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inapparent carriers of simian acquired immune deficiency syndrome type d retrovirus and disease transmission with saliva.simian acquired immune deficiency syndrome (saids) type d retrovirus (srv) was isolated from saliva, urine, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a 6-year-old healthy rhesus monkey (macaca mulatta) seronegative for antibodies to human t-lymphotropic virus (htlv) type i, htlv type iii, and simian t-lymphotropic virus type iii (stlv-iii), identified as an inapparent saids carrier in retrospective epidemiologic studies. this animal was linked to 34 cases of saids over a 3-year period. two juven ...19863461210
sequence of simian immunodeficiency virus from macaque and its relationship to other human and simian retroviruses.because of the growing incidence of aids (acquired immune deficiency syndrome), the need for studies on animal models is urgent. infection of chimpanzees with the retroviral agent of human aids, the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv), will have only limited usefulness because chimpanzees are in short supply and do not develop the disease. among non-human primates, both type d retroviruses and lentiviruses can be responsible for immune deficiencies. the d-type retroviruses, although important pat ...19873649576
genetic analysis and molecular phylogeny of simian t-cell lymphotropic virus type i: evidence for independent virus evolution in asia and africa.type c retroviruses, designated simian t-cell lymphotropic virus type i (stlv-i), have been isolated from several genera of old world monkeys and apes, but not from new world monkeys and prosimians. to determine the genomic diversity and molecular evolution of stlv-i and to clarify their genetic relationship to human t-cell lymphotropic virus type i (htlv-i), we enzymatically amplified, then directly sequenced selected regions of the gag, pol, env, and px genes of stlv-i strains from asia and af ...19948116255
antibody responses to the env epitopes of human t-lymphotropic virus type i in rhesus macaques' naturally infected with simian t-lymphotropic virus type i.synthetic peptides derived from the env protein of human t-lymphotropic virus type i (htlv-i) were used to identify the immunodominant motifs in rhesus macaques naturally infected with simian t-lymphotropic virus type i (stlv-i). of the 13 peptides derived from the env protein of htlv-i, env-1(191-214) and env-5(242-257) reacted with 81% (44/54) and 54% (29/54) of specimens from infected monkeys, respectively. a recombinant protein (mta-i162-209) reacted with 53 of 54 (98%) stlv-i-infected serum ...19938395074
isolation and characterization of a neuropathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus derived from a sooty mangabey.transfusion of blood from a simian immunodeficiency virus (siv)- and simian t-cell lymphotropic virus-infected sooty mangabey (designated fgb) to rhesus and pig-tailed macaques resulted in the development of neurologic disease in addition to aids. to investigate the role of siv in neurologic disease, virus was isolated from a lymph node of a pig-tailed macaque (designated pgm) and the cerebrospinal fluid of a rhesus macaque (designated ron2) and passaged to additional macaques. siv-related neuro ...19989765429
prevalence of antibodies to selected viruses in a long-term closed breeding colony of rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta) in brazil.the rhesus macaque breeding colony of the oswaldo cruz foundation (fiocruz) was established in 1932 from a founding stock of 100 animals. this population has remained closed to new animal introductions for almost 70 years. a serologic survey was performed to determine the prevalence of antibodies to selected viruses as a first approach to identifying viral pathogens endemic in this population. banked serum samples were tested for antibodies to simian immunodeficiency virus (siv), simian t-lympho ...200312619046
subsets of t cells in healthy rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta) infected with simian t-lymphotropic virus type 1.simian t-lymphotropic virus type 1 (stlv-1) is a c-type retrovirus of nonhuman primates that is genetically and antigenically related to human t-lymphotropic virus type 1 (htlv-1). infection with stlv-1 has been reported in many species of old world monkeys and apes, including rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta). similar to htlv infection in humans, stlv infection has been associated with t-cell lymphoproliferative disease or lymphoma in a small proportion of infected animals, predominantly african ...200415253272
temple monkeys and health implications of commensalism, kathmandu, nepal.the threat of zoonotic transmission of infectious agents at monkey temples highlights the necessity of investigating the prevalence of enzootic infectious agents in these primate populations. biological samples were collected from 39 rhesus macaques at the swoyambhu temple and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blot, polymerase chain reaction, or combination of these tests for evidence of infection with rhesus cytomegalovirus (rhcmv), cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (chv-1), simia ...200616707044
differential distribution of antibodies to different viruses in young animals in the free-ranging rhesus macaques of cayo santiago.the breeding colony of free-ranging rhesus macaques was established in 1938 in cayo santiago (cs) with animals collected in northern india. the seroprevalence to cercopithecine herpesvirus type 1 (b virus) and simian retroviruses has been studied previously.200617214665
septic arthritis due to moraxella osloensis in a rhesus macaque (macaca mulatta).a 5.5-y-old chinese-origin female rhesus macaque (macaca mulatta) presented for bilateral hindlimb lameness. the primate had been group-reared in an spf breeding colony and was seronegative for macacine herpesvirus 1, siv, simian retrovirus type d, and simian t-lymphotropic virus. the macaque's previous medical history included multiple occasions of swelling in the left tarsus, and trauma to the right arm and bilateral hands. in addition, the macaque had experienced osteomyelitis of the left dis ...201324326229
[epidemiological survey of a captive chinese rhesus macaque breeding colony in yunnan for srv, stlv and bv].nonhuman primates are critical resources for biomedical research. rhesus macaque is a popularly used laboratory nonhuman primate that share many characteristics with humans. however, rhesus macaques are the natural host of two exogenous retroviruses, srv (simian type d retrovirus) and stlv (simian t lymphotropic virus). srv and stlv may introduce potentially significant confounding factors into the study of aids model. moreover, b virus (ceropithecine herpesvirus 1) is likely to harm not only rh ...201222345008
acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia purpura in a rhesus macaque (macaca mulatta).a 10-y-old multiparous rhesus macaque presented for an annual routine physical examination. clinically, the animal had pale mucous membranes, petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages in multiple sites, and a laceration at the tail base. severe pancytopenia was noted on hematologic evaluation. the monkey was seronegative for siv, simian t-lymphotropic virus, simian retrovirus type d, and macacine herpesvirus 1. bone marrow evaluation revealed a paucity of megakaryocytic precursors in a hypercellular ...201222776057
constitutive release of ifn╬│ and il2 from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta) infected with simian t-lymphotropic virus type 1.simian t-cell lymphotropic viruses (stlv), the nonhuman primate counterparts of human t-cell lymphotropic viruses (htlv), are endemic in many populations of african and asian monkeys and apes. although an etiologic link between stlv1 infection and lymphoproliferative disorders such as malignant lymphomas has been suggested in some nonhuman primate species, most stlv infections are inapparent, and infected animals remain clinically healthy. the retroviral transactivator, tax, is well known to inc ...201324326227
lymphoproliferative disorders developing after transplantation and their relation to simian t-cell leukemia virus infection.in this report the role of the htlv-1-like simian t-cell leukemia virus (stlv) during the development of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (ptlpd) is described. to prevent rejection of an allogeneic transplant in 12 rhesus monkeys cyclosporin a (cya), prednisone, and/or lymphocyte-specific monoclonal antibodies were used for immunosuppression. seven monkeys died during the experiment between 22 and 179 days postoperatively. at autopsy in 4 monkeys ptlpd were found. in each case, ...199214621843
t-cell lymphoproliferative disorder in an aged rhesus macaque.a cd8+ t-cell leukemia was diagnosed in an aged female rhesus macaque. although leukemia and lymphoma in nonhuman primates are commonly associated with simian t-lymphotropic virus, gibbon ape leukemia virus, oncogenic herpesviruses, and types c, d, and e retroviruses, this monkey was not infected with any of these viruses. however, the monkey did have antibodies against herpesvirus saimiri. this likely represents cross-reactivity of the herpesvirus saimiri assay with rhesus monkey rhadinovirus ( ...200010935045
acute fulminant sarcocystosis in a captive-born rhesus macaque.a captive-born juvenile female rhesus macaque (macaca mulatta) was acquired from a commercial breeder and placed in quarantine. within 8 days of arrival, the animal became anorexic, inactive, and dehydrated. subsequently, generalized edema and facial ecchymoses developed, and despite supportive therapy, the animal became moribund and was euthanatized. macroscopic examination showed diffuse stippling and streaking of the myocardium. histopathologic examination revealed multifocal to coalescing my ...19989823591
isolation of stlv-i from orangutan, a great ape species in southeast asia, and its relation to other htlv-is/stlv-is.to study the evolutionary origin of human t-lymphotropic virus type i/simian t-lymphotropic virus type i (htlv-i/stlv-i), we isolated and characterized stlv-i from orangutans (pongo pygmaeus). plasma samples from 3 out of 41 animals examined were reactive by particle agglutination and immunofluorescence, and one of these three was confirmed to be anti-htlv-i antibody-positive by western blotting (wb). cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the wb-positive orangutan were reactive to ant ...19979045888
the three human t-lymphotropic virus type i subtypes arose from three geographically distinct simian reservoirs.to investigate the origin of human t-lymphotropic virus i (htlv-i), strains of diverse geographical origin were analysed. we sequenced the ltr and env genes of htlv-i strains from brazil, central african republic, taiwan and zaire, and the simian t-lymphotropic virus type i (stlv-i) strain phsu1 from a baboon from the sukhumi primate centre. we performed phylogenetic analyses using neighbour-joining, parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. three separate htlv-i clusters were identified intersp ...19968627240
lymphoproliferative syndrome in an immunodeficient rhesus monkey naturally infected with an htlv-iii-like virus (stlv-iii).a rhesus monkey with a naturally acquired stlv-iii infection developed immunosuppression and a lymphoproliferative syndrome characterized by progressive lymphadenopathy and widespread visceral mononuclear cell infiltration. on microscopic examination, diffuse sheets of plasmacytoid lymphoblasts obliterated the sinuses and follicles of the nodes, replaced normal cellular elements of the spleen, bone marrow, and thymus, and infiltrated the lung, liver, kidney, salivary gland, pancreas, thyroid, st ...19863014214
siv, stlv-i and type d retrovirus antibodies in captive rhesus macaques and immunoblot reactivity to siv p27 in human and rhesus monkey sera.the prevalence of simian immunodeficiency virus (siv), simian t-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (stlv-i), and type d retrovirus (srv-d) antibodies was determined for 1229 rhesus monkeys (macaca mulatta) from two research colonies. serum samples were tested by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), immunoblot (ib), and radioimmunoprecipitation assay (ripa). seropositive results for the three retroviruses tested were 0 for siv, 270 (22%) for stlv-i, and 103 (8.4%) for type d retrovirus. o ...19901706606
detection of simian t-lymphotropic virus type i using the polymerase chain reaction.to develop the polymerase chain reaction (pcr) for the detection of simian t-lymphotropic virus type i (stlv-i) infection, cell lines or peripheral-blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) from 2 non-human primate species [african green monkeys (agm), cercopithecus aethiops; baboon, papio cynocephalus] were evaluated for their stlv-i status using oligonucleotide primer pairs and probes specific for the tax and pol gene regions of the closely related human t-lymphotropic virus type i (htlv-i). these pcr re ...19921312066
chronic myelocytic leukemia in a juvenile rhesus macaque (macaca mulatta).myeloid neoplasia has been studied extensively in human beings but has not been reported in macaques. a 2-year-old female rhesus macaque that was experimentally exposed to lead as a neonate, was noted to have immature circulating myelocytic cells, including 1% blasts, and normocytic normochromic anemia on a blood sample obtained for monthly health monitoring. the animal was treated with hydroxyurea, blood transfusion, and recombinant human erythropoietin to reduce the leukocytosis and correct th ...200111451396
intrinsic susceptibility of rhesus macaque peripheral cd4(+) t cells to simian immunodeficiency virus in vitro is predictive of in vivo viral replication.previous studies with simian immunodeficiency virus (siv) infection of rhesus macaques suggested that the intrinsic susceptibility of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (pbmc) to infection with siv in vitro was predictive of relative viremia after siv challenge. the present study was conducted to evaluate this parameter in a well-characterized cohort of six rhesus macaques selected for marked differences in susceptibility to siv infection in vitro. rank order relative susceptibility of pbmc to s ...200011000207
prevalence of antibodies to 3 retroviruses in a captive colony of macaque monkeys.the prevalence of antibodies to 3 retroviruses in the macaque colony of the new england regional primate research center (nerprc) was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay procedures as well as radioimmunoprecipitation-sds polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and indirect immunofluorescence tests. out of 848 macaques, 3 (0.35%) had antibodies to simian immunodeficiency virus (siv), 27 (3.2%) had antibodies to simian t-lymphotropic virus type i (stlv-1) and approximately 285 (34%) had ...19882895751
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