enzymic assay for lecithin in amniotic fluid.we describe an enzymic method for determining lecithin in amniotic fluid. phospholipase d from savoy cabbage is used to liberate choline from lecithin, and the liberated choline is oxidized to betaine and hydrogen peroxide by choline oxidase from arthrobacter globiformis. the hydrogen peroxide forms a colored complex with phenol and 4-aminoantipyrene in the presence of horseradish peroxidase, and this color is measured spectrophotometrically. the method is relatively easy, precise, and accurate, ...1979761344
behavioral responses of schistocerca americana (orthoptera: acrididae) to azadirex (neem)-treated host plants.azadirex (azadirachtin and other biologically active extracts from neem trees) has been shown to have considerable potential to be used in integrated pest management systems based on its growth regulator/insecticide properties. less well known are the antifeedant properties. the feeding-deterrent properties of a commercial azadirex formulation (azatrol ec) were evaluated using both no-choice and choice tests, the american grasshopper, schistocerca americana (drury), and four host plants [savoy c ...200717370818
effect of the spray application technique on the deposition of entomopathogenic nematodes in vegetables.the present study compared entomopathogenic nematode delivery at the base of savoy cabbage and cauliflower, at the lower side of savoy cabbage and cauliflower leaves and in leek stems and the ground deposition using a five-nozzle spray boom equipped with an iso 08 flat fan, an air induction flat fan and twinjet spray nozzles. additionally, an air support system and a row application system were evaluated.201222045507
influence of feeding and oviposition by phytophagous pentatomids on photosynthesis of herbaceous plants.feeding by herbivorous insects may change photosynthetic activity of host plants. we studied how feeding and oviposition by herbivorous stink bugs, murgantia histrionica and nezara viridula (heteroptera: pentatomidae), affect photosynthetic parameters of brassica oleracea (savoy cabbage) and phaseolus vulgaris (french bean). first, we measured photosynthetic gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, and emission of induced volatile organic compounds (voc) immediately after feeding and duri ...201020490900
susceptibility of four different vegetable brassicas to cabbage whitefly (aleyrodes proletella l., aleyrodidae) attack.cabbage whitefly (aleyrodes proletella l.) is one of the most noticeable pests on cultivated brassica species in the continental part of slovenia. in year 2000 a susceptibility of four different vegetables of brassica genus to cabbage whitefly attack had been examined. the highest number of imagoes and larvae was found on kale, significantly less on savoy cabbage and brussels sprouts and only individual specimen on cabbage. due to relatively small parcels, the most appropriate way of determining ...200212696419
conductimetric assays for the hydrolase and transferase activities of phospholipase d enzymes.measurement of solution electrical conductance (conductimetry) is a simple direct assay method for the protogenic, hydrolytic reactions catalyzed by all phospholipase enzymes. the technique is especially suitable for assay of phospholipase d (pld) enzymes where cleavage of zwitterionic substrates reinforces the ph dependent conductance change and allows the method to be used over a much wider ph range than the equivalent titrimetric assay. the ability to detect zwitterion cleavage enables the me ...19948074295
differential induction of mixed-function oxidase (mfo) activity in rat liver and intestine by diets containing processed cabbage: correlation with cabbage levels of glucosinolates and glucosinolate hydrolysis products.both white and savoy-type cabbage added to a semi-purified diet at 25% dry weight and fed to rats ad lib. for 5 days significantly induced ethoxyresorufin (err) deethylation in the small and large intestine. savoy cabbage also induced hepatic activity and, in general, exhibited a greater inducing effect than white cabbage. these enzyme-inducing effects were altered when the cabbage had been processed. the content of intact glucosinolate was greater in savoy than in white cabbage. the indole gluc ...19873609976
studies on the activity of phospholipase d with alkyl phosphorylcholines.the activity of phospholipase d from the savoy cabbage on alkyl phosphorylcholines containing alkyl groups of c14 to c22 was examined. apparent km and maximal velocity values in the presence of diethyl ester were 3.6-8.3 mm and 0.14-0.29 mumol/( protein), respectively. the maximal velocities for alkyl phosphorylcholine homologues were lower than the value for pig phosphatidylcholines, but higher than those for lysophosphatidylcholines and synthetic phosphatidylcholine with saturated acyl c ...19902350499
n-carbamoyl-2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)glycine from leaves of broad bean (vicia faba l.).1. dl-2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)glycine was resolved through the bromocamphorsulphonate to give its d-isomer. the n-carbamoyl derivatives of these amino acids were synthesized. circular-dichroism studies on these and related compounds, reported in a deposited annex, helped to establish the optical configuration. 2. n-carbamoyl-dl-2-(p-hydroxyphenyl)glycine was isolated from broad-bean leaves. it amounted to about 0.1% of the leaf dry matter. racemization may or may not have occurred during the isolatio ...19715119777
effect of spray volume on the deposition, viability and infectivity of entomopathogenic nematodes in a foliar spray on vegetables.spray volume can influence the amount of free water on the leaf surface and subsequently the ability of entomopathogenic nematodes (epns) to move. in this study, an investigation was made of the effect of spray volume (548, 730 and 1095 l ha(-1) ) on the deposition, viability and infectivity of epns against galleria mellonella on savoy cabbage, cauliflower and leek.201222674828
[stimulatory action of brassica oleracea var. sabauda (savoy) on mycobacteria and mycobacterial infection (author's transl)].eleven vegetable species were investigated for the presence of growth-stimulating activity on mycobacteria. it was found that savoy juice (brassica oleracea var. sabauda), given orally, posessed a pronounced stimulating effect on m. tuberculosis, m. bovis, m. kansasii, m. avium and m. intracellulare serotype davis in the serum of experimental animals when tested in auxanograms (table 1). another 2 species, paprica (capsicum frutescens) and radish (raphanus sativus var. albus) showed only insigni ...1978746996
the brassica epithionitrile 1-cyano-2,3-epithiopropane triggers cell death in human liver cancer cells in vitro.glucosinolates are secondary metabolites present in brassica vegetables. alkenyl glucosinolates are enzymatically degraded forming nitriles or isothiocyanates, but in the presence of epithiospecifier protein, epithionitriles are released. however, studies on the occurrence of epithionitriles in brassica food and knowledge about their biological effects are scarce.026251050
shoot calcium and magnesium concentrations differ between subtaxa, are highly heritable, and associate with potentially pleiotropic loci in brassica oleracea.calcium (ca) and magnesium (mg) are the most abundant group ii elements in both plants and animals. genetic variation in shoot ca and shoot mg concentration (shoot ca and mg) in plants can be exploited to biofortify food crops and thereby increase dietary ca and mg intake for humans and livestock. we present a comprehensive analysis of within-species genetic variation for shoot ca and mg, demonstrating that shoot mineral concentration differs significantly between subtaxa (varietas). we establis ...200818281414
phospholipase d from savoy cabbage: purification and preliminary kinetic characterization.phospholipase d has been purified 680-fold from an acetone powder of savoy cabbage in an overall yield of 30%. the purification involves solubilization of the acetone powder in a ca2+-containing buffer and subsequent ammonium sulfate fractionation. gel filtration on sephadex g-200 and hydrophobic affinity chromatography using a gamma-aminopropane-agarose gel complete the purification. the two chromatographic steps were conducted in buffers containing 50% ethylene glycol, which was necessary in o ...1979518840
cs(2) blinds in brassica crops: false positive results in the dithiocarbamate residue analysis by the acid digestion method.various members of the brassicaceae family (cauliflower, savoy cabbage, red cabbage, turnip-rooted cabbage) grown without any application of pesticides were analyzed according to the acid digestion method commonly used for the determination of dithiocarbamate fungicide residues. depending on postharvest treatments, high non-anthropogenic cs(2) values up to 4 mg/kg were found in some cases, especially in frozen raw cabbage samples, exceeding maximum residue limits. to explore phytogenic cs(2) occ ...200010725151
hydrolytic and transphosphatidylation activities of phospholipase d from savoy cabbage towards lysophosphatidylcholine.the hydrolysis and transphosphatidylation of lysophosphatidylcholine (lpc), with a partially purified preparation of phospholipase d (pl d) from savoy cabbage, was investigated. these reactions were about 20 times slower than the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine (pc) in a micellar system. for the transfer reaction, 2 m glycerol was included in the media, which suppressed the hydrolytic reaction. both reactions presented similar v(max) values, suggesting that the formation of the phosphatidyl-en ...200010878234
[lead and cadmium contamination of foods and feeds from selected areas of the erfurt district. 4. lead in vegetables grown in culture centers of the erfurt region].for the purpose of determining the effect of heavy metal emissions of a great town on the lead and cadmium levels of vegetables that are of relevance to food supply, we analyzed 193 samples of vegetables from the important vegetable-growing centre of erfurt during a 3-year period. with regard to the main wind direction and the infrastructure of the town, the samples were collected at four different areas under vegetable. apart from a single exception, the lead and cadmium contents were inferior ...19836633634
the chemical nature of the products obtained by the action of cabbage-leaf phospholipase d on lysolecithin: the structure of lysolecithin.1. lysolecithin, prepared by the action of snake-venom phospholipase a on ovolecithin, when incubated with savoy-cabbage phospholipase d, in the presence of ca(2+) ions, gave two degradation products (designated a and b) in the form of their calcium salts. 2. these calcium salts were separated quantitatively by solvent fractionation and converted into the corresponding sodium salts. 3. substance b proved to be a lysophosphatidic acid of conventional structure (1-monoacyl-l-3-glycerophosphoric ac ...19674291559
biochemical and biological characterization of two brassicaceae after their commercial expiry date.two brassicaceae (eruca sativa, brassica oleracea var. sabauda) were stored in air and under a modified atmosphere for several days after their expiry date and then analyzed. the polyphenol content and composition, as well as the antioxidant activity of the extracts, were assessed, compared to the fresh products. antimicrobial properties on tester strains (bacillus cereus, escherichia coli, staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas aeruginosa) and in vitro anti-proliferative activity were evaluated. ...201727719918
analysis of triterpenoids and phytosterols in vegetables by thin-layer chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry.three tlc methods were used for an initial screening of some common plant triterpenoids and phytosterols in cuticular wax extracts of different vegetables (zucchini, eggplant, tomato, red pepper, mangold, spinach, lettuce, white-colored radicchio di castelfranco, raddichio leonardo, white cabbage, red cabbage and savoy cabbage). the preliminary experiments showed that the studied vegetables are potential sources of triterpenoids and phytosterols. to identify the compounds present in the extracts ...201525597891
rapeseed phosphatidylcholine hydrolysis to phosphatidic acid using plant extracts with phopspholipase d.phosphatidic acid (pa) has a crucial role in cell membrane structure and function. for that reason it has a possible application in the treatment of some health disorders in humans, can be used as a natural and non toxic emulsifier and the component of drug carriers in pharmaceuticals and cosmetics as well as a component for synthesis of some new phospholipids. pa is short-lived in the cell and is difficult to extract directly from the biological material. pa may be easily prepared by hydrolysis ...201526642684
irritant contact dermatitis caused by savoy cabbage. 201626690282
isothiocyanates, nitriles, and epithionitriles from glucosinolates are affected by genotype and developmental stage in brassica oleracea varieties.vegetables of the brassica oleracea group, such as broccoli, cauliflower, and cabbage, play an important role for glucosinolate consumption in the human diet. upon maceration of the vegetable tissue, glucosinolates are degraded enzymatically to form volatile isothiocyanates, nitriles, and epithionitriles. however, only the uptake of isothiocyanates is linked to the cancer-preventive effects. thus, it is of great interest to evaluate especially the isothiocyanate formation. here, we studied the f ...201728690627
the action of cabbage-leaf phospholipase d upon lysolecithin.1. the action of the water-soluble phospholipase d from savoy cabbage leaves upon an aqueous solution of lysolecithin has been studied. 2. optimum conditions required the presence of ca(2+) ions and ph5.8. 3. equivalence was found between the amounts of lysolecithin hydrolysed and free choline released. the reaction was not accompanied by deacylation. 4. as the enzymic degradation proceeded, an opalescence developed, owing to the insolubility of the reaction product in the presence of ca(2+) ion ...19676030285
comparative persistence of pesticides on selected cultivars of specialty vegetables.the behavior and dissipation of several pesticides on selected cultivars of specialty vegetable crops were compared to determine appropriate preharvest intervals for compliance with maximum residue limits. to reduce application variability, a tank mix of pesticides was applied for each trial. residues of eight pesticides applied to bok choi, chinese broccoli, and fuzzy squash were similar for the two leafy vegetables; residues were higher than on squash because of the latter's larger mass-to-sur ...200312590477
distribution of s-alleles and breeding structure of cape broccoli (brassica oleracea var.'italica').182 plants representing 7 cultivars of cape broccoli were tested for their s-alleles using the standard brassica s-allele collection. in all but 12 plants both s-alleles were identified. a total of 20 different s-alleles were found, 9 of which occurred in the autumn types but not in the spring, 5 of which occurred in the spring types and not the autumn, and 6 of which were common to both. most of the s-alleles detected in cape broccoli were also found in brussels sprouts or kales, but of the thr ...198024301211
content of glucosinolates in cruciferous vegetables grown at the same site for two years under different climatic conditions.individual glucosinolates (gls) were determined in vegetables of three cruciferae species: brassica oleracea l. (white cabbage, red cabbage, savoy cabbage, brussels sprouts, cauliflower, kale, kohlrabi), brassica rapa l. (turnip), and raphanus sativus l. (red radish, black radish, and white radish) produced in two years. the cultivars were compared for the contents of total-, indole-, and aliphatic gls. in both years, the total content of gls was highest in black radish, and all examined r. sati ...200010898637
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