccine expressing zaire ebola virus glycoprotein (chad3-ebo-z). we aimed to investigate the safety, tolerability, and immunogenicity of chad3-ebo-z in malian and us adults, and assess the effect of boosting of malians with modified vaccinia ankara expressing zaire ebola virus glycoprotein and other filovirus antigens (mva-bn-filo ...201626546548
beyond primates: research protections and animal moral value.should monkeys be used in painful and often deadly infectious disease research that may save many human lives? this is the challenging question that anne barnhill, steven joffe, and franklin g. miller take on in their carefully argued and compelling article "the ethics of infection challenges in primates." the authors offer a nuanced and even-handed position that takes philosophical worries about nonhuman primate moral status seriously and still appreciates the very real value of such research f ...201627417867
the ethics of infection challenges in primates.in the midst of the recent ebola outbreak, scientific developments involving infection challenge experiments on nonhuman primates (nhps) sparked hope that successful treatments and vaccines may soon become available. yet these studies pose a stark ethical quandary. on the one hand, they represent an important step in developing novel therapies and vaccines for ebola and the marburg virus, with the potential to save thousands of human lives and to protect whole communities from devastation; on th ...201627417865
a heterologous prime-boost ebola virus vaccine regimen induces durable neutralizing antibody response and prevents ebola virus-like particle entry in mice.ebola virus (ebov) is one of the most virulent pathogens known to humans. neutralizing antibodies play a major role in the protection against ebov infections. thus, an ebov vaccine capable of inducing a long-lasting neutralizing antibody response is highly desirable. we report here that a heterologous prime-boost vaccine regimen can elicit durable ebov-neutralizing antibody response in mice. a chimpanzee serotype 7 adenovirus expressing ebov gp (denoted adc7-gp) was generated and used for primin ...201728733113
nonhuman primates, human need, and ethical constraints."the ethics of infection challenges in primates," by anne barnhill, steven joffe, and franklin miller, is an exceptionally timely contribution to the literature on animal research ethics. animal research has long been both a source of high hopes and a cause for moral concern. when it comes to infection challenge studies with nonhuman primates, neither the hope-to save thousands of human lives from such diseases as ebola and marburg-nor the concern-the conviction that primates deserve especially ...201627417866
safety and immunogenicity of a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored ebola vaccine in healthy adults: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-finding, phase 1/2a study.the ongoing ebola outbreak led to accelerated efforts to test vaccine candidates. on the basis of a request by who, we aimed to assess the safety and immunogenicity of the monovalent, recombinant, chimpanzee adenovirus type-3 vector-based ebola zaire vaccine (chad3-ebo-z).201626725450
chimpanzee adenovirus vector ebola vaccine--preliminary report. 201526287858
chimpanzee adenovirus vector ebola vaccine--preliminary report. 201526287857
[the emergence of ebola virus in humans: a long process not yet fully understood].since 1976 ebola virus regularly has caused small deadly outbreaks in central africa, usually controlled in a few months. for the first time, an ebola epidemic of exceptional magnitude dramatically engulfed several countries in west africa since december 2013. major failures of implementing measures to prevent human-to-human transmissions are the main cause of this large-scale ebola outbreak. after about one-week incubation period, the ebola virus disease is characterized by a sudden onset of hi ...201627509685
progress in the diagnosis and control of ebola disease.ebola hemorrhagic fever is one of numerous viral hemorrhagic fevers. it is a severe, often fatal disease in humans and nonhuman primates (gorillas and chimpanzees). this article discusses the history of ebola disease, already known routes of infection together with defining prevention methods and treatment trials. the importance of increasing awareness of the risk of disease among people who do not inhabit endemic regions is emphasized. this risk is associated especially with the increasing popu ...201525724796
antigen expression determines adenoviral vaccine potency independent of ifn and sting signaling.recombinant adenoviral vectors (rads) are lead vaccine candidates for protection against a variety of pathogens, including ebola, hiv, tuberculosis, and malaria, due to their ability to potently induce t cell immunity in humans. however, the ability to induce protective cellular immunity varies among rads. here, we assessed the mechanisms that control the potency of cd8 t cell responses in murine models following vaccination with human-, chimpanzee-, and simian-derived rads encoding siv-gag anti ...201525642773
[epidemics and related cultural factors for ebola hemorrhagic fever in gabon].the republic of gabon experienced epidemics of ebola hemorrhagic fever (ehf) three times between 1994 and 1997. this study aimed at exploring cultural factors related to the outbreaks.200111725529
guns, germs, and trees determine density and distribution of gorillas and chimpanzees in western equatorial africa.we present a range-wide assessment of sympatric western lowland gorillas gorilla gorilla gorilla and central chimpanzees pan troglodytes troglodytes using the largest survey data set ever assembled for these taxa: 59 sites in five countries surveyed between 2003 and 2013, totaling 61,000 person-days of fieldwork. we used spatial modeling to investigate major drivers of great ape distribution and population trends. we predicted density across each taxon's geographic range, allowing us to estimate ...201829707637
consumer perceptions and reported wild and domestic meat and fish consumption behavior during the ebola epidemic in guinea, west africa.the handling, capturing, butchering, and transportation of wildmeat can increase the risk of zoonoses, including the ebola virus disease (evd). guinea, west africa, experienced a catastrophic outbreak of evd between 2013 and 2016. this study aimed to understand local people's sources of information concerning evd, their perceptions of potential wildlife carriers of evd and their meat and fish consumption behavior during this period. a semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 332 partici ...202032566394
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